Maternal Obesity and Risk of Postpartum Hemorrhage

Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
Obstetrics and Gynecology (Impact Factor: 5.18). 09/2011; 118(3):561-8. DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31822a6c59
Source: PubMed


To estimate whether maternal obesity was associated with an increased risk for postpartum hemorrhage more than 1,000 mL and whether there was an association between maternal obesity and causes of postpartum hemorrhage and mode of delivery.
A population-based cohort study including 1,114,071 women with singleton pregnancies who gave birth in Sweden from January 1, 1997 through December 31, 2008, who were divided into six body mass index (BMI) classes. Obese women (class I-III) were compared with normal-weight women concerning the risk for postpartum hemorrhage after suitable adjustments. The use of heparin-like drugs over the BMI strata was analyzed in a subgroup.
There was an increased prevalence of postpartum hemorrhage over the study period associated primarily with changes in maternal characteristics. The risk of atonic uterine hemorrhage increased rapidly with increasing BMI. There was a twofold increased risk in obesity class III (1.8%). No association was found between postpartum hemorrhage with retained placenta and maternal obesity. There was an increased risk for postpartum hemorrhage for women with a BMI of 40 or higher (5.2%) after normal delivery (odds ratio [OR] 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.45]) compared with normal-weight women (4.4%) and even more pronounced (13.6%) after instrumental delivery (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.22-2.34) compared with normal-weight women (8.8%). Maternal obesity was a risk factor for the use of heparin-like drugs (OR 2.86, 95% CI 2.22-3.68).
The increased risk for atonic postpartum hemorrhage in the obese group has important clinical implications, such as considering administration of prophylactic postpartum uterotonic drugs to this group.

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    • "In the past 15 years, an increase in the incidence of PPH—even in high-income countries—has been shown in several independent studies [5] [6] [7] [8]. This observation probably reflects multifactorial causes, such as advanced maternal age, obesity, comorbidities, multiple pregnancy, ethnic origin, and rising rates of cesarean delivery [5] [6] [7] [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the occurrence of severe maternal complications owing to postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and its associated factors.MethodsA secondary analysis of data from a multicenter cross-sectional prospective surveillance study included 9555 cases of severe maternal morbidity at 27 centers in Brazil between July 2009 and June 2010. Complications of PPH, conditions of severity management, and sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics were assessed. Factors independently associated with severe maternal outcome (SMO) were identified using multiple regression analysis.ResultsOverall, 1192 (12.5%) of the 9555 women experienced complications owing to PPH (981 had potentially life-threatening conditions, 181 maternal near miss, and 30 had died). The SMO ratio was 2.6 per 1000 live births among women with PPH and 8.5 per 1000 live births among women with other complications. Women with PPH had a higher risk of blood transfusion and return to the operating theater than did those with complications from other causes. Maternal age, length of pregnancy, previous uterine scar, and cesarean delivery were the main factors associated with an increased risk of SMO secondary to PPH.ConclusionPPH frequently leads to severe maternal morbidity. A surveillance system can identify the main causes of morbidity and could help to improve care, especially among women identified as being at high risk of PPH.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics
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    • "Only one other study has primarily investigated the relationship between maternal obesity and PPH (defined as haemorrhage >1000mls) [14]. Blomberg reported a small increased risk among obese women following vaginal delivery, but PPH risk was variable according to class of obesity following caesarean section. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Increasing rates of postpartum haemorrhage in developed countries over the past two decades are not explained by corresponding changes in risk factors and conjecture has been raised that maternal obesity may be responsible. Few studies investigating risk factors for PPH have included BMI or investigated PPH risk among nulliparous women. The aim of this study was to determine in a cohort of nulliparous women delivering at term whether overweight and obesity are independent risk factors for major postpartum haemorrhage (PPH ≥1000ml) after vaginal and caesarean section delivery. Methods The study population was nulliparous singleton pregnancies delivered at term at National Women’s Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand from 2006 to 2009 (N=11,363). Multivariable logistic regression was adjusted for risk factors for major PPH. Results There were 7238 (63.7%) women of normal BMI, 2631 (23.2%) overweight and 1494 (13.1%) obese. Overall, PPH rates were increased in overweight and obese compared with normal-weight women (n=255 [9.7%], n=233 [15.6%]), n=524 [7.2%], p <.001) respectively. There was an approximate twofold increase in risk in obese nulliparous women that was independent of confounders, adjusted odds ratio [aOR (95% CI)] for all deliveries 1.86 (1.51-2.28). Being obese was a risk factor for major PPH following both caesarean 1.73 (1.32-2.28) and vaginal delivery 2.11 (1.54-2.89) and the latter risk was similar after exclusion of women with major perineal trauma and retained placentae. Three additional factors were consistently associated with risk for major PPH regardless of mode of delivery: increasing infant birthweight, antepartum haemorrhage and Asian ethnicity. Conclusion Nulliparous obese women have a twofold increase in risk of major PPH compared to women with normal BMI regardless of mode of delivery. Higher rates of PPH among obese women are not attributable to their higher rates of caesarean delivery. Obesity is an important high risk factor for PPH, and the risk following vaginal delivery is emphasised. We recommend in addition to standard practice of active management of third stage of labour, there should be increased vigilance and preparation for PPH management in obese women.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the clinical characteristics and the prognosis between emergency hysterectomy and conservative treatment following postpartum hemorrhage.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2012
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