Improved Obesity Reduction and Co-morbidity Resolution in Patients Treated with 40-French Bougie Versus 50-French Bougie Four Years after Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy. Analysis of 294 Patients

Centre for Health Services Research, School of Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia, Australia.
Obesity Surgery (Impact Factor: 3.75). 08/2011; 22(1):97-104. DOI: 10.1007/s11695-011-0493-z
Source: PubMed


We compared percent excess body mass index loss (%EBMIL) and resolution of dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the 4 years following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) between patients calibrated with a 40-French (40F) or a 50-French (50F) bougie.
We conducted a longitudinal retrospective descriptive study of routinely collected pre- and post-surgical data from 294 patients who underwent LSG at a single surgical centre (50F--n = 106, 40F--n = 185). Obesity measurements were taken prior to surgery and at regular intervals until 48 months post-surgery. Co-morbidity resolution was also assessed across the 48-month observation period. Multivariate regression modelling was used to control analyses for baseline obesity and sociodemographic variables.
At 48 months post-surgery mean (±SD) %EBMIL was 60.2 ± 27.6% and 45.4 ± 38.4% for those treated with the 40F and 50F bougie, respectively. After controlling for sociodemographic variables and baseline excess weight, mean %EBMIL was 15.5% greater with a 40F bougie compared with a 50F bougie at the end of follow-up. The likelihood of dyslipidaemia resolution within 48 months post-LSG was 19.0 times greater (p = 0.006), hypertension resolution 3.6 times greater (p = 0.005) and type 2 diabetes mellitus resolution 5.2 times greater (p = 0.034) by 4 years post-surgery in patients treated with the 40F bougie compared with a 50F bougie.
Improved obesity reduction and resolution of dyslipidaemia, hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus is experienced during the 4 years following surgery by patients treated with a 40F bougie compared with the 50F. These findings remain when controlling for potential confounding clinical and sociodemographic factors.

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    • "There were no staple line leaks in the 332 patients given the synthetic bioabsorbable PGA/TMC staple line reinforcement material, even though the stomach resection was begun close to the pylorus and bougies smaller than 40 F were employed. Like others [10, 13, 15], we believe that use of a smaller bougie produces greater weight loss, but we are aware that employing a small bougie may increase the risk of staple line leaks caused by an increase in intraluminal pressure, especially at the angle of His [35, 41]. However, our results provide new evidence that using the PGA/TMC reinforcement material mitigates that risk. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Stand-alone laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has been found to be effective in producing weight loss but few large, one-center LSG series have been reported. Gastric leakage from the staple line is a life-threatening complication of LSG, but there is controversy about whether buttressing the staple line with a reinforcement material will reduce leaks. We describe a single-center, 518-patient series of LSG procedures in which a synthetic buttressing material (GORE® SEAMGUARD® Bioabsorbable Staple Line Reinforcement) was used in the most recently treated patients. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent LSG in our unit between September 2007 and December 2011. Patients treated before August 2009 did not receive the staple line reinforcement material (n = 186), whereas all patients treated afterward did (n = 332). Results The percentages of excess weight loss in the 518 patients (mean age, 41 years; 82 % female; mean preoperative body mass index, 44 kg/m2) were 67 % (79 % follow-up rate) at 6 months postoperatively, 81 % (64 %) at 1 year, and 84 % (30 %) at 2 years. Type 2 diabetes resolved in 71 % of patients (91/128). Patients given reinforcement material had baseline characteristics similar to those in the no-reinforcement-material group, but had no postoperative staple line leaks or bleeding. The no-reinforcement group had three leaks (p = 0.045) and one case of bleeding. Conclusions LSG resulted in substantial short-term weight loss. Use of the bioabsorbable staple line reinforcement material may decrease leaks after LSG.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Obesity Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Sleeve gastrectomy constitutes an effective surgical procedure for the treatment of morbid obesity in humans and rodents with diet-induced obesity. The aim of the present study was to establish the effects of sleeve gastrectomy on weight loss and cardiovascular parameters in genetically obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats. Eleven-week-old male obese (fa/fa) (n = 20) Zucker rats were assigned to three alternative procedures (sham operation, sleeve gastrectomy, or pair-fed to the amount of food eaten by sleeve-gastrectomized animals) and compared with lean Zucker (Fa/Fa) rats (n = 9). Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean (MBP) blood pressure values as well as heart rate (HR) were recorded in conscious, resting animals by non-invasive tail-cuff plethysmography before and 3 weeks after the surgical interventions. Sleeve-gastrectomized rats experienced a reduction in body weight (P < 0.01), total adiposity amounts (P < 0.001), together with an increased excess weight loss (%EWL) (P < 0.05) compared with sham-operated and pair-fed animals 3 weeks after the surgical interventions. Rats with sleeve gastrectomy exhibited reduced (P < 0.01) blood pressure values (ΔSBP = -11 ± 8 mmHg; ΔDBP = -6 ± 4 mmHg; ΔMBP = -8 ± 6 mmHg) compared with the control group, but no changes were observed in HR (P = 0.560). Sham-operated and pair-fed groups did not alter their cardiovascular variables. Our findings provide evidence of the beneficial effects of sleeve gastrectomy on blood pressure values in addition to the weight loss in obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats independently of surgical trauma and food intake reduction.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Obesity Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a relatively new bariatric surgical procedure associated with an acceptable weight loss and a relatively low morbidity. There is existing evidence suggesting bariatric surgery resolves or improves hypertension. The purpose of this study is to systematically review the effect of LSG on hypertension. An electronic search method was primarily used for identification of the studies. We performed a comprehensive search of all electronic databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Dare, Clinical Evidence, BIOSIS, Previews, TRIP, Web of Science, Health Technology Database, Conference abstracts, clinical trials, and the Cochrane Library database) using broad search terms. All human studies from August 2000 to September 2011 were included. After an initial screening, a total of 326 studies were identified. After assessment of these studies based on our exclusion criteria, 222 studies were considered for the abstract review. A total of 33 studies were identified after a careful screening, involving a total of 3,997 patients. The mean pre-operative body mass index (BMI) was 49.1 ± 7.5 kg/m(2) (range 37-68). The average follow-up time was 16.9 ± 9.8 months (range 12-48). The mean post-operative BMI was 36 ± 7.0 kg/m(2) (range 25.6-54). LSG resulted in resolution of hypertension in 58% of patients. On average, 75% of patients experienced resolution or improvement of their hypertension. Based on our systematic review, LSG has a significant effect on hypertension, inducing resolution or improvement in the majority of cases. Therefore, LSG remains a viable surgical option in obese patients with hypertension.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Obesity Surgery
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