Rotavirus shedding in premature infants following first immunization

Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, G312, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
Vaccine (Impact Factor: 3.62). 08/2011; 29(45):8141-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.08.028
Source: PubMed


There is limited data regarding rotavirus vaccine shedding in premature infants. We describe the natural history of rotavirus shedding in premature infants in the 2-week period following first immunization with RotaTeq(®), the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5), and the risk for symptomatic transmission to household contacts (HHC).
A prospective pilot study of 15 premature infants of gestational ages 26-34 weeks immunized with RV5 between 6 and 14 weeks chronological age on discharge from the NICU was conducted. Stool samples collected in the following 2 weeks and analyzed for rotavirus antigen by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), cell culture, and RT-PCR. Solicited adverse events were collected on study subjects and any symptoms of fever, vomiting and diarrhea in HHC.
Rotavirus antigen shedding after immunization was detected, with positive rotavirus EIA results in 53.3% of premature infants and in 22.1% of 86 stool samples collected. Shedding rates by RT-PCR were higher with 86.7% of infants and 76.7% of samples being positive. Only 42% of EIA positive samples were positive by cell culture (8/86 total samples, 9.3%). None of 53 HHC reported symptoms of rotavirus infection during the 4 weeks following immunization of the infants.
The findings of this study demonstrate that premature infants have positive stools by EIA, viral culture, and RT-PCR at varying time points during 2 weeks following first-dose immunization with RV5. RT-PCR shedding rates need to be clinically evaluated in the context of virus quantification by cell culture, which was low. No symptomatic transmission to HHC was detected in this study, supporting low transmissibility of vaccine virus shed by these infants born prematurely.

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    • "Recently, new reassortant strains have been identified and were found to have arisen through culture adaptation [Hemming and Vesikari, 2012]. Cases of sibling transmission and coinfection with rotaviral and non-rotaviral agents of gastroenteritis have been reported [Payne et al., 2009; Smith et al., 2011; Donato et al., 2012]. These factors complicate the evaluations of rotaviral transmission following vaccination and the spread of these strains within populations. "
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    ABSTRACT: Genotyping of human rotaviruses was performed in 191 rotavirus-positive fecal samples collected from infants with acute gastroenteritis, 3 years after the introduction of two rotavirus vaccines in South Korea. Among these samples, the most prevalent rotavirus genotype was G3P[8] (30.9%), followed by G1P[8] (27.7%), G4P[6] (15.2%), and G9P[8] (5.8%). Sequence analysis identified RotaTeq® vaccine-derived strains in 12 samples (6.3%), comprising 11 G1P[8] human–bovine double reassortant rotaviruses and 1 G1P[5] human–bovine single reassortant rotavirus. It is of note that cross-reactivity between the current G4-specific typing primer and RotaTeq®-specific G1 genotypes was found. A trace of the clinical and environmental routes of the rotavirus vaccine strains revealed unexpected complexity, and the diagnostic protocol for rotaviruses may require modification by using either another typing primer set or nucleotide sequence analysis. J. Med. Virol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Medical Virology
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    ABSTRACT: We describe 3 cases of acute gastroenteritis in healthy infants after vaccination with RotaTeq, shedding a G1P[8] human-bovine double reassortant rotavirus in stools. Such a double reassortant virus appears stable in vitro and may explain diarrheal symptoms in a small percentage of RotaTeq recipients, and might also be transmitted to contacts in the environment.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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    ABSTRACT: RotaTeq vaccine was introduced into the Australian National Immunisation Program in 2007. This study identified and characterised rotavirus strains excreted by infants who presented with symptoms of gastroenteritis following recent RotaTeq vaccination. Fecal samples (N = 61) from children who developed gastroenteritis following recent RotaTeq vaccination were forwarded to the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program (ARSP). RotaTeq-positive samples were genotyped and regions of the VP3, VP4, VP6, and VP7 genes were sequenced. Also, 460 rotavirus-positive ARSP routine surveillance samples were analyzed by dot-blot Northern hybridization to detect RotaTeq vaccine-derived strains circulating in the community. Thirteen of the 61 samples collected from infants developing gastroenteritis after RotaTeq vaccination contained vaccine-derived (vd) rotavirus strains. Of these, 4 contained a vdG1P[8] strain derived by reassortment between the G1P[5] and G6P[8] parental vaccine strains. Northern hybridization analysis of 460 surveillance samples identified 3 samples that contained RotaTeq vaccine-derived strains, including 2 vdG1P[8] reassortant vaccine strains. During replication and excretion of RotaTeq vaccine, reassortment of parental strains can occur. Shedding of RotaTeq vaccine strains in 7 of 13 infants was associated with underlying medical conditions that may have altered their immune function. The benefits of vaccination outweigh any small risk of vaccine-associated gastroenteritis.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
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