Screening for Malignancy After Augmentation Cystoplasty in Children With Spina Bifida: A Decision Analysis
Department of Urology, Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. The Journal of urology
(Impact Factor: 4.47).
08/2011; 186(4):1437-43. DOI: 10.1016/j.juro.2011.05.065
Augmentation cystoplasty is the mainstay of surgical treatment for medically refractory neurogenic bladder in patients with spina bifida. Concerns regarding an increased risk of malignancy have prompted many centers to consider routine postoperative screening. We examine the potential cost-effectiveness of such screening.
A Markov model was used to compare 2 screening strategies among patients with spina bifida after cystoplasty, namely annual screening cystoscopy and cytology and usual care. Model parameters were informed via a systematic review of post-augmentation malignancy and cost estimates from published reports or government sources.
In a hypothetical cohort the individual increase in life expectancy for the entire cohort was 2.3 months with an average lifetime cost of $55,200 per capita, for an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $273,718 per life-year gained. One-way and two-way sensitivity analyses suggest the screening strategy could be cost effective if the annual rate of cancer development were more than 0.26% (12.8% lifetime risk) or there were a greater than 50% increase in screening effectiveness and cancer risk after augmentation. After adjusting for multiple levels of uncertainty the screening strategy had only an 11% chance of being cost effective at a $100,000 per life-year threshold or a less than 3% chance of being cost effective at $100,000 per quality adjusted life-year.
Annual screening for malignancy among patients with spina bifida with cystoplasty using cystoscopy and cytology is unlikely to be cost effective at commonly accepted willingness to pay thresholds. This conclusion is sensitive to a higher than expected risk of malignancy and to highly optimistic estimates of screening effectiveness.
Available from: Bakul M Soni
- "Augmentation cystoplasty is indicated in patients with hydronephrosis or vesico-ureteric reflux, and end-filling pressures or detrusor leak point pressure > 40 cm H2O despite anticholinergic therapy to the point of patient tolerance. Kokorowski and associates  state that augmentation cystoplasty is the mainstay of surgical treatment for medically refractory neurogenic bladder in patients with spina bifida. "
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ABSTRACT: Urological complications are the major cause of ill health in patients with spina bifida. Urinary sepsis accounted for the majority of admissions in patients with spina bifida. As the patient grows older, changes occur in the adult bladder, leading to increases in storage pressure and consequent risk of deterioration of renal function, which may occur insidiously.
A 34-year-old male spinal bifida patient had been managing neuropathic bladder by penile sheath. Intravenous urography revealed normal kidneys. This patient was advised intermittent catheterisations. But self-catheterisation was not possible because of long, overhanging prepuce and marked spinal curvature. This patient developed repeated urine infections. Five years later, ultrasound examination of urinary tract revealed hydronephrotic right kidney with echogenic debris within the collecting system. There was no evidence of dilatation of the ureter near the vesicoureteric junction. The left kidney appeared normal. There was no evidence of calculus disease seen in either kidney. Indwelling urethral catheter drainage was established.Two years later, MAG-3 renogram revealed normal uptake and excretion by left kidney. The right kidney showed little functioning tissue. Following a routine change of urethral catheter this patient became unwell. Ultrasound examination revealed hydronephrotic right kidney containing thick hyper-echoic internal septations and debris in the right renal pelvis suspicious of pyonephrosis. Under both ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance, an 8 French pig tail catheter was inserted into the right renal collecting system. 150 ml of turbid urine was aspirated immediately. This patient developed large left pleural effusion, collapse/consolidation of the left lower lobe, a large fluid collection in the abdomen extending into the pelvis and expired twenty days later because of sepsis and respiratory failure.
Although penile sheath drainage may be convenient for a spina bifida patient and the carers, hydronephrosis can occur insidiously. With recurrent urine infections, hydronephrotic kidney can become pyonephrosis, which is life-threatening. Therefore, every effort should be made to carry out intermittent catheterisations along with antimuscarinic drug therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Neurogenic bladder in the pediatric population underwent an evolution in treatment patterns during the 20th century. This paradigm change began with an evolving understanding of the health risks children with this condition face and the variable pathophysiology resulting in their condition. Introduction of clean intermittent catheterization and anticholinergic medication revolutionized care of these young patients. Advances in our knowledge of bladder pathology, and novel techniques to improve lower urinary tract function have made a variety of treatments available to patients. Although some similarities exist between adult and pediatric neurogenic bladder, the pediatric patient provides unique challenges with growth and development and helping children gain independence. Presented is a review of the treatment options and an algorithm to support the two main goals of treatment: protection of the upper urinary tract from renal function deterioration and development of social continence.
Available from: Tom P. V. M. De Jong
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ABSTRACT: We present a consensus view of members of the International Children's Continence Society on the therapeutic intervention in congenital neuropatic bladder and bowel dysfunction in children.
Discussions were held by a group of pediatric urologists and gastroenterologists appointed by the board. The following draft review document was open to all the ICCS members via the ICCS web site. Feedback was considered by the core authors and by agreement, amendments were made as necessary. The final document is not a systematic literature review. It includes relevant research when available as well as expert opinion on the current understanding of therapeutic intervention in congenital neuropatic bladder and bowel dysfunction in children.
Guidelines on pharmalogical and surgical intervention are presented. First the multiple modalities for intervention that do not involve surgical reconstruction are summarized concerning pharmacological agents, medical devices, and neuromodulation. The non-surgical intervention is promoted before undertaking major surgery. Indicators for non-surgical treatments depend on issues related to intravesical pressure, upper urinary tract status, prevalence of urinary tract infections, and the degree of incontinence. The optimal age for treatment of incontinence is also addressed. This is followed by a survey of specific treatments such as anticholinergics, botulinum-A toxin, antibiotics, and catheters. Neuromodulation of the bladder via intravesical electrical stimulation, sacral nerve stimulation, transcutaneous stimulation, and biofeedback is scrutinized. Then follows surgical intervention, which should be tailored to each individual, based on careful consideration of urodynamic findings, medical history, age, and presence of other disability. Treatments mentioned are: urethral dilation, vesicostomy, bladder, augmentation, fascial sling, artificial urinary sphincters, and bladder neck reconstruction and are summarized with regards to success rates and complications. Finally, the treatment on neuropathic bowel dysfunction with rectal suppositories irrigation and transrectal stimulation are scrutinized.
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