For centuries, camel urine has been used for medicinal purposes and anecdotally proclaimed as a cure for a wide range of diseases. However, the apparent therapeutic actions of camel urine have yet to be subjected to rigorous scientific scrutiny. Recent preliminary studies from the authors' laboratory have indicated that camel urine possesses potent antiplatelet activity, not found in human or bovine urines, suggesting a possible role for camel urine in inhibiting platelet function. The goal of the current study was to characterize the antiplatelet activity of camel urine against normal human platelets based on agonist-induced aggregation and platelet function analyzer (PFA-100) closure time.
Urine was collected from healthy virgin, pregnant, and lactating camels aged 2-10 years. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was prepared from blood collected from healthy individuals' blood into citrated anticoagulant. Agonist-induced aggregometry using donor PRP and PFA-100 closure times in whole blood were carried out in the presence and absence of added camel urine. The responses of platelets to multiple doses of camel urine were also assessed. The experimental procedure was repeated in human and bovine urines.
Camel urine completely inhibited arachidonic acid (AA) and adnosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced aggregation of human platelets in a dose-dependent manner. PFA-100 closure time using human whole blood was prolonged following the addition of camel urine in a dose-dependent manner. Virgin camel urine was less effective in inhibiting ADP-induced aggregation as compared to urine from lactating and pregnant camels; however, all three showed comparable inhibitory activity. Neither human nor bovine urine exhibited antiplatelet activity.
Camel urine has potent antiplatelet activity against ADP-induced (clopidogrel-like) and AA-induced (aspirin-like) platelet aggregation; neither human nor bovine urine exhibited such properties. These novel results provide the first scientific evidence of the mechanism of the presumed therapeutic properties of camel urine.
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"Very little has been published in the scientific literature regarding the properties of camel urine, although some reports describe possible anti-carcinogenic    and anti-platelet activities . Arabian camels are renowned for their ability to fight off infection, suggesting the existence of a potent immune system . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the first survey of the dromedary camel urinary proteome. Proteins retained from ultrafiltration of urine were analysed by GeLC-MS/MS (SDS-PAGE followed by LC-MS/MS). In the absence of a complete camel genome sequence, the number of protein identifications was maximised by searching three primary sequence databases: Swiss-Prot, alpaca and camel EST. This search strategy enabled the identification of 1274 peptide sequences, of which 735 were found in at least two independent samples. Functional annotations for proteins identified from alpaca and camel EST sequences were mapped from basic local alignment search tool (protein) searches. These 735 peptides, which included many novel sequences found only in the camel EST database, were grouped to 147 protein descriptors. Gene ontology term analysis of human proteins with sequence similarity showed that camel urine may be particularly enriched in proteins from extracellular compartments and vesicles, and with functions that include carbohydrate-binding and peptidase inhibitor activities. If their biological functions are conserved between species, many of the camel urinary proteins could be involved in various stress and immune responses, and some may have antimicrobial activities.
"(Read, 1925). In a recent report, Alhaidar et al. have shown that camel urine has potent antiplatelet activity against ADP-induced (clopidogrel-like) and AA-induced (aspirin-like) platelet aggregation (Alhaidar et al., 2011). Several have claimed anti-cancer effects of camel urine. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While camel urine (CU) is widely used in the Arabian Peninsula to treat various diseases, including cancer, its exact mechanism of action is still not defined. The objective of the present study is to investigate whether camel urine has anti-cancer effect on human cells in vitro.
The annexinV/PI assay was used to assess apoptosis, and immunoblotting analysis determined the effect of CU on different apoptotic and oncogenic proteins. Furthermore, flow cytometry and Elispot were utilized to investigate cytotoxicity and the effect on the cell cycle as well as the production of cytokines, respectively.
Camel urine showed cytotoxicity against various, but not all, human cancer cell lines, with only marginal effect on non-tumorigenic epithelial and normal fibroblast cells epithelial and fibroblast cells. Interestingly, 216mg/ml of lyophilized CU inhibited cell proliferation and triggered more than 80% of apoptosis in different cancer cells, including breast carcinomas and medulloblastomas. Apoptosis was induced in these cells through the intrinsic pathway via Bcl-2 decrease. Furthermore, CU down-regulated the cancer-promoting proteins survivin, β-catenin and cyclin D1 and increased the level of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. In addition, we have shown that CU has no cytotoxic effect against peripheral blood mononuclear cells and has strong immuno-inducer activity through inducing IFN-γ and inhibiting the Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10.
CU has specific and efficient anti-cancer and potent immune-modulator properties in vitro.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Journal of ethnopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional enzymes and play an important role in cellular detoxification. Besides this, GSTs act as cytosolic carrier proteins which bind hydrophobic compounds such as heme, bilirubin, steroids and polycyclic hydrocarbons. GST has great importance in Biotechnology, as it is target for vaccine and drug development and biosensors development for xenobiotics. Moreover, GST tag has been extensively used for protein expression and purification. Until now, biophysical properties of camel liver GST have not been characterized. In the present study we have purified Camel (Camelus dromedarius) liver GST to homogeneity in single step by affinity chromatography with 23.4 fold purification and 60.6% yield. Our results showed that maximal activity of GST was at pH 6.5 and it was stable in pH range of 5 and 10. The optimum temperature was 55°C and the Tm was 57°C. Chemical chaperone, glycerol (3.3 M) was able to protect GST activity and aggregation against thermal denaturation by stabilizing the protein structure at 50 and 57°C, respectively. Whereas, L-arginine (125 mM) did not protect GST against thermal stress. Far-UV CD spectra showed that glycerol protected secondary structure of GST while L-arginine induced conformational changes under thermal stress. In conclusion, our studies on the GST stability suggest that glycerol works as a stabilizer and L-arginine acts as destabilizer.