Impaired discrimination between imagined and performed actions in schizophrenia

II Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland.
Psychiatry Research (Impact Factor: 2.47). 08/2011; 195(1-2):1-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2011.07.035
Source: PubMed


The main aim of the present study was to investigate whether a specific type of source monitoring, namely self-monitoring for actions (differentiation between imagined and performed actions), is disrupted in schizophrenia. Persons diagnosed with schizophrenia (n=32) and healthy participants (n=32) were assessed with an action memory task. Simple actions were presented to the participants either verbally (short instructions) or nonverbally (icons). Some of the items required participants to physically perform the action whereas other actions had to be imagined. In the recognition phase of the study, participants were asked whether an action was previously displayed (verbally or nonverbally), whether it was a new action (not presented before), and if they had performed or imagined the action. In addition, participants were asked how confident they were in their decision. Participants in the group with schizophrenia significantly more often misattributed imagined actions as performed and vice versa and were more convinced about their wrong decision than participants in the control group. Patients revealed worse recognition for both verbal and nonverbal actions. In accordance with prior studies, we found that patients were less confident in their correct answers than healthy subjects. However, no enhanced confidence in incorrect answers was found. There was no observed significant relationship between source misattributions and the severity of psychopathological symptoms. Our findings suggest tentatively general source monitoring deficits in schizophrenia.

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Available from: Łukasz Gawęda
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    • "Finally, the source monitoring-based model of psychotic symptoms was confirmed by meta-analysis from studies on auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia (Brookwell et al., 2013; Waters et al., 2012a, 2012b, 2012c). Moreover, patients do not only exhibit source-monitoring deficits , but also inappropriately evaluate subjective confidence regarding source-monitoring decisions (Moritz et al., 2005; Gaweda et al., 2012). Usually, false decisions are related to a lower level of subjective confidence in healthy subjects. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study tested the influence of aging on source-monitoring and cognitive confidence deficits in schizophrenia. Younger (n=13) and older (n=10) schizophrenia patients were compared with younger (n=17) and older (n=10) healthy controls in the source-monitoring task. These preliminary results suggest that age negatively influences old/new item recognition, but not source monitoring, in both groups. Age has a negative impact on subjective confidence, but no interaction between group and age was found.
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    • ". , 2003 ) in the formation and maintenance of psychosis . To summarize , a plethora of studies suggest that patients with schizophrenia are hastier in gathering information ( for reviews , see Garety and Freeman , 1999 , 2013 ; Fine et al . , 2007 ) and are more confident in erroneous responses pertaining to memory ( Moritz and Woodward , 2006a ; Gaweda et al . , 2012 ; Peters et al . , 2013 ) and social cognition ( Kother et al . , 2012 ; Moritz et al . , 2012b ) relative to non - clinical and psychiatric controls . Recent evidence suggests that this extends to perception ( Moritz et al . , 2014b ) . Both biases foster the formation of momentous false decisions that under some contextual factors may"
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    • "Prior studies found support for a biased evaluation of memory performance in schizophrenia patients using these confidence level ratings (Danion et al., 2001; Moritz and Woodward, 2006b; Moritz et al., 2003, 2005; Peters et al., 2013). More recently, similar results have also been detected in studies regarding source monitoring (Gaweda et al., 2012, 2013) and social judgments (Köther et al., 2012; Moritz et al., 2012). A main bias seems to be an increased confidence in incorrect memories in addition to a decreased confidence in correct responses compared to healthy people and psychiatric controls (Moritz and Woodward, 2006b; Moritz et al., 2008; Peters et al., 2013). "
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