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"Early prospective studies in individuals without prior CHD demonstrated a 15% to 35% increase in risk, per risk allele, of incident CHD over follow-up periods of up to 10 years (6,32). In contrast, in clinical cohorts of patients with established CHD, such as those undergoing coronary angiography or those recruited following an acute coronary syndrome, the association with subsequent events has been less clear (9–13,35). However, the majority of such studies have been small with heterogeneous endpoints, making it difficult to draw definitive conclusions. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
To compare the association between variants at the chromosome 9p21 locus (Ch9p21) and risk of first versus subsequent coronary heart disease (CHD) events through systematic review and meta-analysis.
Ch9p21 is a recognized risk factor for a first CHD event. However, its association with risk of subsequent events in patients with established CHD is less clear.
We searched PubMed and EMBASE for prospective studies reporting association of Ch9p21 with incident CHD events and extracted information on cohort type (individuals without prior CHD or individuals with established CHD) and effect estimates for risk of events.
We identified 31 cohorts reporting on 193,372 individuals. Among the 16 cohorts of individuals without prior CHD (n=168,209), there were 15,664 first CHD events. Ch9p21 was associated with a pooled hazards ratio (HR) of a first event of 1.19 (95% CI: 1.17, 1.22) per risk allele. In individuals with established CHD (n=25,163) there were 4,436 subsequent events providing >99% and 91% power to detect a per-allele HR of 1.19 or 1.10, respectively. The pooled HR for subsequent events was 1.01 (0.97, 1.06) per risk allele. There was strong evidence of heterogeneity between the effect estimates for first and subsequent events (P-value for heterogeneity= 5.6x10-11). We found no evidence for biases to account for these findings.
Ch9p21 shows differential association with risk of first versus subsequent CHD events. This has implications for genetic risk prediction in patients with established CHD and for mechanistic understanding of how Ch9p21 influences risk of CHD.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to ascertain the relationship of 9p21 locus with: 1) angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD) burden; and 2) myocardial infarction (MI) in individuals with underlying CAD. BACKGROUND: Chromosome 9p21 variants have been robustly associated with coronary heart disease, but questions remain on the mechanism of risk, specifically whether the locus contributes to coronary atheroma burden or plaque instability. METHODS: We established a collaboration of 21 studies consisting of 33,673 subjects with information on both CAD (clinical or angiographic) and MI status along with 9p21 genotype. Tabular data are provided for each cohort on the presence and burden of angiographic CAD, MI cases with underlying CAD, and the diabetic status of all subjects. RESULTS: We first confirmed an association between 9p21 and CAD with angiographically defined cases and control subjects (pooled odds ratio [OR]: 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20 to 1.43). Among subjects with angiographic CAD (n = 20,987), random-effects model identified an association with multivessel CAD, compared with those with single-vessel disease (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.17)/copy of risk allele). Genotypic models showed an OR of 1.15, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.26 for heterozygous carrier and OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.39 for homozygous carrier. Finally, there was no significant association between 9p21 and prevalent MI when both cases (n = 17,791) and control subjects (n = 15,882) had underlying CAD (OR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.95 to 1.03)/risk allele. CONCLUSIONS: The 9p21 locus shows convincing association with greater burden of CAD but not with MI in the presence of underlying CAD. This adds further weight to the hypothesis that 9p21 locus primarily mediates an atherosclerotic phenotype.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rs1333049, rs10757278 and rs4977574 are single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of chromosome 9p21 locus that are associated with prevalence of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The rs1333049 SNP was also associated with cardiac outcome 6 months post ACS. No data concerning their association with long term prognosis after myocardial infarction is available. The aim of our study was to investigate the association of the 9p21.3 locus with 5-year overall mortality in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated invasively.
We performed a retrospective analysis of data collected prospectively in a registry of consecutive patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI. Genotyping was performed with a TaqMan method. The analyzed end-point was total 5-year mortality.
The study group comprised 589 patients: 25.3% of females (n = 149), mean age 62.4±11.9 years, total 5-year mortality 16.6% (n = 98). When all the study group was analyzed, no significant differences in mortality were found between the genotypes. However, in high-risk patients (Grace risk score ≥155 points, n = 238), low-risk homozygotes had significantly better 5-year survival compared to other genotypes. The hazard ratio associated with high-risk genotype (high-risk homozygote or heterozygote) was: HR = 2.9 (95%CI 1.4-6.1) for the rs4977574 polymorphism, HR = 2.6 (1.25-5.3) for the rs1333049 one and HR = 2.35 (1.2-4.6) for the rs10757278 one (Cox proportional hazards model).
The 9p21.3 locus is associated with 5-year mortality in high-risk patients with STEMI. This finding, due to very high effect size, could potentially be applied into clinical practice, if appropriate methods are elaborated.