Comparison of the efficacy of serum amyloid A, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin in the diagnosis and follow-up of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants

Department of Neonatology, School of Medicine, Uludag University, Bursa, Turkey.
Journal of Pediatric Surgery (Impact Factor: 1.39). 08/2011; 46(8):1482-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2011.03.069
Source: PubMed


The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of serum amyloid A (SAA) with that of C-reactive protein (CRP), and procalcitonin (PCT) in diagnosis and follow-up of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants.
A total of 152 infants were enrolled into this observational study. The infants were classified into 3 groups: group 1 (58 infants with NEC and sepsis), group 2 (54 infants with only sepsis), and group 3 (40 infants with neither sepsis nor NEC, or control group). The data including whole blood count, CRP, PCT, SAA, and cultures that were obtained at diagnosis (0 hour), at 24 and 48 hours, and at 7 and 10 days were evaluated.
A total of 58 infants had a diagnosis of NEC. Mean CRP (7.4 ± 5.2 mg/dL) and SAA (46.2 ± 41.3 mg/dL) values of infants in group 1 at 0 hour were significantly higher than those in groups 2 and 3. Although the area under the curve of CRP was higher at 0 hour in infants with NEC, there were no significant differences between groups with respect to the areas under the curve of SAA, CRP, and PCT at all measurement times. Levels of SAA decreased earlier than CRP and PCT in the follow-up of NEC (mean SAA levels were 45.8 ± 45.2, 21.9 ± 16.6, 10.1 ± 8.3, and 7.9 ± 5.1 mg/dL at evaluation times, respectively). Levels of CRP and SAA of infants with NEC stages II and III were significantly higher than those with only sepsis and/or NEC stage I.
Serum amyloid A, CRP, and PCT all are accurate and reliable markers in diagnosis of NEC, in addition to clinical and radiographic findings. Higher CRP and SAA levels might indicate advanced stage of NEC. Serial measurements of SAA, CRP, and PCT, either alone or in combination, can be used safely in the diagnosis and follow-up of NEC.

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    • "Other serum markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA) and procalcitonin have been studied as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and follow up of NEC. These markers may serve to distinguish advanced disease as opposed to screening, as infants with NEC stages II and III were significantly higher than those with only sepsis or stage I disease.[91] Negative levels of CRP might indicate another process, such as ileus.[92] "
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    ABSTRACT: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains a very devastating problem within the very low birth weight neonatal population. Several experimental therapies are being tested in animal models and soon may be ready for human trials. Despite this progress, we currently have no way to identify infants who would be optimal targets for therapy. Specifically, we are unable to predict which infants will progress to the more severe Bell's stage of disease that may necessitate surgery. Ideally, an algorithm could be constructed that would encompass multiple neonatal and maternal risk factors as well as potential biologic markers of disease so that these infants could be identified in a more timely fashion. This review summarizes the known risk factors and biomarkers of disease in hopes of stimulating clinical research to identify such an "early warning" NEC algorithm.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014
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    • "APPs play an important role in modulating the inflammatory immunological response, and their blood concentrations reflect the intensity of inflammation, which in turn depends on the size of harmful stimuli [22]. APP determinations are therefore of diagnostic and of prognostic value in terms of disease progression and termination [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27]. The diagnostic value of APP levels in peripheral blood collected from the saphenous vein was confirmed in our previous study conducted on bitches with pyometra after ovariohysterectomy and healthy animals subjected to surgical sterilization treatment [28] [29]. "
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    ABSTRACT: To improve diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) by noninvasive markers representing gut wall integrity loss (I-FABP and claudin-3) and gut wall inflammation (calprotectin). Furthermore, the usefulness of I-FABP to predict NEC severity and to screen for NEC was evaluated. Urinary I-FABP and claudin-3 concentrations and fecal calprotectin concentrations were measured in 35 consecutive neonates suspected of NEC at the moment of NEC suspicion. To investigate I-FABP as screening tool for NEC, daily urinary levels were determined in 6 neonates who developed NEC out of 226 neonates included before clinical suspicion of NEC. Of 35 neonates suspected of NEC, 14 developed NEC. Median I-FABP, claudin-3, and calprotectin levels were significantly higher in neonates with NEC than in neonates with other diagnoses. Cutoff values for I-FABP (2.20 pg/nmol creatinine), claudin-3 (800.8 INT), and calprotectin (286.2 microg/g feces) showed clinically relevant positive likelihood ratios (LRs) of 9.30, 3.74, 12.29, and negative LRs of 0.08, 0.36, 0.15, respectively. At suspicion of NEC, median urinary I-FABP levels of neonates with intestinal necrosis necessitating surgery or causing death were significantly higher than urinary I-FABP levels in conservatively treated neonates. Of the 226 neonates included before clinical suspicion of NEC, 6 developed NEC. In 4 of these 6 neonates I-FABP levels were not above the cutoff level to diagnose NEC before clinical suspicion. Urinary I-FABP levels are not suitable as screening tool for NEC before clinical suspicion. However, urinary I-FABP and claudin-3 and fecal calprotectin are promising diagnostic markers for NEC. Furthermore, urinary I-FABP might also be used to predict disease severity.
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