Predicting the Early Developmental Course of Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

University of Pittsburgh.
Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology (Impact Factor: 1.85). 09/2007; 28(5-6):536-552. DOI: 10.1016/j.appdev.2007.06.011
Source: PubMed


Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care were examined to test whether: attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms remain stable from 54 months through early elementary school; behavioral inhibition and attention deficits assessed at 54 months predict ADHD symptoms in elementary school, even after controlling for their temporal stability; and early behavioral inhibition and attention deficits moderate the longitudinal stability in ADHD symptoms. Data were examined using continuous and categorical measures of symptoms. Modest stability in ADHD symptoms from 54 months to third grade was found. Measures of inhibition and inattention predicted later teacher ratings uniquely, but no evidence was found for moderation. Measures of preschool behavioral inhibition also predicted "persistently at risk status" defined by elevated teacher ratings over time. Results are discussed in terms of executive and motivational facets of inhibition that may be related to early signs of ADHD.

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    • "Thus, the purpose of the current study is to explore the relationship between K-CPT performance and parent-report measures of behavior and executive functioning in preschool-aged children from a community-based, non-clinical sample. In addition, given the sex differences in CPT performance observed in samples of older children, we sought to clarify the role of sex in CPT performance of preschool-aged children and extend the research on sex and CPT performance interactions (Berlin & Bohlin, 2002; Berlin et al., 2003; von Stauffenberg & Campbell, 2007). It is our hypothesis that the relationship between K-CPT performance and parent-reported behavioral outcome measures will differ across males and females, with males exhibiting greater symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity in relation to errors of commission when compared with girls. "
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    • "Não obstante a prevalência estimada, apenas um número muito reduzido de crianças são referenciadas para tratamento pelos seus pediatras (Egger, Kondo, & Angold, 2006) ou educadores de infância, o que é indicativo da necessidade de aumentar a informação não só acerca dos sintomas de PH/DA em idade precoce, mas sobretudo da importância de intervir cedo. Para além disso, ao contrário das crenças de alguns pais e educadores de que os sintomas de PH/DA " passam com o tempo " , os estudos longitudinais sugerem que os diagnósticos de PH/DA realizados em idade pré-escolar são moderadamente estáveis, apontando para a estabilidade e cronicidade dos sintomas (e.g., Harvey, Youngwirth, Thakar, & Errazuriz, 2009; Lahey et al., 2004; von Stauffenberg & Campbell, 2007). Por exemplo, Campbell e Ewing (1990), num estudo longitudinal de seguimento com crianças que tinham sido identificadas aos 3 anos com sintomas de PH/DA, constataram que 50% dessas crianças continuavam a apresentar sintomas de PH/DA aos 6 anos e 48% aos 9 anos de idade. "
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