Music interventions for improving psychological and physical outcomes in cancer patients

Department of Creative Arts Therapies, College of Nursing and Health Professions, Drexel University, 1505 Race Street, rm 1041, Philadelphia, PA, USA, 19102.
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (Impact Factor: 6.03). 08/2011; 8(8):CD006911. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006911.pub2
Source: PubMed


Having cancer may result in intense emotional, physical and social suffering. Music therapy and music medicine interventions have been used to alleviate symptoms and treatment side effects in cancer patients. In music medicine interventions, the patient simply listens to pre-recorded music that is offered by a medical professional. Music therapy requires the implementation of a music intervention by a trained music therapist, the presence of a therapeutic process, and the use of personally tailored music experiences. This review included 30 trials with a total of 1891 participants. The findings suggest that music therapy and music medicine interventions may have a beneficial effect on anxiety, pain, mood, quality of life, heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure in cancer patients. Most trials were at high risk of bias and, therefore, these results need to be interpreted with caution. No evidence of a difference between music therapy or music medicine and control was found for depression, fatigue, or physical status. However, only a small number of trials investigated the effect of music on these outcomes. We could not draw any conclusions about the effect of music interventions on distress, body image, oxygen saturation level, immunologic functioning, spirituality, and communication outcomes because there were not enough trials looking at these aspects. Therefore, more research is needed. The limited number of trials in this review prevented a comparison being made between music therapy interventions and pre-recorded music listening offered by medical personnel.

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    • "Currently studies on relaxing music have determined a close relationship between music and health procedures, that it may be used in every area of healthcare, and is a treatment method that is painless, reliable, cheap and without side effects [4]. A metaanalytical study has shown that relaxing music affects blood pressure and heart rate in coronary heart patients and cancer patients [5] [6]. "
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    • "Ultimately, patients with cancer need additional emotional support , education, and engagement in positive strategies to increase their abilities to manage their illnesses (Robb, Burns, & Carpenter, 2011). However, a gap in the literature remains regarding if, how, and why MT interventions impact CRF (Bradt et al., 2011). "
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    • "Recently this topic has been thoroughly and independently reviewed [17e22]. Meta-analysis has shown music to have merely a modest influence over blood pressure and heart rate for patients with coronary artery disease [23] and cancer [24]. This suggests that further research is still required regarding music therapies when evaluated using haemodynamic parameters. "
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