A Comparison of Tenofovir-Associated Renal Function Changes in HIV-Infected African Americans vs Caucasians
The effects of tenofovir on renal function have been measured in multiple studies. Although African Americans are at a higher risk of developing chronic kidney disease, there are limited data examining the influence of race on tenofovir-related nephrotoxicity. This was a retrospective study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients at a university-affiliated HIV clinic who were prescribed tenofovir between July 1, 2001, and January 31, 2009. The primary outcome was mean change in creatinine clearance. Secondary endpoints assessed the odds of tenofovir discontinuation secondary to nephrotoxicity, and prevalence of grade 2 to 4 serum creatinine elevation and hypophosphatemia during treatment. A total of 65 African American and 186 Caucasian patients were included. There were no statistically significant differences in mean change in creatinine clearance, as estimated by the Cockcroft-Gault (-14.2 mL/min vs -15.9 mL/min [P = .525]) and modification of diet in renal disease formulas (-17.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 vs -15.6 mL/min/1.73 m2 [P = .585]) between African Americans and Caucasians. Rates of tenofovir discontinuation secondary to nephrotoxicity were 6.2% and 1.6%, respectively (P = .076). Elevated baseline serum creatinine and female gender may be potential predictors for tenofovir discontinuation. There were no statistically significant differences in tenofovir-related renal function changes by race as observed in our HIV patient population.