The cDNA-derived Investigational Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 Vaccine rcp45 Is Well Tolerated, Infectious, and Immunogenic in Infants and Young Children

Center for Immunization Research, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal (Impact Factor: 2.72). 08/2011; 30(10):e186-91. DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e31822ea24f
Source: PubMed


Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) is an important yet underappreciated cause of lower respiratory tract illness in children, and a licensed vaccine is not yet available.
A live-attenuated investigational HPIV3 vaccine virus designated rcp45 was derived from cDNA by using reverse genetics. rcp45 is genetically similar to the biologically derived cp45 vaccine virus and contains all of the known attenuating mutations of cp45, but has the advantage of a short, well-characterized passage history. We evaluated the tolerability, infectivity, and immunogenicity of 2 intranasal doses of rcp45 administered 4 to 10 weeks apart in a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. A total of 45 infants and children between 6 and 36 months of age participated in this study. Tolerability and antibody responses to vaccine or placebo were assessed in all recipients. Infectivity was assessed by quantitation of vaccine virus shedding in a subset of vaccinated children.
rcp45 was well tolerated and highly infectious in HPIV3-seronegative children. A second dose of vaccine administered 4 to 10 weeks after the first dose was restricted in replication and did not boost serum antibody responses. The stability of 9 cp45 mutations, including the 6 major attenuating mutations, was examined and confirmed for viral isolates from 10 children.
The level of attenuation and immunogenicity of cDNA-derived rcp45 is comparable to what was previously observed with the biologically derived cp45 vaccine, and preliminary data suggest that the attenuating mutations in this vaccine virus are genetically stable. Continued clinical development of rcp45 is warranted.

Full-text preview

Available from:
  • Source
    • "Currently, there is no prophylactic human vaccine against HPIV3 infection. Several previous studies employed attenuated viruses or recombinant viruses for vaccination by intranasal administration (Haller et al., 2000; Karron et al., 2011; Schmidt et al., 2011; Mason et al., 2013). The HPIV3 cp45 is a practical nasal vaccine that is derived from the JS wild-type strain of HPIV3 through 45 passages in African green monkey cells at a low temperature. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are the etiologic agents of lower respiratory infections and pneumonia in infants, young children and immunocompromised hosts. The overarching goal for the prevention of HPIV infection is the development of an effective vaccine against HPIVs. In the present study, we investigated the effectiveness of oligomannose-coated liposomes (OMLs) as an antigen-delivery system in combination with a synthetic double-stranded RNA analog for the induction of mucosal and systematic immunity against HPIV3. Full-length hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein was synthesized using the wheat germ cell-free protein production system and then encapsulated into OML to serve as the antigen. Intranasal administration of the HN-filling OML (OML-HN) with the synthetic double-stranded RNA adjuvant, polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] generated significant viral-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses as evidenced by the prominent induction of serum IgG and nasal wash IgA, respectively. On the other hand, no significant immune responses were observed in mice immunized with OML-HN without the adjuvant. Furthermore, serum from mice immunized with OML-HN plus poly(I:C) significantly suppressed viral infection in cell culture model. Our results provide the first evidence that intranasal co-administration of OML-encapsulated HN with the poly(I:C) adjuvant augments the viral-specific immunity against HPIV3.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Frontiers in Microbiology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) is an important cause of lower respiratory tract illness in children, yet a licensed vaccine or antiviral drug is not available. We evaluated the safety, tolerability, infectivity, and immunogenicity of two intranasal, live-attenuated HPIV3 vaccines, designated rHPIV3-N(B) and rB/HPIV3, that were cDNA-derived chimeras of HPIV3 and bovine PIV3 (BPIV3). These were evaluated in adults, HPIV3 seropositive children, and HPIV3 seronegative children. A total of 112 subjects participated in these studies. Both rB/HPIV3 and rHPIV3-N(B) were highly restricted in replication in adults and seropositive children but readily infected seronegative children, who shed mean peak virus titers of 10(2.8) vs. 10(3.7)pfu/mL, respectively. Although rB/HPIV3 was more restricted in replication in seronegative children than rHPIV3-N(B), it induced significantly higher titers of hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibodies against HPIV3. Taken together, these data suggest that the rB/HPIV3 vaccine is the preferred candidate for further clinical development.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Vaccine
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a common cause of acute respiratory illness throughout life. Infants, children, and the immunocompromised are the most likely to develop severe disease. HPIV1 and HPIV2 are best known to cause croup while HPIV3 is a common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia. HPIVs replicate productively in respiratory epithelial cells and do not spread systemically unless the host is severely immunocompromised. Molecular studies have delineated how HPIVs evade and block cellular innate immune responses to permit efficient replication, local spread, and host-to-host transmission. Studies using ex vivo human airway epithelium have focused on virus tropism, cellular pathology and the epithelial inflammatory response, elucidating how events early in infection shape the adaptive immune response and disease outcome.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2012
Show more