Green tea catechin, Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG): Mechanisms, perspectives and clinical applications

Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, and Medicine, The University of Kansas Cancer Center, The University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, United States.
Biochemical pharmacology (Impact Factor: 5.01). 07/2011; 82(12):1807-21. DOI: 10.1016/j.bcp.2011.07.093
Source: PubMed


An expanding body of preclinical evidence suggests EGCG, the major catechin found in green tea (Camellia sinensis), has the potential to impact a variety of human diseases. Apparently, EGCG functions as a powerful antioxidant, preventing oxidative damage in healthy cells, but also as an antiangiogenic and antitumor agent and as a modulator of tumor cell response to chemotherapy. Much of the cancer chemopreventive properties of green tea are mediated by EGCG that induces apoptosis and promotes cell growth arrest by altering the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins, activating killer caspases, and suppressing oncogenic transcription factors and pluripotency maintain factors. In vitro studies have demonstrated that EGCG blocks carcinogenesis by affecting a wide array of signal transduction pathways including JAK/STAT, MAPK, PI3K/AKT, Wnt and Notch. EGCG stimulates telomere fragmentation through inhibiting telomerase activity. Various clinical studies have revealed that treatment by EGCG inhibits tumor incidence and multiplicity in different organ sites such as liver, stomach, skin, lung, mammary gland and colon. Recent work demonstrated that EGCG reduced DNMTs, proteases, and DHFR activities, which would affect transcription of TSGs and protein synthesis. EGCG has great potential in cancer prevention because of its safety, low cost and bioavailability. In this review, we discuss its cancer preventive properties and its mechanism of action at numerous points regulating cancer cell growth, survival, angiogenesis and metastasis. Therefore, non-toxic natural agent could be useful either alone or in combination with conventional therapeutics for the prevention of tumor progression and/or treatment of human malignancies.

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    • "Numerous studies have shown that the green tea extract derived from the dried fresh leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis and one of its major constituents, EGCG, possess obvious antioxidant[116], antiproliferative[117], antiangio- genic[118], antimetastatic[119], and proapoptotic[120,121]activities, as well as the ability to perturb the cell cycle[122]in various in vitro and in vivo tumor models. EGCG has immense potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment and/or prevention of cancer due to its low cost and high bioavailability[123]. The anticancer role of EGCG has been investigated epidemiologically, in in vitro and in vivo models, as well as in clinical trials[124]. "
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    • "Green tea has been shown to function as an anticancer reagent that inhibits the development and progression of skin, lung, mammary gland, and gastrointestinal tract tumors in animal models[23,24]. Among the various polyphenols in green tea including epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), (–)-epigallocatechin, (–)-epicatechin, (+)-gallocatechin, and other catechins, EGCG is the most abundant and the most biologically active component252627. However, the recovery effects of EGCG on adult neurogenesis following neuroinflammation at the DG in the hippocampus are still unknown. "
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    ABSTRACT: Adult hippocampal dentate granule neurons are generated from neural stem cells (NSCs) in the mammalian brain, and the fate specification of adult NSCs is precisely controlled by the local niches and environment, such as the subventricular zone (SVZ), dentate gyrus (DG), and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the main polyphenolic flavonoid in green tea that has neuroprotective activities, but there is no clear understanding of the role of EGCG in adult neurogenesis in the DG after neuroinflammation. Here, we investigate the effect and the mechanism of EGCG on adult neurogenesis impaired by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS-induced neuroinflammation inhibited adult neurogenesis by suppressing the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in the DG, which was indicated by the decreased number of Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-, Doublecortin (DCX)- and Neuronal Nuclei (NeuN)-positive cells. In addition, microglia were recruited with activatingTLR4-NF-κB signaling in the adult hippocampus by LPS injection. Treating LPS-injured mice with EGCG restored the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs in the DG, which were decreased by LPS, and EGCG treatment also ameliorated the apoptosis of NSCs. Moreover, pro-inflammatory cytokine production induced by LPS was attenuated by EGCG treatment through modulating the TLR4-NF-κB pathway. These results illustrate that EGCG has a beneficial effect on impaired adult neurogenesis caused by LPSinduced neuroinflammation, and it may be applicable as a therapeutic agent against neurodegenerative disorders caused by inflammation.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • "Tea is one of the most highly consumed beverages in the world and is rich in compounds exhibiting multiple health benefits (reviewed in [108]). The pharmacological action of tea is mainly attributed to large quantities of polyphenolic compounds known as catechins, which include epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) particularly in green tea and thearubigin and theaflavins in black tea. "
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    ABSTRACT: Deregulation of angiogenesis – the growth of new blood vessels from an existing vasculature – is a main driving force in many severe human diseases including cancer. As such, tumor angiogenesis is important for delivering oxygen and nutrients to growing tumors, and therefore considered an essential pathologic feature of cancer, while also playing a key role in enabling other aspects of tumor pathology such as metabolic deregulation and tumor dissemination/metastasis. Recently, inhibition of tumor angiogenesis has become a clinical anti-cancer strategy in line with chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery, which underscore the critical importance of the angiogenic switch during early tumor development. Unfortunately the clinically approved anti-angiogenic drugs in use today are only effective in a subset of the patients, and many who initially respond develop resistance over time. Also, some of the anti-angiogenic drugs are toxic and it would be of great importance to identify alternative compounds, which could overcome these drawbacks and limitations of the currently available therapy. Finding “the most important target” may, however, prove a very challenging approach as the tumor environment is highly diverse, consisting of many different cell types, all of which may contribute to tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, the tumor cells themselves are genetically unstable, leading to a progressive increase in the number of different angiogenic factors produced as the cancer progresses to advanced stages. As an alternative approach to targeted therapy, options to broadly interfere with angiogenic signals by a mixture of non-toxic natural compound with pleiotropic actions were viewed by this team as an opportunity to develop a complementary anti-angiogenesis treatment option. As a part of the “Halifax Project” within the “Getting to know cancer” framework, we have here, based on a thorough review of the literature, identified 10 important aspects of tumor angiogenesis and the pathological tumor vasculature which would be well suited as targets for anti-angiogenic therapy: (1) endothelial cell migration/tip cell formation, (2) structural abnormalities of tumor vessels, (3) hypoxia, (4) lymphangiogenesis, (5) elevated interstitial fluid pressure, (6) poor perfusion, (7) disrupted circadian rhythms, (8) tumor promoting inflammation, (9) tumor promoting fibroblasts and (10) tumor cell metabolism/acidosis. Following this analysis, we scrutinized the available literature on broadly acting anti-angiogenic natural products, with a focus on finding qualitative information on phytochemicals which could inhibit these targets and came up with 10 prototypical phytochemical compounds: (1) oleic acid, (2) tripterine, (3) silibinin, (4) curcumin, (5) epigallocatechin-gallate, (6) kaempferol, (7) melatonin, (8) enterolactone, (9) withaferin A and (10) resveratrol. We suggest that these plant-derived compounds could be combined to constitute a broader acting and more effective inhibitory cocktail at doses that would not be likely to cause excessive toxicity. All the targets and phytochemical approaches were further cross-validated against their effects on other essential tumorigenic pathways (based on the “hallmarks” of cancer) in order to discover possible synergies or potentially harmful interactions, and were found to generally also have positive involvement in/effects on these other aspects of tumor biology. The aim is that this discussion could lead to the selection of combinations of such anti-angiogenic compounds which could be used in potent anti-tumor cocktails, for enhanced therapeutic efficacy, reduced toxicity and circumvention of single-agent anti-angiogenic resistance, as well as for possible use in primary or secondary cancer prevention strategies.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Seminars in Cancer Biology
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