Article

Both male and female identity influence variation in male signaling effort

School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia.
BMC Evolutionary Biology (Impact Factor: 3.37). 08/2011; 11(1):233. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-11-233
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Male sexual displays play an important role in sexual selection by affecting reproductive success. However, for such displays to be useful for female mate choice, courtship should vary more among than within individual males. In this regard, a potentially important source of within male variation is adjustment of male courtship effort in response to female traits. Accordingly, we set out to dissect sources of variation in male courtship effort in a fish, the desert goby (Chlamydogobius eremius). We did so by designing an experiment that allowed simultaneous estimation of within and between male variation in courtship, while also assessing the importance of the males and females as sources of courtship variation.
Although males adjusted their courtship depending on the identity of the female (a potentially important source of within-male variation), among-male differences were considerably greater. In addition, male courtship effort towards a pair of females was highly repeatable over a short time frame.
Despite the plasticity in male courtship effort, courtship displays had the potential to reliably convey information about the male to mate-searching females. Our experiment therefore underscores the importance of addressing the different sources contributing to variation in the expression of sexually-selected traits.

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    • "The results indicate that males had a nonsignificant tendency to invest more in courting large, presumably more fecund, females. This result is in line with earlier findings showing that desert goby males strategically adjust courtship towards larger females[37,39], but only when females are encountered simultaneously or in quick succession, i.e., the perceived female encounter rate is high[38]. "
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    • "The results also give no clear support for the idea that sand goby males would adjust their courtship effort according to female quality or identity. This, as well, is relevant because extensive within-male plasticity in courtship effort could compromise the information value of the courtship signal and decrease the scope for sexual selection (Griffith & Sheldon 2001; Wong & Candolin 2005; Lehtonen et al. 2011). The role of female identity, however, may be more important under conditions of high female encounter rate (Svensson et al. 2010). "
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