Restless legs syndrome in older people: A community-based study on its prevalence and association with major depressive disorder in older Korean adults
The prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) and its relationship with the demographic variables in an older Korean population were examined.
A face-to-face household survey was conducted in five different regions of Korea from June 2008 to August 2008. Among a total of 3074 individuals who were aged more than 65, 1990 participants were interviewed, and the response rate was 64.7%. The diagnosis of RLS was made using an RLS questionnaire. The medical review of systems was assessed by a self-report questionnaire containing 15 items. Depression was diagnosed with the diagnostic section of depressive disorder of the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and the short form of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS).
The prevalence of RLS in the older Korean population was 9.5% (men, 7.1%; women, 11.3%). RLS had a significant association with anemia (odds ratio (OR), 1.66; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.29-2.12; P < 0.001) and renal diseases (OR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.95-3.38; P < 0.001). RLS seemed to have a significant relationship with depression by using the CIDI (adjusted OR 2.01; 95% CI, 1.45-2.79. P < 0.001) and GDS (adjusted OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.34-1.94; P < 0.001).
Restless legs syndrome might be a risk factor for major depressive disorder in older Koreans. Future investigations should focus on the causality and mechanism underlying the relationship between RLS and major depressive disorder.
Available from: Clare E Collins
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ABSTRACT: Preconception and pregnancy dietary intakes can influence the health of future generations. In this study we compared the food intakes of reproductive-aged women by pregnancy status, to current Australian recommendations.
Data are from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, younger cohort aged 25-30 years in 2003, with self-reported status as pregnant (n = 606), trying to conceive (n = 454), given birth in the last 12 months (n = 829) or other (n = 5597). Diet was assessed using a validated 74-item food frequency questionnaire. Food group servings and nutrient intakes were compared to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) and Australian Nutrient Reference Values (NRVs).
No women met all AGHE food group recommendations. Highest adherence rates [mean (95% CI) servings/day] were for meat [85%, 1.9(1.8-1.9)], fruit [44%, 2.1(2.1-2.2)] and dairy [35%, 1.8(1.8-1.9)], with < 14% meeting remaining recommendations. Women who achieved NRVs (folate, iron, calcium, zinc, fibre) for pregnancy, breastfeeding and adult life stages were 1.5%, 3.3% and 13.7%, respectively. Compared to AGHE, women consumed more servings of fruit (4.9 vs 4.0;P = 0.034) and dairy (3.4 vs 2.0;P = 0.006) to achieve pregnancy NRVs; more dairy (2.9 vs 2.0;P = 0.001), less fruit (3.9 vs 5.0;P < .001) and vegetables (3.4 vs 7.0;P < .001) to achieve breastfeeding NRVs; more fruit (3.6 vs 3.0;P < .001), dairy (2.5 vs 2.0;P < .001), meat (1.8 vs 1.5;P = 0.015), less vegetables (3.6 vs 5.0;P < .001) to achieve adult NRVs.
The AGHE does not align with contemporary diets of Australian women or enable them to meet all NRVs. Current tools to guide food consumption by women during pregnancy require revision.
Available from: Atul Malhotra
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ABSTRACT: Most research on the association between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and depression has involved cross-sectional data. The objective of the present study was to evaluate this issue prospectively among Nurses' Health Study participants. A total of 56,399 women (mean age = 68 years) who were free of depression symptoms at baseline (2002) were followed until 2008. Physician-diagnosed RLS was self-reported. During 300,155 person-years of follow-up, the authors identified 1,268 incident cases of clinical depression (regular use of antidepressant medication and physician-diagnosed depression). Women with RLS at baseline were more likely to develop clinical depression (multivariate-adjusted relative risk (RR) = 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 2.1; P = 0.02) than those without RLS. The presence of RLS at baseline was also associated with higher scores on the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) thereafter. Multivariable-adjusted mean differences were 1.00 (standard error, 0.12) for CESD-10 score and 0.47 (standard error, 0.07) for GDS-15 score between women with RLS and those without RLS (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, women with physician-diagnosed RLS had an increased risk of developing clinical depression and clinically relevant depression symptoms. Further prospective studies using refined approaches to ascertainment of RLS and depression are warranted.
Available from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
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ABSTRACT: As a common gastrointestinal (GI) disorder, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been reported to be associated with some psychological and neurological factors. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence rate of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in a sample of IBS patients and to compare this prevalence with that of matched healthy controls.
This prospective comparative study was conducted in Tehran, Iran during 2010-2011. Based on the Rome III criteria, a total number of 225 definite IBS patients and 262 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited in the final assessment to compare the prevalence rate of RLS between the 2 groups.
RLS was significantly more frequent in IBS group (25.3% vs 6.5%, P < 0.001) which led to an odds ratio (OR) of 4.89 (95% CI, 2.75-8.70). IBS patients with co-morbid RLS significantly suffered more from stomach pain (96.5% vs 86.3%, OR = 4.36 [95% CI, 1.00-19.12]), nausea (40.4% vs 21.4%, OR = 2.48 [95% CI, 1.30-4.73]) and vomiting (10.5% vs 2.4%, OR = 4.82 [95% CI, 1.31-17.76]).
By enrolling a considerable number of IBS patients and healthy controls, our study showed a significantly higher prevalence of RLS in IBS patients. Surprisingly, a higher prevalence rate of RLS was also accompanied with a more severe discomfort and stomach pain in IBS patients. It seems that screening patients with IBS for RLS may lead to greater identification of RLS and improved treatment for both conditions.
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