Abnormal anthopometric measurements and growth pattern in male AIS

Spine Surgery, The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Zhongshan Road 321, Nanjing, 210008, China.
European Spine Journal (Impact Factor: 2.07). 08/2011; 21(1):77-83. DOI: 10.1007/s00586-011-1960-x
Source: PubMed


The progression of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is closely correlated with longitudinal growth during puberty. A decreased incidence of curve progression has been found in male patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis compared with female patients with the condition. This finding implies that there might be a sexual dimorphism in the pubertal growth patterns of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. Abnormal pubertal growth in female adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients has been well characterized; however, the pubertal growth patterns of male adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients have not been reported. We conducted a cross-sectional study of anthropometric measurements to compare the growth patterns of male patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with those of healthy boys during puberty and explore the difference in the pubertal growth patterns of female and male patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.
A total of 688 subjects were involved in the study, including 332 male adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients and 356 age-matched healthy boys. The subjects were categorized according to their chronological ages. Their body weights, heights and arm spans were obtained using standard methods; the corrected body heights of the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis boys were determined using Bjour's equation. The inter-group differences in the anthropometric parameters were analyzed. Multivariate regression analysis was carried out in the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients to identify the anthropometric parameters that influence curve severity.
The corrected standing heights and arm spans of male adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients were similar to those of the matched controls during puberty. However, the body weights of the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients who were more than 14 years old were significantly less than those of the control group. The body mass index of the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients between the ages of 15 and 17 were also significantly less than those of the control subjects. Moreover, a significantly higher incidence of underweight was found in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients (8.6%) than in the controls (3.4%). Upon multivariate regression analysis, body weight and chronological age were identified as independent predictors of curve magnitude in male adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. The male adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients with variable curve patterns exhibited no significant differences in their anthropometric parameters.
The results showed abnormal pubertal growth in the male adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients compared with their age- and gender-matched normal controls. Despite similar longitudinal growth, the male patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis exhibited significantly lower body weights and a higher incidence of underweight during the later stage of puberty compared with their normal controls. These abnormalities in the pubertal growth of male patients were different from those observed in female patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Body weight could be an important parameter for further longitudinal studies on the prognostication of curve progression in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

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Available from: Liu Zhen, Jun 01, 2015
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    • "Although underweight was two-fold more prevalent than overweight in our group of patients, spinal deformity subgroups did not differ with regard to weight prevalence. The majority of previously published studies focusing on the anthropometrical status of IS children showed that the BMI of IS children is significantly lower than in the general population11121322,23,25]. The use of BMI as the only marker of anthropometrical status in children may cause an important bias. "

    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Nutrients
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    • "Of note, most authors agree that curves with a thoracic apex are characterized by the highest prevalence of progression, ranging 58–100 % [43–45]. Furthermore, compared with female AIS patients, male patients revealed a lower tendency towards curve progression [41]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Knowledge on the normative growth of the spine is critical in the prenatal detection of its abnormalities. We aimed to study the size of T6 vertebra in human fetuses with the crown-rump length of 115–265 mm. Materials and methods Using the methods of computed tomography (Biograph mCT), digital image analysis (Osirix 3.9) and statistics, the normative growth of the T6 vertebral body and the three ossification centers of T6 vertebra in 55 spontaneously aborted human fetuses (27 males, 28 females) aged 17–30 weeks were studied. Results Neither male–female nor right–left significant differences were found. The height, transverse, and sagittal diameters of the T6 vertebral body followed natural logarithmic functions as y = −4.972 + 2.732 × ln(age) ± 0.253 (R2 = 0.72), y = −14.862 + 6.426 × ln(age) ± 0.456 (R2 = 0.82), and y = −10.990 + 4.982 × ln(age) ± 0.278 (R2 = 0.89), respectively. Its cross-sectional area (CSA) rose proportionately as y = −19.909 + 1.664 × age ± 2.033 (R2 = 0.89), whereas its volumetric growth followed the four-degree polynomial function y = 19.158 + 0.0002 × age4 ± 7.942 (R2 = 0.93). The T6 body ossification center grew logarithmically in both transverse and sagittal diameters as y = −14.784 + 6.115 × ln(age) ± 0.458 (R2 = 0.81) and y = −12.065 + 5.019 × ln(age) ± 0.315 (R2 = 0.87), and proportionately in both CSA and volume like y = −15.591 + 1.200 × age ± 1.470 (R2 = 0.90) and y = −22.120 + 1.663 × age ± 1.869 (R2 = 0.91), respectively. The ossification center-to-vertebral body volume ratio was gradually decreasing with age. On the right and left, the neural ossification centers revealed the following models: y = −15.188 + 6.332 × ln(age) ± 0.629 (R2 = 0.72) and y = −15.991 + 6.600 × ln(age) ± 0.629 (R2 = 0.74) for length, y = −6.716 + 2.814 × ln(age) ± 0.362 (R2 = 0.61) and y = −7.058 + 2.976 × ln(age) ± 0.323 (R2 = 0.67) for width, y = −5.665 + 0.591 × age ± 1.251 (R2 = 0.86) and y = −11.281 + 0.853 × age ± 1.653 (R2 = 0.78) for CSA, and y = −9.279 + 0.849 × age ± 2.302 (R2 = 0.65) and y = −16.117 + 1.155 × age ± 1.832 (R2 = 0.84) for volume, respectively. Conclusions Neither sex nor laterality differences are found in the morphometric parameters of evolving T6 vertebra and its three ossification centers. The growth dynamics of the T6 vertebral body follow logarithmically for its height, and both sagittal and transverse diameters, linearly for its CSA, and four-degree polynomially for its volume. The three ossification centers of T6 vertebra increase logarithmically in both transverse and sagittal diameters, and linearly in both CSA and volume. The age-specific reference intervals for evolving T6 vertebra present the normative values of potential relevance in the diagnosis of congenital spinal defects.
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