Adenylyl cyclase/cAMP-PKA-mediated phosphorylation of basal L-type Ca2+ channels in mouse embryonic ventricular myocytes
Department of Physiology, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China. Cell calcium
(Impact Factor: 3.51).
08/2011; 50(5):433-43. DOI: 10.1016/j.ceca.2011.07.004
In fetal mammalian heart, constitutive adenylyl cyclase/cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (cAMP-PKA)-mediated phosphorylation, independent of β-adrenergic receptor stimulation, could under such circumstances play an important role in sustaining the L-type calcium channel current (I(Ca,L)) and regulating other PKA dependent phosphorylation targets. In this study, we investigated the regulation of L-type Ca(2+) channel (LTCC) in murine embryonic ventricles. The data indicated a higher phosphorylation state of LTCC at early developmental stage (EDS, E9.5-E11.5) than late developmental stage (LDS, E16.5-E18.5). An intrinsic adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity, PKA activity and basal cAMP concentration were obviously higher at EDS than LDS. The cAMP increase in the presence of isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX, nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor) was further augmented at LDS but not at EDS by chelation of intracellular Ca(2+) with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA)-acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM). Furthermore, I(Ca,L) increased with time after patch rupture in LDS cardiomyocytes dialyzed with pipette solution containing BAPTA whereas not at EDS. Thus we conclude that the high basal level of LTCC phosphorylation is due to the high intrinsic PKA activity and the high intrinsic AC activity at EDS. The latter is possibly owing to the little or no effect of Ca(2+) influx via LTCCs on AC activity, leading to the inability to inhibit AC.
Available from: Nagomi Kurebayashi
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ABSTRACT: Protein kinase D (PKD) regulates the activity of the L-type calcium channel in rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. However, the functional target residues of PKD on the L-type calcium channel remain to be identified. Our aim was to identify the functional phosphorylation sites of PKD on the human L-type calcium channel. The pore subunit of the human CaV1.2 (hCaV1.2) was stably expressed in HEK293 cells. Both the expression of a dominant-negative mutant of PKD and the mutation of serine 1884 but not serine 1930, putative targets of PKD, strongly reduced L-type calcium currents and single channel activity without affecting the channel's expression at the plasma membrane. Our results suggest that serine 1884 is essential for the regulation of hCaV1.2 by PKD.
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ABSTRACT: Prevailing data suggest that ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP)) contribute to a surprising resistance to hypoxia in mammalian embryos, thus we aimed to characterize the developmental changes of K(ATP) channels in murine fetal ventricular cardiomyocytes.
Patch clamp was applied to investigate the functions of K(ATP). RT-PCR, Western blot were used to further characterize the molecular properties of K(ATP) channels.
Similar K(ATP) current density was detected in ventricular cardiomyocytes of late development stage (LDS) and early development stage (EDS). Molecular-biological study revealed the upregulation of Kir6.1/SUR2A in membrane and Kir6.2 remained constant during development. Kir6.1, Kir6.2, and SUR1 were detectable in the mitochondria without marked difference between EDS and LDS. Acute hypoxia-ischemia led to cessation of APs in 62.5% of tested EDS cells and no APs cessation was observed in LDS cells. SarcK(ATP) blocker glibenclamide rescued 47% of EDS cells but converted 42.8% of LDS cells to APs cessations under hypoxia-ischemic condition. MitoK(ATP) blocker 5-HD did not significantly influence the response to acute hypoxia-ischemia at either EDS or LDS. In summary, sarcK(ATP) played distinct functional roles under acute hypoxia-ischemic condition in EDS and LDS fetal ventricular cardiomyocytes, with developmental changes in sarcK(ATP) subunits. MitoK(ATP) were not significantly involved in the response of fetal cardiomyocytes to acute hypoxia-ischemia and no developmental changes of K(ATP) subunits were found in mitochondria.
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ABSTRACT: This study used the selective protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89 (N-[2-(p-Bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide) to determine the role of basal PKA activity in modulating cardiac excitation-contraction coupling in the absence of β-adrenergic stimulation. Basal intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels measured in isolated murine ventricular myocytes with an enzyme immunoassay were increased upon adenylyl cyclase activation (forskolin; 1 and 10 μM) or phosphodiesterase inhibition (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, IBMX; 300 μM). Forskolin and IBMX also caused concentration-dependent increases in peak Ca(2+) transients (fura-2) and cell shortening (edge-detector) measured simultaneously in field-stimulated myocytes (37 °C). Similar effects were seen upon application of dibutyryl cAMP. In voltage-clamped myocytes, H-89 (2 μM) decreased basal Ca(2+) transients, contractions and underlying Ca(2+) currents. H-89 also decreased diastolic Ca(2+) and the gain of excitation-contraction coupling (Ca(2+) release/Ca(2+) current), especially at negative membrane potentials. This was independent of alterations in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) loading, as SR stores were unchanged by PKA inhibition. H-89 also decreased the frequency, amplitude and width of spontaneous Ca(2+) sparks measured in quiescent myocytes (loaded with fluo-4), but increased time-to-peak. Thus, H-89 suppressed SR Ca(2+) release by decreasing Ca(2+) current and by reducing the gain of excitation-contraction coupling, in part by decreasing the size of individual Ca(2+) release units. These data suggest that basal PKA activity enhances SR Ca(2+) release in the absence of ß-adrenergic stimulation. This may depress contractile function in models such as aging, where the cAMP/PKA pathway is altered due to low basal cAMP levels.
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