Modulation of Vasoactivity and Platelet Aggregation by Selective 5-HT Receptor Antagonism in Humans
Distinct serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] receptors are involved in platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction. Compounds that simultaneously and selectively inhibit the pertaining 5-HT receptors may therefore represent a therapeutic strategy for arterial thrombosis, observed frequently after atherosclerotic plaque rupture. The vasoactive and antiplatelet effects of the combined 5-HT1B and 5-HT2A receptor blocker SL65.0472-00 were investigated in humans to elucidate the functional involvement of these receptors.
Twenty-four volunteers, divided into 2 groups of 12, received an oral dose of 20 mg of SL65.0472-00 or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Pre dose and at 2, 4, and 6 hours after dosing, intra-arterial infusions of 5-HT1B agonist sumatriptan (n = 12) or 5-HT (n = 12) were administered. Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured using plethysmography, and platelet aggregation was measured using whole blood aggregometry induced by a combination of a threshold collagen concentration and an excess of 5-HT. Treatments were compared using analysis of variance.
After placebo treatment, infusion of 1 ng·kg·min 5-HT induced vasodilatation (FBF +80% change from baseline), whereas infusion of 30 and 80 ng·kg·min 5-HT resulted in vasoconstriction (FBF -25% and -50%). After SL65.0472-00 treatment, all 5-HT doses induced vasodilatation (FBF +25%-60%). Sumatriptan dose dependently decreased FBF (maximally -35%), but this effect was not altered by SL65.0472-00 treatment. 5-HT-induced platelet aggregation was effectively inhibited by 90% after SL65.0472-00 treatment for at least 6 hours.
SL65.0472-00 has potent antagonistic effect on 5-HT-induced vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation but not on sumatriptan-induced vasoconstriction. This suggests that in humans, SL65.0472-00 is a 5-HT2A blocker without clear 5-HT1B antagonistic activity.
Available from: Hari Priya Vemana
- "Serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), plays a key role in the development of arterial thrombosis . It is predominantly synthesized/secreted into the blood stream by enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and is rapidly taken up and stored in platelet dense granules . "
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ABSTRACT: There is considerable interest in defining new agents or targets for antithrombotic purposes. The 5-HT2A receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) expressed on many cell types, and a known therapeutic target for many disease states. This serotonin receptor is also known to regulate platelet function. Thus, in our FDA-approved drug repurposing efforts, we investigated the antiplatelet activity of cyproheptadine and pizotifen, two antidepressant 5-HT2A Receptor antagonists. Our results revealed that cyproheptadine and pizotifen reversed serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro and ex vivo. And the inhibitory effects of these two agents were found to be similar to that of EMD 281014, a 5-HT2A Receptor antagonist under development. In separate experiments, our studies revealed that these 5-HT2A receptor antagonists have the capacity to reduce serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced elevation in intracellular calcium levels and tyrosine phosphorylation. Using flow cytometry, we also observed that cyproheptadine, pizotifen, and EMD 281014 inhibited serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, P-selectin expression, and glycoprotein IIb-IIIa activation. Furthermore, using a carotid artery thrombosis model, these agents prolonged the time for thrombotic occlusion in mice in vivo. Finally, the tail-bleeding time was investigated to assess the effect of cyproheptadine and pizotifen on hemostasis. Our findings indicated prolonged bleeding time in both cyproheptadine- and pizotifen-treated mice. Notably, the increases in occlusion and bleeding times associated with these two agents were comparable to that of EMD 281014, and to clopidogrel, a commonly used antiplatelet drug, again, in a fashion comparable to clopidogrel and EMD 281014. Collectively, our data indicate that the antidepressant 5-HT2A antagonists, cyproheptadine and pizotifen do exert antiplatelet and thromboprotective effects, but similar to clopidogrel and EMD 281014, their use may interfere with normal hemostasis.
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ABSTRACT: The development of a new medicine is a risky and costly undertaking that requires careful planning. This planning is largely applied to the operational aspects of the development and less so to the scientific objectives and methodology. The drugs that will be developed in the future will increasingly affect pathophysiological pathways that have been largely unexplored. Such drug prototypes cannot be immediately introduced in large clinical trials. The effects of the drug on normal physiology, pathophysiology, and eventually the desired clinical effects will need to be evaluated in a structured approach, based on the definition of drug development as providing answers to important questions by appropriate clinical studies. This review describes the selection process for biomarkers that are fit-to-purpose for the stage of drug development in which they are used. This structured and practical approach is widely applicable and particularly useful for the early stages of innovative drug development. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology Volume 55 is January 06, 2015. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
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