Modulation of Vasoactivity and Platelet Aggregation by Selective 5-HT Receptor Antagonism in Humans

Centre for Human Drug Research, Leiden, the Netherlands.
Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology (Impact Factor: 2.14). 08/2011; 58(6):575-80. DOI: 10.1097/FJC.0b013e31822f6b8d
Source: PubMed


Distinct serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] receptors are involved in platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction. Compounds that simultaneously and selectively inhibit the pertaining 5-HT receptors may therefore represent a therapeutic strategy for arterial thrombosis, observed frequently after atherosclerotic plaque rupture. The vasoactive and antiplatelet effects of the combined 5-HT1B and 5-HT2A receptor blocker SL65.0472-00 were investigated in humans to elucidate the functional involvement of these receptors.
Twenty-four volunteers, divided into 2 groups of 12, received an oral dose of 20 mg of SL65.0472-00 or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Pre dose and at 2, 4, and 6 hours after dosing, intra-arterial infusions of 5-HT1B agonist sumatriptan (n = 12) or 5-HT (n = 12) were administered. Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured using plethysmography, and platelet aggregation was measured using whole blood aggregometry induced by a combination of a threshold collagen concentration and an excess of 5-HT. Treatments were compared using analysis of variance.
After placebo treatment, infusion of 1 ng·kg·min 5-HT induced vasodilatation (FBF +80% change from baseline), whereas infusion of 30 and 80 ng·kg·min 5-HT resulted in vasoconstriction (FBF -25% and -50%). After SL65.0472-00 treatment, all 5-HT doses induced vasodilatation (FBF +25%-60%). Sumatriptan dose dependently decreased FBF (maximally -35%), but this effect was not altered by SL65.0472-00 treatment. 5-HT-induced platelet aggregation was effectively inhibited by 90% after SL65.0472-00 treatment for at least 6 hours.
SL65.0472-00 has potent antagonistic effect on 5-HT-induced vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation but not on sumatriptan-induced vasoconstriction. This suggests that in humans, SL65.0472-00 is a 5-HT2A blocker without clear 5-HT1B antagonistic activity.

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    • "Serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), plays a key role in the development of arterial thrombosis [5]. It is predominantly synthesized/secreted into the blood stream by enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and is rapidly taken up and stored in platelet dense granules [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: There is considerable interest in defining new agents or targets for antithrombotic purposes. The 5-HT2A receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) expressed on many cell types, and a known therapeutic target for many disease states. This serotonin receptor is also known to regulate platelet function. Thus, in our FDA-approved drug repurposing efforts, we investigated the antiplatelet activity of cyproheptadine and pizotifen, two antidepressant 5-HT2A Receptor antagonists. Our results revealed that cyproheptadine and pizotifen reversed serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro and ex vivo. And the inhibitory effects of these two agents were found to be similar to that of EMD 281014, a 5-HT2A Receptor antagonist under development. In separate experiments, our studies revealed that these 5-HT2A receptor antagonists have the capacity to reduce serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced elevation in intracellular calcium levels and tyrosine phosphorylation. Using flow cytometry, we also observed that cyproheptadine, pizotifen, and EMD 281014 inhibited serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, P-selectin expression, and glycoprotein IIb-IIIa activation. Furthermore, using a carotid artery thrombosis model, these agents prolonged the time for thrombotic occlusion in mice in vivo. Finally, the tail-bleeding time was investigated to assess the effect of cyproheptadine and pizotifen on hemostasis. Our findings indicated prolonged bleeding time in both cyproheptadine- and pizotifen-treated mice. Notably, the increases in occlusion and bleeding times associated with these two agents were comparable to that of EMD 281014, and to clopidogrel, a commonly used antiplatelet drug, again, in a fashion comparable to clopidogrel and EMD 281014. Collectively, our data indicate that the antidepressant 5-HT2A antagonists, cyproheptadine and pizotifen do exert antiplatelet and thromboprotective effects, but similar to clopidogrel and EMD 281014, their use may interfere with normal hemostasis.
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