Long-term quality-of-life outcomes after radical prostatectomy or watchful waiting: The Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group-4 randomised trial
Department of Surgical Sciences, University Hospital of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden. The Lancet Oncology
(Impact Factor: 24.69).
08/2011; 12(9):891-9. DOI: 10.1016/S1470-2045(11)70162-0
For men with localised prostate cancer, surgery provides a survival benefit compared with watchful waiting. Treatments are associated with morbidity. Results for functional outcome and quality of life are rarely reported beyond 10 years and are lacking from randomised settings. We report results for quality of life for men in the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group Study Number 4 (SPCG-4) after a median follow-up of more than 12 years.
All living Swedish and Finnish men (400 of 695) randomly assigned to radical prostatectomy or watchful waiting in SPCG-4 from 1989 to 1999 were included in our analysis. An additional 281 men were included in a population-based control group matched for region and age. Physical symptoms, symptom-induced stress, and self-assessed quality of life were evaluated with a study-specific questionnaire. Longitudinal data were available for 166 Swedish men who had answered quality-of-life questionnaires at an earlier timepoint.
182 (88%) of 208 men in the radical prostatectomy group, 167 (87%) of 192 men in the watchful-waiting group, and 214 (76%) of 281 men in the population-based control group answered the questionnaire. Men in SPCG-4 had a median follow-up of 12·2 years (range 7-17) and a median age of 77·0 years (range 61-88). High self-assessed quality of life was reported by 62 (35%) of 179 men allocated radical prostatectomy, 55 (34%) of 160 men assigned to watchful waiting, and 93 (45%) of 208 men in the control group. Anxiety was higher in the SPCG-4 groups (77 [43%] of 178 and 69 [43%] of 161 men) than in the control group (68 [33%] of 208 men; relative risk 1·42, 95% CI 1·07-1·88). Prevalence of erectile dysfunction was 84% (146 of 173 men) in the radical prostatectomy group, 80% (122 of 153) in the watchful-waiting group, and 46% (95 of 208) in the control group and prevalence of urinary leakage was 41% (71 of 173), 11% (18 of 164), and 3% (six of 209), respectively. Distress caused by these symptoms was reported significantly more often by men allocated radical prostatectomy than by men assigned to watchful waiting. In a longitudinal analysis of men in SPCG-4 who provided information at two follow-up points 9 years apart, 38 (45%) of 85 men allocated radical prostatectomy and 48 (60%) of 80 men allocated watchful waiting reported an increase in number of physical symptoms; 50 (61%) of 82 and 47 (64%) of 74 men, respectively, reported a reduction in quality of life.
For men in SPCG-4, negative side-effects were common and added more stress than was reported in the control population. In the radical prostatectomy group, erectile dysfunction and urinary leakage were often consequences of surgery. In the watchful-waiting group, side-effects can be caused by tumour progression. The number and severity of side-effects changes over time at a higher rate than is caused by normal ageing and a loss of sexual ability is a persistent psychological problem for both interventions. An understanding of the patterns of side-effects and time dimension of their occurrence for each treatment is important for full patient information.
US National Institutes of Health; Swedish Cancer Society; Foundation in Memory of Johanna Hagstrand and Sigfrid Linnér.
Available from: Christopher F. Sharpley
- "Many men with prostate cancer (PCa) become depressed (Kunkel et al. 2000; Bill-Axelson et al. 2011; Johansson et al. 2011) and have increased admission to emergency treatment, hospitalisation and outpatient visits (Jayadevappa et al. 2011). Careful assessment of their depressive state is a vital aspect of clinical protocols and effective treatment and may follow two protocols. "
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ABSTRACT: This study investigated differences in the scores, relative severity and major depressive disorder (MDD) and subsyndromal depression status from three standardised self-report scales for depression in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Depression subscale (HADS-D), the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for depression were administered to a sample of 138 PCa patients via mail-out self-reports in Queensland, Australia during May 2014. Despite significant correlations between the total scores from the three scales, severity classification differed across the three scales and there was evidence of considerable underestimation of depression by the HADS-D compared to the PHQ-9, and a similar tendency for the SDS. When patients were classified as fulfilling the criteria for Subsyndromal Depression on the PHQ-9, there were statistically significant differences in the proportion of patients who met those criteria using the HADS-D and the SDS, with large underestimation also present for these two scales. Scale construction and depression items included can produce different results across scales, making inter-study comparisons difficult. Implications for research and clinical practice are described.
- "For example, a population-wide study showed that 77% of Australian men who had a radical prostatectomy experienced erectile dysfunction 3 years after diagnosis (Smith et al., 2009). Furthermore, long-term prevalence rates (12 years) for erectile dysfunction of 80%– 84% have been found in men with prostate cancer randomized to watchful waiting or radical prostatectomy, compared with 46% in their noncancer peers (Johansson et al., 2011). Problematically, men with prostate cancer report high rates of unmet support needs for sexual help (Smith et al., 2007; Steginga et al., 2001). "
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ABSTRACT: Masculine beliefs are influential in men's responses to illness; however, current measures of masculinity may not be salient for highly prevalent chronic diseases such as prostate cancer. To address this gap, a contextualized measure of masculinity for men with prostate cancer was developed. A novel measure of masculinity, the Masculinity in Chronic Disease Inventory (MCD-I), was developed based on existing qualitative data and tested for acceptability and face validity with 19 men previously treated for prostate cancer. A cross-sectional survey of 403 Australian men with prostate cancer (Mage = 70.34 years; SD = 7.25) then assessed convergent, divergent, and discriminant validity for the MCD-I using existing reliable and valid measures of masculinity, masculine self-esteem, quality of life, erectile dysfunction, and sexual help seeking. A 6-factor structure for the MCD-I (22 items) was confirmed with good to excellent internal reliabilities (alpha = 0.69-0.92) for the subscale domains of Strength, Sexual Importance/Priority; Family Responsibilities; Emotional Self-Reliance; Optimistic Capacity; and Action Approach. Acceptable convergent and divergent validity was supported, and the MCD-I was also able to discriminate between men with severe versus moderate to mild erectile dysfunction (p = .002) and the Sexual Importance/Priority domain discriminated between men who had sought sexual advice and those who had not (p = .005). A contextual approach to measuring masculinity in men with prostate cancer may help avoid reductionist approaches for focusing on erectile dysfunction in these populations. This also presents a way forward for gender-sensitive psychosocial services and programs for men experiencing prostate cancer. (PsycINFO Database Record
Available from: Johan Stranne
- "We modified the clinometric questionnaire previously used in a randomized trial evaluating the effects of radical prostatectomy, SPCG-4, to collect information on possible confounding factors, mediating factors, and effect-modifying factors  . Most questions have been used in one or several of the 25 data collections previously carried out at the Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology   . Nevertheless, to make sure the questions and answer categories were understood correctly by men with a recent diagnosis of prostate cancer, the questionnaires underwent face-to-face validation. "
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ABSTRACT: Many elderly or impotent men with prostate cancer may not receive a bundle-preserving radical prostatectomy as a result of uncertainty regarding the effect on urinary incontinence.
We searched for predictors of urinary incontinence 1 yr after surgery among surgical steps during radical prostatectomy.
More than 100 surgeons in 14 centers prospectively collected data on surgical steps during an open or robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. At 1 yr after surgery, a neutral third-party secretariat collected patient-reported information on urinary incontinence. After excluding men with preoperative urinary incontinence or postoperative irradiation, data were available for 3379 men.
Surgical steps during radical prostatectomy, including dissection plane as a measure of the degree of preservation of the two neurovascular bundles.
Urinary incontinence 1 yr after surgery was measured as patient-reported use of pads. In different categories of surgical steps, we calculated the percentage of men changing pads "about once per 24 h" or more often. Relative risks were calculated as percentage ratios between categories.
A strong association was found between the degree of bundle preservation and urinary incontinence 1 yr after surgery. We set the highest degree of bundle preservation (bilateral intrafascial dissection) as the reference category (relative risk = 1.0). For the men in the remaining six groups, ordered according to the degree of preservation, we obtained the following relative risks (95% confidence interval [CI]): 1.07 (0.63-1.83), 1.19 (0.77-1.85), 1.56 (0.99-2.45), 1.78 (1.13-2.81), 2.27 (1.45-3.53), and 2.37 (1.52-3.69). In the latter group, no preservation of any of the bundles was performed. The pattern was similar for preoperatively impotent men and for elderly men. Limitations of this analysis include the fact that noise influences the relative risks, due to variations between surgeons in the use of undocumented surgical steps of the procedure, variations in surgical experience and in how the surgical steps are reported, as well as variations in the metrics of patient-reported use of pads.
We found that the degree of preservation of the two neurovascular bundles during radical prostatectomy predicts the rate of urinary incontinence 1 yr after the operation. According to our findings, preservation of both neurovascular bundles to avoid urinary incontinence is also meaningful for elderly and impotent men.
We studied the degree of preservation of the two neurovascular bundles during radical prostatectomy and found that the risk of incontinence decreases if the surgeon preserves two bundles instead of one, and if the surgeon preserves some part of a bundle rather than not doing so.
Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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