Reduced Cell Proliferation and Neuroblast Differentiation in the Dentate Gyrus of High Fat Diet-Fed Mice are Ameliorated by Metformin and Glimepiride Treatment

ArticleinNeurochemical Research 36(12):2401-8 · August 2011with15 Reads
Impact Factor: 2.59 · DOI: 10.1007/s11064-011-0566-3 · Source: PubMed

    Abstract

    We investigated the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) and the subsequent treatment of metformin (met) and glimepiride (glim), which are widely prescribed for type 2 diabetes, on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation using Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry, respectively. Animals were fed low-fat diet (LFD) or HFD for 8 weeks. After 5 weeks of the HFD treatment, met alone or met + glim was administered orally once a day for 3 weeks. Body weight and food intake were much higher in the HFD + vehicle-treated group than the LFD-treated group. The administration of met or met + glim to the HFD-treated group resulted in a decrease in weight gain and food intake. Ki67-immunoreactive ((+)) nuclei, DCX(+) neuroblasts and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels were markedly decreased in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the HFD + vehicle-treated group compared to the LFD-treated group. The administration of met or met + glim to the HFD-treated group prevented the reduction of Ki67(+) nuclei, DCX(+) neuroblasts, BDNF levels in the DG. The intraventricular injection of K252a (a BDNF receptor blocker) to the HFD-treated group treated met or met + glim distinctively lowered the reduction of cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation induced by HFD. These results suggest that a HFD significantly reduces cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation by reducing BDNF levels and these effects are ameliorated by treatment with met or met + glim.