Xiao, Y. H. et al. Epidemiology and characteristics of antimicrobial resistance in China. Drug. Resist. Updat. 14, 236-250
A comprehensive surveillance system for bacterial resistance in tertiary hospitals has been established in China that involves tertiary hospitals in distinct regions nationwide, enabling the collection of a large amount of antimicrobial surveillance data. Antimicrobial resistance in China has become a serious healthcare problem, with high resistance rates of most common bacteria to clinically important antimicrobial agents. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus, ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii represent more than 50% of microbial isolates. Additionally, bacterial resistance to fluoroquinolones, macrolides and third-generation cephalosporins is of serious concern. The molecular epidemiology and resistance mechanisms of the antimicrobial strains in China exhibited regional specificity, as well as the influence of dissemination of international clonal complexes. The molecular characteristics of MRSA, ESBL- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, and macrolide-resistant gram-positive Streptococci in China were significantly different from those in other countries and regions, while S. pneumoniae serotypes appear to have been affected by the global spread of prevalent clones in other parts of the world. Moreover, important antimicrobial resistant bacteria such as community-acquired-MRSA, multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa and extensive-resistant A. baumannii, and the antimicrobial resistance in primary healthcare and outpatient setting should be intensely monitored and investigated in the future.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The α-hemolysin, encoded by the hla gene, is a major virulence factor in S. aureus infections. Changes in key amino acid residues of α-hemolysin can result in reduction, or even loss, of toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the diversity of the hla gene sequence and the relationship of hla variants to the clonal background of S. aureus isolates. A total of 47 clinical isolates from China were used in this study, supplemented with in silico analysis of 318 well-characterized whole genome sequences from globally distributed isolates. A total of 28 hla genotypes were found, including three unique to isolates from China, 20 found only in the global genomes and five found in both. The hla genotype generally correlated with the clonal background, particularly the multilocus sequence type, but was not related to geographic origin, host source or methicillin-resistance phenotype. In addition, the hla gene showed greater diversity than the seven loci utilized in the MLST scheme for S. aureus. Our investigation has provided genetic data which may be useful for future studies of toxicity, immunogenicity and vaccine development.
- "Infections due to antimicrobial-resistant pathogens are a growing problem all over the world. In developing countries like India and China, antimicrobial resistance is particularly prevalent, owing to previous unregulated overuse of antimicrobials [20, 21] . S. aureus is one of the commonest Gram-positive bacterial pathogens, and in many places, the majority of S. aureus infections are now caused by multidrug-resistant strains, including MRSA and vancomycinresistant S. aureus (VRSA). "
- "The spread of MRSA is also a serious issue in China. The proportion of MRSA among all S. aureus isolates has reached 50–70% based on former studies91011 . Due to the terrible prognosis of MRSA infections [7, 8], epidemiological information is urgently needed to help prevent and control these infections. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To scrutinize patterns of multi-drug-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains and particularly of fluoroquinolone-resistance this is an alternative choice for the treatment of urinary tract infections. Methods: Bacterial samples (n = 250) were collected from out-patients from August 2012 to August 2014 Islamabad. Antibiotic susceptibility profiling and determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations were performed according to the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, 2012). Genes, qnrA, qnrB and qnrS were identified by DNA amplification and sequencing. Results: The highest percentage of UPEC isolates were resistant to co-trimoxazole (82%) followed by cephalothin (80%), 2nd Gen, 3rd Gen and 4th Gen cephalosporins, respectively. Resistance against gentamicin, amikacin remained 29% and 4%. For other drugs including nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, carbapenem and beta-lactam inhibitors remained below 10%. Altogether, 59% of the isolates were resistant to at least three antibiotics including one fluoroquinolone. Overall, MICs for ciprofloxacin remained (MIC ≥ 256 μg/mL) and for levofloxacin (MIC ≥ 16 μg/mL and 32 μg/mL). No significant differences were observed regarding MIC values of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and non-ESBL producers. For qnrS and qnrB positive isolates MICs remained above 32 μg/mL. Prevalence of UPEC was significantly higher among females and 40% of the isolates were ESBL producers. Conclusions: Higher percentages of ESBL producing UPEC were associated with urinary tract infections. Moreover, the majority of these isolates were multi-drug resistant and fluoroquinolone-resistant.
- "Exceptionally, some of the homologues of Qnr-like proteins were also reported in other bacterial species including Mycobacterium, Enterococcus, Listeria, colistridia and recently, a new member of the same protein family was identified in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, annotated as Smqnr. Global epidemiological studies indicate the prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae both in the community acquired and healthcare facility associated infections678910. Previously, from Asian regions, several studies focused on the prevalence of ESBL producing UPEC, which is known to be associated with 90% of the community-acquired and approximately 50% of the nosocomial UTIs worldwide. "