[Safe practice of oral rehydration therapy by oral rehydration solution and carbohydrate loading--evaluation by non-invasive gastric echo examination].

Department of Anesthesia, Social Insurance Funabashi Central Hospital, Funabashi 273-8556.
Masui. The Japanese journal of anesthesiology 07/2011; 60(7):790-8.
Source: PubMed


Many anesthesiologists are reluctant to depart from their traditional long fasting periods, even though many guidelines recommend that oral intake of clear fluids administered up to 2-3 hours prior to general anesthesia does not adversely affect the gastric contents. It also indicates that the application of these guidelines does not affect the incidence of pulmonary aspiration. One of the reasons why they have not changed their practices is that they wonder whether it is safe to administer clear fluids as recommended in the guidelines. In this review, we emphasize that oral rehydration therapy using clear fluids (such as OS-1, water and carbohydrate-rich beverage) is safe based on the non-invasive gastric echo examinations as many guidelines have already indicated. Oral rehydration therapy should be considered not only as an alternative to intravenous therapy for preoperative fluid and electrolyte management but also as one of the important modalities which can enhance the recovery of surgical patients.

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    • "This is suitable for the provision and maintenance of water and electrolytes in cases of mild to moderate dehydration condition [7]. Specifically, OS-1 is suitable for dehydration associated with vomiting, diarrhea, and fever due to infectious enteritis and colds, as well as dehydration condition due to reduced food intake [7]. Based on these findings , OS-1 may also be sufficient to improve symptoms "
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    ABSTRACT: Though nausea and vomiting are quite common in pregnancy, hyperemesis is found in only 1 -2 patients per 100. Appropriate oral fluid and elec-trolyte replacement is the initial treatment regi-men for patients with mild to moderate emesis to avoid hyperemesis gravidarum defined as de-hydration, electrolyte unbalance and ketosis. A newer oral rehydration solution OS-1 therapy may be safe and feasible in the mild to moderate emesis gravidarum population. Physicians are encouraged to use this practice to maintain the amount of water in the body and electrolytes and to improve the patient's comfort.
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    ABSTRACT: Preoperative administration of clear fluids by mouth has recently been endorsed as a way to improve postoperative outcomes. A carbohydrate-containing beverage supplemented with electrolytes or proteins may have additional benefits for patients' satisfaction. However, effects on gastric residual, nausea, and emesis and the effectiveness of these beverages for improving patients' hydration status have not been well defined. We evaluated changes in gastric volume over time by magnetic resonance imaging, as well as blood glucose levels, before and after administration of 500 mL oral rehydration solution (ORS) containing 1.8% glucose and electrolytes in 10 healthy volunteers. The same volume of an oral nutritional supplement (ONS) containing 18% glucose and supplemental arginine (545 mOsm/kg) was given to the same population using a crossover design. The mean (median, 95% confidence interval) gastric fluid volume at 1 hour after oral ingestion was 55.0 (55.3, 39.0-70.9) mL in the ORS group, whereas 409.2 (410.9, 371.4-447.0) mL in the ONS group (P = 0.0002). The gastric fluid volume of all participants in the ORS group returned to <1 mL/kg at 90 minutes after ingestion, whereas none reached <1 mL/kg at 120 minutes in the ONS group. The ONS group showed a sustained increase in the blood glucose level after ingestion (P < 0.0001 to baseline at 30, 60, 120 minutes), while the ORS group showed an initial increase (P < 0.0001, P = 0.01, P = 0.205 at each time point). ORS supplemented with a small amount of glucose showed faster gastric emptying, which may make it suitable for preoperative administration. In contrast, ONS supplemented with arginine with a relatively low osmolality was associated with a longer time for gastric emptying, although it showed a sustained increase in blood glucose level.
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