Anatomic mechanisms for splenic injury during colorectal surgery
Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.Clinical Anatomy (Impact Factor: 1.33). 03/2012; 25(2):212-7. DOI: 10.1002/ca.21221
Intraoperative iatrogenic splenic injury during colorectal surgery is rare but may cause significant morbidity. We aimed to describe the anatomic mechanisms of iatrogenic injury to the spleen during colonic surgery. All adult surgical patients who sustained a splenic injury during colectomy at our institution from 1992 to 2007 were retrospectively identified. The operative and pathologic reports were reviewed, and anatomic details of the injuries were collected. Results are reported as a proportion or median, with range reported in brackets. Of 13,897 colectomies, 71 splenic injuries among 58 patients were identified. Splenic flexure colonic mobilization occurred in 53 (91%) of these patients. The median number of tears was 1 (1-3). The average length of tear was 4.59 cm. The distribution of injury location on the spleen was 24 (34%) inferior, 14 (20%) hilar, 3 (4%) posterior, 2 (3%) lateral, and 1 (1%) superior. Three (4%) patients suffered from splenic rupture. The location of 24 (34%) injuries was not described. Capsular tears were the cause of splenic injury in 55 (95%) patients. Intraoperative splenic injury ultimately resulted in splenectomy in 44 (76%) patients. Splenic injury was a delayed finding requiring reoperation in 4 (7%) patients. The primary mechanism of intraoperative splenic injury during colectomy is capsular tears and lacerations secondary to misplaced traction and tension on the spleen during colonic mobilization. Techniques to lessen these forces may decrease the number of injuries and subsequent splenectomy.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives: To evaluate risk factors associated with iatrogenic splenectomy during nephrectomy and to assess outcomes among patients undergoing nephrectomy for renal tumors. Methods: Of 4323 patients who underwent nephrectomy at Mayo Clinic between 1992 and 2008, 33 (0.8%) had an iatrogenic/unplanned splenectomy. In a case-control study design, controls without splenectomy were matched 1:3 based on age, sex, surgical date, side of the renal tumor, surgical approach and surgeon. Perioperative features and survival were evaluated using conditional logistic and Cox regression. Results: Among the 33 iatrogenic splenectomy patients, the majority (94%) underwent radical, open and left-sided nephrectomy. Primary tumor classification ≥T3 was the only clinicopathological risk factor significantly associated with splenectomy (odds ratio 3.4; P = 0.02). Compared with controls, patients with an iatrogenic splenectomy were more likely to have longer operative time (205 vs 171 min; P = 0.02), higher estimated blood loss (1.3 vs 0.3 L; P = 0.001), longer length of stay (median 7 vs 5 days; P = 0.03) and a higher likelihood for postoperative complications (odds ratio 5.3; P = 0.002). With a median of 9.8 years of follow up, splenectomy patients tended to have greater all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.6; P = 0.07), although this difference approached statistical significance. Conclusions: Iatrogenic splenectomy is a rare complication during nephrectomy and is associated with locally advanced tumors (≥pT3). It also carries prognostic significance for adverse perioperative outcomes and possibly diminished survival, although this warrants further study.
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