Factors associated with breast self-examination among Malaysian women teachers

Child and Maternal Health Research Centre and Health Science Research Centre, Department of Maternal and Child Health, Hamedan University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hamedan, Islamic Republic of Iran.
Eastern Mediterranean health journal = La revue de santé de la Méditerranée orientale = al-Majallah al-ṣiḥḥīyah li-sharq al-mutawassiṭ 06/2011; 17(6):509-16.
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to breast self-examination (BSE) among teachers in Selangor, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 425 female teachers in 20 randomly selected secondary schools. A self-administered questionnaire based on the health belief model was randomly selected secondary schools. A self-administered questionnaire based on the health belief model was used, including sociodemographic background and knowledge, beliefs and practices about breast cancer and BSE. Only 19% of the women performed BSE on a regular basis. Higher knowledge about breast cancer, greater confidence in performing BSE and regular visits to a physician were significant predictors for practising BSE. To promote BSE practice among Malaysian women, tailored health education and health promotion programmes should be developed based on a specific understanding of women's health beliefs.

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Available from: Neda Rafiee Parsa
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    • "Several articles also pointed out other barriers such as women having lower coping skills to deal with abnormal results, higher anticipated pain during procedure, fear and anxiety of radiation, side-effects and x-rays (Abdullah et al., 2011; Al-Dubai et al., 2011; Kanaga et al., 2011; Parsa et al., 2011; Al-Dubai et al., 2012; Dahlui et al., 2012; Farid et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer mortality among women of all ethnic and age groups in Malaysia. Delay in seeking help for breast cancer symptoms is preventable and by identifying possible factors for delayed diagnosis, patient prognosis and survival rates could be improved. Objectives: This narrative review aimed to understand and evaluate the level of in-depth breast cancer knowledge in terms of clinical breast examination and breast self-examination, and other important aspects such as side-effects and risk factors in Malaysian females. Since Malaysia is multicultural, this review assessed social perceptions, cultural beliefs and help-seeking behaviour in respect to breast cancer among different ethnic groups, since these may impinge on efforts to ‘avoid’ the disease. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive literature search of seven databases was performed from December 2015 to January 2015. Screening of relevant published journals was also undertaken to identify available information related to the knowledge, perception and help-seeking behaviour of Malaysian women in relation to breast cancer. Results: A total of 42 articles were appraised and included in this review. Generally, women in Malaysia had good awareness of breast cancer and its screening tools, particularly breast self-examination, but only superficial in-depth knowledge about the disease. Women in rural areas had lower levels of knowledge than those in urban areas. It was also shown that books, magazines, brochures and television were among the most common sources of breast cancer information. Delay in presentation was attributed mainly to a negative social perception of the disease, poverty, cultural and religion practices, and a strong influence of complementary and alternative medicine, rather than a lack of knowledge. Conclusions: This review highlighted the need for an intensive and in-depth breast cancer education campaigns using media and community health programmes, even with the existing good awareness of breast cancer. This is essential in order to avoid misconceptions and to frame the correct mind-set about breast cancer among women in Malaysia. Socio-cultural differences and religious practices should be taken into account by health care professionals when advising on breast cancer. Women need to be aware of the risk factors and symptoms of breast cancer so that early diagnosis can take place and the chances of survival improved
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP
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    • "This study showed that women with higher levels of knowledge about breast cancer symptoms and screening demonstrated higher performance rates of BSE. This is consistent with previous finding suggesting that knowledge of breast cancer screening is an important facilitator for breast cancer screening behaviors (Parsa 6534 et al., 2011). There are some limitations in our research. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In Iran, breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women and a major public health problem. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out to determine knowledge on breast cancer and breast self- examination (BSE) practices of 384 females living in the city of Hamadan, Iran. A purposive sampling method was adopted and data were collected via face-to-face interviews based on a validated questionnaire developed for this study. Results: Among respondents 268 (69.8%) were married and 144 (37.5%) of the respondents reported having a family history of breast cancer. One hundred respondents (26.0%) claimed they practiced BSE. Level of breast cancer knowledge was significantly associated with BSE practice (p=0.000). There was no association with demographic details (p<0.05). Conclusion: The findings showed that Iranian women's knowledge regarding breast cancer and the practice of BSE is inadequate. Targeted education should be implemented to improve early detection of breast cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of breast cancer augments together with the technical global development and modernization. Breast carcinoma is one of the leading causes of death in women. A literature search was conducted in July-October 2012 to explore the published articles regarding awareness of breast cancer and breast self-examination (BSE) in Asian settings. This review included studies which measured knowledge regarding breast cancer and studies on attitude, practice and barriers to breast self-examination by using qualitative (one-to-one interview, concept mapping) or quantitative methods (cross-sectional survey) or both. The search was initiated through several keywords: breast cancer, breast cancer awareness, statistics of breast cancer, breast self-examination, etc. Other included electronic databases were Science Direct, Sage, Life Science, Springer Link, BioMed Central, Proquest and EBSCOhost. The search was limited to full paper articles published in English between 2000-2012 and only seventeen full text articles were included in review. The studies included in review are from Hong Kong, Australia, UK, Iran, Qatar, Nigeria, and Malaysia. This review highlights the awareness of breast cancer by means of BSE and attitude towards BSE. Proactive educational measures by healthcare professionals and mass media campaigns are therefore suggested to enhance BSE screening and breast cancer awareness among women. INTRODUCTION Breast cancer is a word that is relatively easy to be uttered but left a deep frightening impression on women. With the passage of times, the prevalence of breast cancer augments together with the technical global development and modernization. Irrespective of whether First World countries or Third World countries, the health of women is at stake as breast carcinoma is the leading causes of death in women aged 30 years and above [1]. According to GLOBOCAN (2008), a project done by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) was deemed to provide statistics on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of cancers in 184 countries and reported that breast cancer is affecting women in 145 countries [2]. Out of those 145 countries, countries like US, UK, Australia, Canada and Denmark were ranked higher than Africa and Asia [2]. For Asian countries, National Cancer Registry reported that the crude incidence rate of breast cancer (the annual incidence rate of number of cases per 100,000 study populations) in eastern Asia varied from 20.6% in Thailand to 23.3% in Korea. In Malaysia this is slightly raised to 29.4% with Singapore and Philippines touching a higher value of 54.1% and 55.2% respectively [3]. Despite the less common incidence in Asia compared to Western countries, breast cancer dwells as major national health problems to Malaysian women with peak age of breast cancer presentations being 40-49 years in contrast to the Western settings where breast cancer arise in a quite later age of 50-59 years[4]. Besides this report, the Malaysian Cancer Registry report in 2006 declared that 1 out of every 19 Malaysian women might have the chance to develop breast cancer[5]. However, the Malaysian statistics have not
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