Management of acute type B aortic dissections and acute limb ischemia
AIM: The aim of this study was to review the management of acute type B aortic dissection (TBAD) with acute limb ischemia. A search using the "Pubmed" resulted in 254 records by combining the Medical Subject Heading keywords (listed separately). The articles were assessed for their validity, correct pathology and patient cohort. Inclusion criteria included all patients with complicated acute TBAD who were candidates for open of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). The exclusion criteria included type A, asymptomatic acute or chronic TBAD, penetrating ulcer or intramural hematoma. TBAD with limb ischemia has a poor prognosis if not diagnosed, triaged and treated promptly. Clinical presentation and diagnostic strategy as well as various imaging are reviewed. Early mortality rate for complicated acute TBAD (with malperfusion to lower extremity) is 12%. The management has moved from open operation to primary TEVAR. In cases with anatomic obstruction, open surgical techniques such as femoral-femoral bypass, axillo-femoral bypass or surgical fenestration can be successful in relief of malperfusion to the affected limb. One-year-survival rates are 85%. A complete to partial reverse aortic remodeling occurred in 78% of survivors of acute TBAD, if primary TEVAR is applied. Acute TBAD with limb ischemia remains a clinical challenge that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. TEVAR of acute TBAD is associated with relatively low morbidity and mortality, and is more often used as primary approach for patients with limb ischemia. The outcomes with TEVAR compare favorably to the open repair, and initiate reverse aortic remodeling in majority of the survivors.
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