Negative predictive value of normal nasal endoscopy for sinus disease as a cause of isolated facial pain

Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, The Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.
The Journal of Laryngology & Otology (Impact Factor: 0.67). 07/2011; 125(10):1038-41. DOI: 10.1017/S0022215111001678
Source: PubMed


To determine the negative predictive value of normal nasal endoscopy in assessing paranasal sinus disease as the cause of isolated facial pain in the sinus regions.
The study group comprised 42 consecutive adult patients presenting with the isolated symptom of facial pain, and a negative nasal endoscopy. Patients underwent sinus computed tomography to determine whether radiographic findings indicated a sinugenic aetiology.
Patients comprised 27 women and 15 men, with a median age of 38 years. Twenty patients had unilateral pain, 33 per cent had sinus radiographic findings that might explain their facial pain, and 10 per cent had imaging demonstrating mucosal disease in one or more sinuses correlating with the location of the facial pain. Thirty-one per cent had anatomical radiographic findings that could potentially obstruct the osteomeatal unit.
Normal nasal endoscopy had a negative predictive value of 67 per cent in excluding a sinugenic cause of isolated facial pain, if radiographically determined anatomical factors and mucosal disease were both included as positive findings; this rose to more than 90 per cent if only those patients with mucosal sinus disease were considered as true positive patients.

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    ABSTRACT: Patients often present with chronic facial pain despite normal nasal endoscopy and sinus computerized tomography. Such pain has increasingly been recognized as being of neurological origin with one of the commonest underlying causes being mid-facial segmental tension-type pain (MFP) which is a version of tension headache in the face. Descending serotonergic neuronal projections are known to modulate pain and intra-platelet serotonin levels are an accepted model reflecting central intra-neuronal serotonin. 1.To determine whether low-dose amitriptyline significantly changes whole blood serotonin compared to a surrogate placebo in patients with chronic MFP 2. To determine whether the addition of pindolol, a beta blocker with serotonin receptor blocking properties further alters blood serotonin. Sixty-two patients were randomized to three treatment groups a) amitriptyline , b) amitriptyline with pindolol, and c) loratadine as surrogate placebo. Whole blood serotonin was taken before and after 8 weeks of treatment. Serotonin was also measured in 40 age-matched healthy controls. There was a significant reduction in blood serotonin levels in the amitriptyline with pindolol group. A non-significant reduction was seen in the amitriptyline group, with no change in serotonin levels in the surrogate placebo group. A comparison of change in serotonin with change in pain frequency and intensity scores is presented. Women in the control group had significantly higher serotonin levels than men. Women with tension-type facial pain who failed to respond to treatment had significantly lower blood serotonin than women in the control group. When linked to the clinical response this study provides evidence that the serotonergic system is involved in the modulation of chronic MFP. Serotonin levels are sex-dependent and related to treatment response.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Rhinology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Patients often present with facial pain ascribed to sinusitis, despite normal nasal endoscopy and sinus computed tomography. Facial pain is increasingly recognised to be of neurological origin. Method: A cohort of 240 patients with chronic facial pain was followed up for 36 months at an otolaryngological practice in Malta. The types of facial pain were classified according to International Headache Classification criteria. The body mass index, occupation and educational level of patients were compared with the general population. Results: Tension-type mid-facial pain and facial migraine without aura were the most common types of chronic facial pain. The sites of pain, symptoms, treatment and outcomes for these principal pain types are discussed. Patients with mid-facial pain were treated with low-dose amitriptyline for eight weeks. After three years, nearly half of the patients were symptom free, and in a third the pain changed from being chronic to being episodic. The treatment of patients with facial migraine was more varied but the length of time until recurrence of pain was similar. Conclusion: The most effective long-term treatments for tension-type mid-facial pain and facial migraine were low-dose amitriptyline and low-dose amitriptyline and triptans, respectively.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · The Journal of Laryngology & Otology