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The mature jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is consumed in Sri Lanka either as a main meal or a meal accompaniment. However, there is no scientific data on the nutrient compositions of cooked jackfruit meals. Thus, the objective of the study was to carry out a nutritional assessment of a composite jackfruit breakfast meal comprising seeds and flesh. A jackfruit meal comprising of flesh (80% available carbohydrate) and seeds (20% available carbohydrate) was included in the study. The study was carried out in a random cross over design. Setting University of Sri Jayewardenepura. Study participants Healthy individuals (n=10, age: 20-30 yrs). The macronutrient contents, rapidly and slowly available glucose (SAG) contents, water solubility index of the jackfruit meal were determined according to standard methods. The GI of the meal was calculated according to FAO/WHO guidelines. The moisture content of the boiled jackfruit flesh was high (82% FW). Jack seeds contained 4.7% protein (FW), 11.1% total dietary fibre (FW) and 8% resistant starch (FW). Jackfruit meal elicited a GI of 75. The Glycaemic Load (GL) of the normal serving size of the meal is medium. The slowly available glucose (SAG) percentage of jackfruit meal (30%) was twice that of the standard. The boiled jackfruit flesh contained disintegrated starch granules while seeds contained intact swollen and disintegrated granules. The jackfruit seeds are a good source of starch (22%) and dietary fibre. The meal is categorized as a low GI meal. The low GI could be dueto the collective contributions from dietary fibre, slowly available glucose and un-gelatinised (intact) starch granules in the seeds.
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Ceylon Medical Journal
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Objectives The mature jackfruit (Artocarpus
heterophyllus) is consumed in Sri Lanka either as a main
meal or a meal accompaniment. However, there is no
scientific data on the nutrient compositions of cooked
jackfruit meals. Thus, the objective of the study was to
carry out a nutritional assessment of a composite
jackfruit breakfast meal comprising seeds and flesh.
Design A jackfruit meal comprising of flesh (80%
available carbohydrate) and seeds (20% available
carbohydrate) was included in the study. The study was
carried out in a random cross over design.
Setting University of Sri Jayewardenepura.
Study participants Healthy individuals (n=10, age: 20-30
Measurements The macronutrient contents, rapidly and
slowly available glucose (SAG) contents, water solubility
index of the jackfruit meal were determined according to
standard methods. The GI of the meal was calculated
according to FAO/WHO guidelines.
Results The moisture content of the boiled jackfruit flesh
was high (82% FW). Jack seeds contained 4.7% protein
(FW ), 11.1% total dietary fibre (FW ) and 8% resistant
starch (FW ). Jackfruit meal elicited a GI of 75. The
Nutritional assessment of a jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) meal
U P K Hettiaratchi
, S Ekanayake
, J Welihinda
(Index words: Artocarpus heterophyllus, jackfruit, glycaemic index, nutritional properties)
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, and
of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka
Correspondence: SE, e-mail <>. Received 8 July and revised version accepted 25
November 2010. Competing interests: none declared.
Glycaemic Load (GL) of the normal serving size of the
meal is medium. The slowly available glucose (SAG)
percentage of jackfruit meal (30%) was twice that of the
standard. The boiled jackfruit flesh contained
disintegrated starch granules while seeds contained
intact swollen and disintegrated granules.
Conclusions The jackfruit seeds are a good source of
starch (22%) and dietary fibre. The meal is categorized
as a low GI meal. The low GI could be due to the collective
contributions from dietary fibre, slowly available glucose
and un-gelatinised (intact) starch granules in the seeds.
Ceylon Medical Journal 2011; 56: 54-58
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is reported to
have originated in India and Malaysia [1]. The jackfruit is
a species of the mulberry family (Moraceae) [1]. In Sri
Lanka it is known as "Kos" (Sinhala) and "Pala" (Tamil).
The fruit contains fleshy bulbs and starchy seeds
both of which are used as foods in Sri Lanka. The mature
jackfruit is consumed either as a main meal or a meal
accompaniment with rice and the ripe flesh as a fruit.
Jackfruit is reported to possess many medicinal properties.
The phenolic compounds isolated from jackfruit are
Vol. 56, No. 2, June 2011
reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory effect [1]. The
prenylflavones present in jackfruit had shown strong
antioxidant properties and is expected to act against lipid
peroxidation of biological membranes [2]. The hot water
extract of mature leaves are utilised in Ayurvedic treatment
for hyperglycaemia and diabetes [1]. The flavanoids
present in the extract have been identified to be
responsible for the non-toxic hypoglycaemic action [3].
Lectins present in the seeds have shown antifungal
properties while the crude methanolic extracts from root
bark and stems have shown broad spectrum antibacterial
activity [4].
Raw jackfruit flesh is regarded as a good source of
carbohydrate (25%), vitamin A and a fair source of protein
(1.6%) [6]. The postprandial glycaemic response to raw
and ripe jackfruit elicits low glycaemic index (GI) [7].
However, research has not focused on studying the
nutritional parameters of cooked jackfruit meals. This could
be due to the low consumption of cooked jackfruit meals
in other countries except in Sri Lanka and Bangladesh [1].
Although jackfruit is widely available and is liked by most,
many Sri Lankans do not consider it to be a suitable meal
or an accompaniment to rice in the diabetic food regime
due to the belief that it is high in digestible carbohydrate
and yields high energy. However, data is not available to
confirm this belief. Therefore the objective of this study
was to carry out a nutritional assessment on a jackfruit
breakfast meal.
Jackfruit meal
Jackfruit meal served for determination of GI
comprised of boiled jackfruit flesh (400g), jackfruit seeds
(~50g), coconut scrapings (25g) and an onion sambol (10g).
The flesh (800g) was boiled with water (100ml) under high
heat for 10 minutes and under low heat till all the water
was removed. Seeds (200g) were boiled with water (200ml)
till soft.
Determination of Glycaemic Index
GI was estimated with healthy individuals (n=10, age
20-30 years, BMI 24±3 kgm
) according to the
guidelines given by FAO/WHO [8]. White sliced bread
(mass production) bought from retail outlets were used as
the standard food and given twice to the volunteers.
Informed, written consent was obtained from study
participants prior to the start of the study. Approval for
the study was obtained from the Ethics Committee, Faculty
of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura.
Determination of chemical composition
The insoluble and soluble dietary fibre [9], protein
[10], fat [11], rapidly and slowly available glucose contents
[12], and water solubility indices (WSI) [13] of the jackfruit
meal were determined. The degree of gelatinisation of the
starch granules of raw and processed jackfruit flesh and
seed flour were examined under light microscope (1010)
by staining with KI/I2 solution [13].
Statistical analysis
The GI and Incremental Area Under Curve (IAUC)
values are presented as mean [standard error of mean
(SEM)]. The results were analysed using Microsoft Excel
The nutritional parameters of the jackfruit flesh, seeds
and the meal are presented in Table 1. The moisture
content of boiled jackfruit flesh and seeds were 82% and
53% [fresh weight (FW)] respectively and significantly
different (p<0.005). The available digestible carbohydrate
contents of the flesh and the seeds were 10% and 22%
(FW) respectively. The protein content of the meal was
6.8% with a higher contribution from the seeds while the
fat content of the meal was 11.5% (FW). Jack seeds
contained high total dietary fibre (TDF) (11.1% FW)
compared to flesh (2.6% FW). Jackfruit seeds also
contained 8% (FW) resistant starch (undigestible starch).
The average postprandial glycaemic response of the
jackfruit meal is presented in Figure 1. The jackfruit meal
maintained the satiety levels even at 2 hours from ingestion
unlike with the standard. The 50g available carbohydrate
portion of jackfruit meal contained 40g available
carbohydrate from jackfruit flesh (400g) and 10g from seeds
(~ 50g). The proportions of flesh and seeds were selected
according to palatability tests conducted by varying the
ratios. Due to the high moisture content of jackfruit flesh
the total meal portion given for determination of GI was
rather large (450g). According to the participants (80%)
the portion was difficult to consume and the normal
serving size (NSS) would be two thirds of the meal served
in determining GI.
The GI, IAUC and GL of the meal are presented in
Table 1. Jackfruit meal elicited a GI of 75 and can be
categorised as a low GI food. When analysing individual
glycaemic responses to the meal, 80% of individuals
elicited low glycaemic responses (low GI) while other two,
medium GI values.
The slowly available glucose percentage of jackfruit
meal was 30%. Jackfruit flesh elicited a water solubility
index of 28.7. Boiled jack flesh contained disintegrated
starch granules while seeds contained intact swollen and
disintegrated granules (Figure 2). Jackfruit meal contained
two sources of carbohydrates from jackfruit flesh and
seeds (vegetable and seeds).
Ceylon Medical Journal
Table 1. Nutritional parameters of jackfruit flesh, seed, meal and the standard
Jackfruit flesh
Jackfruit seeds
Jackfruit meal
Carbohydrate (SD) 10.0 (0.3) 21.9 (0.8) 50 g 50 g
IDF (SD) 1.5 (0.1) 7.9 (0.5) 13.5 0.8
SDF (SD) 1.1 (0.1) 3.2 (0.3) 6.5 2.4
TDF 2.6 11.1 20.0 3.2
Protein 0.9 4.7 6.8 8.2
Fat (SD) 0.8 (0.1) 1.3 (0.3) 11.5 3.2
Resistant starch 0.3 8.0 5.2 0.7
SAG% 17% 33% 30% 16%
Amylose 29 54 31 15
GI (SEM) ND ND 75 (11) 100
IAUC (SEM) ND ND 132 (19) 181 (18)
GL (NSS) ND ND 13 20
Values are given as g/100g fresh weight;
Values are given in the 50g available carbohydrate portion; SD Standard Error: SEM Standard
Error of Mean; IDF Insoluble Dietary Fibre; SDF Soluble Dietary Fibre; TDF Total Dietary Fibre; SAG Slowly Available Glucose; GI
Glycaemic Index; IAUC Incremental Area Under Curve; GL Glycaemic Load; GL=[(GI /1.4)*available carbohydrate content in NSS]/
100; NSS Normal Serving Size.
Figure 1. Glycaemic response to jackfruit meal and the standard.
Each point represents an average of 10 values.
Vol. 56, No. 2, June 2011
The moisture and protein content of boiled jackfruit
(Table 1) are similar to reported raw values [6]. The total
energy contribution of the meal is 1370 kj. Jackfruit meal
provides 20% of daily energy requirement of a moderately
active individual. Jack seeds contained high amount of
resistant starch (undigestible starch). RS is categorised
into four types (RS1-RS4) [14] and jackfruit seeds may
contain RS1 type. The undigestible starch escapes
digestion in the small intestine, passes into the colon and
is reported to act like dietary fibre [14]. The postprandial
glycaemic response (Figure 1) and GI of the jackfruit meal
were determined. Jackfruit meal elicited a low GI (Table 1).
This is the first reported data on GI of a jackfruit meal in
spite of having 2487 data on GI of different foods in the
recent "International Tables of Glycaemic Indices and
Glycaemic Load Values" [15].
Jackfruit meal elicited a low inter individual variation.
This is a positive aspect of this commonly available food
item as inter individual variation to the same food is
reported to vary widely [16] making it difficult to
recommend foods that are even low GI to individuals who
Figure 2. Starch granules of raw and boiled jackfruit flesh and seeds (10x10)
(a) Jackfruit flesh (raw)
(b) Jackfruit flesh (boiled)
(c) Jackfruit seeds (raw) (d) Jackfruit seeds (boiled)
need to control postprandial blood sugar levels. The GI of
the jackfruit meal is significantly lower (p<0.05) than the
other Sri Lankan meals tested previously in the same
laboratory except for the rice mixed meal containing red
rice, lentil curry, boiled egg, 'gotukola' sambol (Centella
asiatica), 'kiri hodi' [17], and legumes [18]. Thus, the low
GI of the jackfruit meal confirms its suitability as a main
meal or an accompaniment with rice.
Protein, fat and dietary fibre contents of foods have
been reported to elicit significant negative relationships
with GI (p<0.05) [16]. However, during our previous
studies, only the dietary fibre content of Sri Lankan meals
elicited a significant negative relationship with GI [17].
Thus, the high fibre content of the jackfruit meal (20 g)
could be contributing to a lower GI of the meal. Influence
of dietary fibre on GI will be more applicable and beneficial
for the Sri Lankan population as the commonly eaten Sri
Lankan meals comprise of many vegetables and green
leaves which are natural sources of fibre.
High SAG content of jackfruit meal (30%) when
compared with most of the Sri Lankan foods (3-51%
unpublished data) could also have contributed in part to
Ceylon Medical Journal
the low GI. Most Sri Lankan foods have a high
gelatinisation point with correspondingly low SAG
[unpublished data]. This confirms the suitability of jackfruit
as a meal for individuals controlling the postprandial
glycaemic response.
The amount of soluble substances leached out
following processing is reflected by water solubility index
(WSI). Jackfruit flesh contained high WSI values (28.7)
indicating hydrolysis and leaching of more soluble
substances (proteins, amylose etc.) during cooking. The
low GI of the meal indicates that leached out substances
could be molecules other than amylose and amylopectin.
Boiled jackfruit flesh contained disintegrated starch
granules while seeds contained intact swollen and
disintegrated granules indicating the effect of wet
processing on granules (Figure 2).
Sources of carbohydrates available in a meal also
influence plasma glucose and insulin responses [16].
Jackfruit meal contained two sources of carbohydrates
(eg: vegetable and seeds). The inclusion of 10%
carbohydrate from seeds or presence of other compounds
in the seeds such as -D-Galactose specific lectin which
have the capacity to bind mono- and oligosaccharides as
reported for another species of Moraceae family,
Artocarpus integra (also called as jackfruit) might also be
responsible for low GI of this meal [20]. The presence of
compounds of this nature that can bind glucose would
either reduce the absorption of glucose or slow the process
of digestion thereby yielding a low glycaemic response.
Jackfruit has beneficial nutritional parameters and a
low GI. This could be due to the collective contributions
of dietary fibre, slowly available glucose, intact starch
granules in seeds and influence of different sources of
The financial assistance by NSF RG/2005/AG/10 and
IPICS Sri 07 is acknowledged.
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... Jackfruit is a good source of digestible carbohydrate (bulb-10%, seeds -22%), vitamin A and protein (1.6%) (Hettiaratchi et al., 2011). The fiber content of immature and ripe jackfruit is 2.6% and 0.8%, respectively (Ranasinghe et al., 2019). ...
... The fiber content of immature and ripe jackfruit is 2.6% and 0.8%, respectively (Ranasinghe et al., 2019). Jackfruit meal has low glycaemic index (GI) due to presence of higher fiber content, slowly available glucose, intact starch granules in seeds and influence of different sources of carbohydrates (Hettiaratchi et al., 2011). Further, jackfruit is rich in minerals, bioactive phytochemicals, polyphenols, carotenoids, flavonoids and it is devoid of saturated fats and cholesterol (Nair et al., 2017;Swathi et al., 2019). ...
... compared to the other treatments. Hettiaratchi et al. (2011) reported that a considerable amount of protein, fiber and minerals are present in jackfruit bulbs and seeds. Thus, higher contents of protein, dietary fiber and ash were determined in pasta developed from composite formulation of treatment 3 than the other treatments. ...
Full-text available
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is one of the major edible foodstuffs rich in carbohydrates and fiber. This study investigated the reduction of postharvest losses of jackfruits by value addition. Jack fruit seeds (JFS) flour and Jackfruit bulbs (JFB) flour were used as raw material. JFB and JFS were subjected to mechanical drying, grinding and sieving (particle size <200µm) to yield the JFS flour and JFB flour. The composite flour consists of different ratio of JFS, JFB, and cassava flour (CF), corn flour and semolina. The proximate composition, physical properties and cooking characteristics of developed pasta were determined. Sensory attributes of the pasta were evaluated using Hedonic scale (7-points) with 36 semi-trained panelists. The best composite flour formulation was JFS: JFB: semolina: CF: corn flour, at the ratio of 40:40:10:5:5. Crude protein (13.26±0.18%), crude fiber (4.91±0.61%) and ash (3.35±0.04%) were 98 higher in the best selected composite flour than the other treatments. Carbohydrate content (71.28%) was the lowest in T3 formulation. However, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in moisture content among the treatments, whereas, hardness and water activity differed significantly (p<0.05) among the treatments. The best selected formulation exhibited higher water absorption (1.20±0.02 g/g) and cooking time (8.6±0.2 min) than the other treatments while cooking loss (13.3±0.4%) was lower than the other treatments except the control. Lightness value of pasta was decreased with increasing the amount of JFS and JFB flour. In conclusion, value added jackfruit flour pasta has a higher potential for commercialization as a convenient food for the consumers with busy lifestyles.
... Nangka merupakan salah satu tanaman yang mampu berbuah sepanjang tahun dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan substitusi pembuatan abon. Selain itu, dalam 100 g nangka terdapat kandungan nutrisi antara lain karbohidrat (10 g), protein (0,9 g), lemak (0, 8 g), dan amylosa (29 g) [10]. ...
Abon merupakan salah satu bentuk hasil pengolahan daging menjadi produk turunan yang lebih disukai konsumen. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi kualitas fisik (rendemen) dan organoleptik abon sapi yang di beri penambahan nangka muda.Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Unit Teknologi Hasil Ternak Fakultas Peternakan Universitas Halu Oleo Kendari, pada bulan Agustus- September2019 dengan menggunakan bahan utama pembuatan abon terdiri dari daging sapi dan nangka muda. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan enam perlakuan dan lima ulangan. Perlakuan yang dicobakan yaitu, tanpa penambahan nangka muda (P0), penambahannangka muda 10% (P1), penambahan nangka muda20% (P2), penambahan nangka muda30% (P3), penambahan nangka muda 40% (P4), penambahan nangka muda 50% (P5). Hasil penelitian menunjukan (1) Penambahan nangka muda 30% yang menghasilkan nilai yang sangat nyata terhadap nilai rendemen, sampai 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, (2) Semua perlakuan penambahan nangka muda dan tanpa penambahan nangka muda, menghasilkan nilai cukup disukai dan hampir sama dalam pengujian organoleptik tanpa penambahan nangka muda ( tidak nyata), (3) Penerimaan produk yang menghasilkan cukup diterima panelis.
... Natural coagulants are the preferred alternatives because they are less expensive, safer, and biodegradable [8]. Studies have reported that active components such as protein, carbohydrates, and cellulose derived from fruit wastes (Pathak et al. [9]) such as seeds and peels have the potential to be utilized as natural coagulants for turbidity removal in water samples [10][11][12][13]. So far, only limited tropical fruit waste such as jackfruit, rambutan, papaya, mango, lime seeds, and banana peel have been investigated as a potential natural coagulant for turbidity removal involving water samples [7,[14][15][16]. ...
This study explored the potential of functionalized nanoparticles with active compounds extracted from tropical fruit wastes to increase the performance of turbidity removal from the water of natural coagulants. Extracts from banana, durian, and jackfruit wastes (peel and seed) were tested for their coagulation activity. Banana peel extract had the highest coagulation activity of 70% and was functionalized with magnetite nanoparticles and characterized with X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Analysis of variance showed the mass and settling time of the functionalized nanoparticle as significant parameters associated with water turbidity removal. Response surface methodology using the Box–Behnken design (BBD) for tropical fruit wastes indicated that a linear model was able to describe the effects of the parameters (tropical fruit mass, nanoparticle mass, and settling time) on the response (turbidity removal). Optimized parameters via BBD for tropical fruit mass, nanoparticle mass, and settling time were 0.26 g, 14.37 mg, and 25 min, respectively. Field sample tests showed turbidity removal percentages using the functionalized magnetite nanoparticle with banana peel extracts were between 88.5 and 92.8%. The performance efficacy score of functionalized magnetite nanoparticles with banana peel extract as the coagulant showed promising potential as a water turbidity removal during an emergency.
... Jackfruit has a low glycemic index because of complex sugar, high fiber, and un-gelatinized (intact) starch granules (Hettiaratchi, Ekanayake, & Welihinda, 2011). High fiber complex carbohydrates-rich foods prevent the body from producing too much insulin, which is achieved by slow digestion and maintaining blood sugar level (Premanath, Gowdappa, Mahesh, & Babu, 2011). ...
Byproducts generated during jackfruit processing that mainly consists of rind, strand, core, and seeds were analyzed for their composition. It was found that jackfruit is rich in fiber content (highest in core part, 32%) and a good source of protein (highest in seed part, 15%). Different parts possess appreciable functional properties, which give an advantage of being used in bakery products. For a desirable flatbread, the jackfruit and wheat flour formulations were made using D-optimal mixture design. It demonstrated that the dough springiness, flatbread color, flatbread overall acceptability, and shear force varied significantly with respect to the incorporation of flour of different parts of jackfruit in wheat for the formulation of flatbread. The results indicate that the replacement of the jackfruit flour in flatbread is highly nutritious at the same time stays acceptable.
... Pohon nangka berasal dari India dan kemudian menyebar sampai ke Indonesia. Nangka di Indonesia saat ini sudah mencapai sekitar 30 kultivar (Hettiaratchi et al. 2011). Pohon nangka tergolong pohon berukuran sedang, tinggi 8-25 m, diameter batang 30-80 cm, percabangan dekat dengan pangkalnya; ranting terkadang ditutupi oleh bulu-bulu halus; daun sederhana, berseling, ukuran helaian daun 9-23 x 5-12 cm, membulat telur sungsang dengan pinggiran rata; pohon nangka biasanya mengeluarkan getah berwarna putih (Komor & Devi 2016;Wit & Luke 2017), Kayu pohon nangka banyak dipilih untuk bahan baku pembuatan kentongan karena serat kayunya lebih padat (Sadguna 2010) dan kualitas suara yang dihasilkan lebih bagus, sehingga tidak membuat orang yang memukulnya "kebrebegan" (bising) serta jangkauan suaranya jauh (Surono 2015). ...
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Kentongan dikenal sebagai salah satu alat komunikasi tradisional yang memanfaatkan bambu dan kayu. Sebagian masyarakat Indonesia masih mengenal dan menggunakan kentongan di tengah pesatnya perkembangan teknologi dan informasi seperti saat ini. Studi etnobotani dilakukan untuk mengkaji lebih mendalam tentang kearifan lokal masyarakat mengenai kentongan. Metode yang digunakan berupa observasi di beberapa wilayah di Indonesia dan wawancara secara acak terpilih. Data yang dikumpulkan dianalisis secara deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil kajian diperoleh data keanekaragaman jenis bambu dan kayu kentongan yaitu bambu ori (Bambusa blumeana Schult.f.), bambu petung (Dendrocalamus asper (Schult.) Backer), bambu apus (Gigantochloa apus (Schult.) Kurz), bambu wulung (G. atroviolacea Widjaja), kayu nangka (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.), kayu jati (Tectona grandis L.f.), kayu kelapa (Cocos nucifera L.), kayu mahoni (Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq.), dan kayu sengon (Albizia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr.). Ukuran dan bentuk fisik kentongan bervariasi. Nilai-nilai sosial dan religius kentongan sejalan dengan perkembangan zaman, serta penyelamatan nilai budaya dan konservasi keanekaragaman hayati bahan baku kentongan agar tidak terkikis perubahan zaman. Dengan demikian, masyarakat masih menggunakan kentongan secara lestari untuk mengatur pola hidup kebersamaan dalam masyarakat.
... Jackfruit seeds also contained 8% resistant starch (undigestible starch). Sources: [32,6,33] It is a major source of carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins) [34]. [35] reported that the average annual net returns found more than the agriculture system. ...
The Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) is well-known as “poor man’s food” fruit in Bangladesh. It is widely consumed by most of the rural people and it is the national fruit of Bangladesh. The main aim of this review is to document the medicinal significance of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.), major parts and uses of the jackfruit in Bangladesh. This article was based on mostly a literature review. All parts of the fruit and plant are used as human food, animal feed and wood source for furniture. Although jackfruit is the main fruit of the tree, it is used as furniture for its beautiful texture and wood color. Jackfruit contains anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-helminthic properties. The fruit is rich in carbohydrates, minerals, carboxylic acids, dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. The seed is rich in manganese, magnesium, potassium, calcium iron and lectins and thus meets up nutritional requirements for the rural people. The present study attempted to review the medicinal importance, health-promoting effects of jackfruit and seeds with special emphasis on their applications in the food.
... Even though jackfruit seed contains a high value of starch, it is categorized as a low glycemic index (GI) food due to the role of dietary fiber and un-gelatinized starch granules. Therefore, it is good to be consumed as it does not strongly increase the glucose blood level (Hettiaratchi, Ekanayake, and Welihinda, 2011). In term of valuable health benefits, jackfruit seed is acknowledged to contain antioxidant prenylflavonoids along with the finding of isolated Jacalin for immune stimulation of human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1 infected patients (Suresh Kumar, Appukuttan, and Basu, 1982;Pereira-da-Silva et al., 2006). ...
Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Family Moraceae), is a tropical tree, native to India and common in Asia, Africa, and several regions in South America. The fruit is commonly known as jackfruit which is one of the largest edible fruits in the world. Jackfruits comprises a wide range of nutrients, including minerals, carbohydrates, volatile compounds, proteins, and vitamins. The fruit, bark, leaves, and roots are endowed with therapeutic attributes and are utilized in the many traditional medicinal systems for the management of various ailments. Fruit and seeds are commonly used to prepare various food items, including sauce, ice creams, jams, jellies, and marmalades. Due to unique texture, jackfruit is becoming a popular meat substitute. Based on preclinical studies, jackfruit exhibits antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-melanin, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antiviral, anthelmintic, wound-healing, and antineoplastic activities. Clinical studies reveal that the leaves possess antidiabetic action in healthy and insulin-independent diabetic individuals. Despite numerous health benefits, regrettably, jackfruit has not been properly utilized in a marketable scale in areas where it is produced. This review delivers an updated, comprehensive, and critical evaluation on the nutritional value, phytochemical profiling, pharmacological attributes and underlying mechanisms of action to explore the full potential of jackfruit in health and disease.
Jackfruit is considered as the largest edible fruit in the world and found to contain large quantities of nutrients, such as carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. Both the fruits and the seeds of jackfruit have been consumed widely. Most importantly, several countries have developed food products namely jam, jellies, marmalades, and ice creams using jackfruit. In addition, several parts of jack tree such as, latex, leaves, and barks have been extensively used in traditional medicine as well. Studies by various research groups documented the anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiinflammatory, wound healing, and hypoglycemic effects along with digestive and immunological benefits of jackfruit. Therefore, this book chapter intends to disseminate the evidence on nutritional, digestive, and immunological benefits of jackfruit/seeds to promote its utilization for commercial scale food production.
Jack (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) is a medium-sized evergreen fruit tree. Its genetic improvement compromised due to limited understanding of available germplasm diversity. To address the gap, we report morphology (50 traits) and genic-SSRs (27)-based characterization of a germplasm collection of 110 accessions of Jack naturalized across diverse habitats in Eastern India and conserved in Field Gene Bank. Before analysis, the entire germplasm collection was divided into five sub-populations based on their naturalization sites. We observed a wide spectrum of diversity for qualitative (26) and quantitative (24) traits in the sub-populations. Principal component analysis using 24 quantitative traits explained 99.73% of the total variation through the first four-axis. Cluster analysis highlighted the dominance of vegetable purpose Jack in the sub-populations. Both morphological and genic-SSR markers revealed significant polymorphism (PIC = 0.12 to 0.46, polymorphism = 100%; PIC = 0.07 to 0.43, polymorphism = 100%) among the accessions. Morphological markers, namely leaf-blade margin, petiole shape, grooves on the petiole, fruit bracteole, and vivipary,exhibited the highest mean resolving power (1.0). Among the genic-SSR markers, JFSSR-4 exhibited the highest mean resolving power of 1.36. Overall, genic-SSR markers revealed higher genetic diversity at the species level (SI = 0.36, He = 0.23, P = 82.71%). Structure analysis using qualitative morphological markers, genic-SSR makers, and a combination of both marker types identified 2, 3 and 2 distinct groups, respectively,with frequent admixtures. The findings convincingly demonstrate that morphological and genic-SSR markers may together effectively explain complex biological diversity, particularly in perennial fruit trees like Jack.
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Artocarpus heterophyllus (Syn. Kathal) belonging to family Moraceae is an integral part of common Indian diet and is freely available in Indian and adjoining continents, its medicinal properties are also mentioned in Ayurveda. The plant is reported to possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. Artocarpus heterophyllus is an important source of compounds like morin, dihydromorin, cynomacurin, artocarpin, isoartocarpin, cyloartocarpin, artocarpesin, oxydihydroartocarpesin, artocarpetin, norartocarpetin, cycloartinone, betulinic acid, artocarpanone and heterophylol which are useful in fever, boils, wounds, skin diseases, convulsions, diuretic, constipation, ophthalmic disorders and snake bite etc.
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Hot water extract of mature jak leaves (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is recommended by Ayurvedic and traditional medical practitioners as a treatment for diabetes mellitus. The leaf extract caused the hypoglyceamic effect at a dose of 50 mg/Kg, both in normal and alloxan-diabetic rats. The hypoglycaemic effect was at its maximum 2 h after flavonoid fraction administration, and multiple dosing maintained the activity for a week. The hypoglycaemic effect of the flavonoid fraction of leaf (49%) is higher than that of tolbutamide (27.0%), a sulphonyl urea drug commonly used for treatment of hyperglycaemia. Administering the flavonoid fraction for 3 months had no significant effects on liver function while the histology of liver, kidney and heart revealed no damage. These results indicate that the total flavonoid content of A. heterophyllus leaf exhibited a non-toxic and significant hypoglycaemic activity in male Wistar rats and may therefore be responsible for the previously reported antidiabetic activity.
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An α-D-galactose-specific lectin from the seeds of jack fruit (Artocarpus integra) has been isolated in pure form by affinity chromatography on immobilised guar gum (a galactomannan). The lectin is shown to be a glycoprotein containing 3% carbohydrate and having a molecular weight of 39,500 as determined by gel filtration. Sodium dodecyl sulphate gel electrophoresis revealed a single polypeptide of 10,500 dalton, indicating that the native lectin is a tetrarner of identical subunits. The hemagglutinating activity of the lectin towards erythrocytes of all blood groups is found to be the same.
To allow genetic analysis of starch quality in wheat and its relatives, it was necessary to develop techniques suitable for use on endosperm halves of seeds, leaving the embryo half to be grown for the next generation. Seeds were split and the endosperm end was crushed and soaked in 0.5 M NaCl overnight. The solids were ground three times in 0.5 M NaCl, the supernatant starch slurries were pooled and washed through a series of 4 M NaCl, 6 M NaCl/50 %, sucrose, 2 % sodium dodecyl sulphate solution, and acetone before being dried over silica gel. Subsamples of 1 mg of starch were dispersed in ethanol in preweighed microfuge tubes, gelatinised in NaOH solution, diluted to constant concentration, and aliquots were neutralised with citric acid, stained with iodine, diluted with water, and evaluated in an ELISA plate reader at 620 nm. The overall method provided cleaner starch than earlier methods, as shown by higher apparent amylose values, and was highly repeatable. The method was used to demonstrate the variation in amylose content within single heads of an inbred tetraploid wheat. No consistent patterns of variation due to seed location were detected but the overall breadth of variation around the median value of 27 % was ± 5 %.
Starch is quantitatively an important component of the human diet, being present in grains, tubers and legumes. Starch has for a long time been considered by many as being slowly but completely digested in the small intestine, resulting in modest glycemic responses and with no physiological role other than as an energy source. It is now understood that in fact the metabolic fate and physiological properties of starch can vary considerably, and both the botanical source and the effects of food processing are major determinants of starch digestibility. In addition to the nature of the starch itself, the site, rate and extent of digestion of starch in the human small intestine are influenced by a number of host factors. The rate at which starch is digested in the human small intestine results in a wide range of glycemic responses, and this physiological measurement has been used to rank foods by their glycemic index. In vitro studies have indicated that glycemic response and the rate of starch digestion are closely correlated. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and slowly digestible starch (SDS) fractions together represent the starch that is likely to be digested completely in the human small intestine, with any remaining starch defined as the resistant starch (RS) fraction that is available for fermentation in the large bowel. Measurements of RDS, SDS and RS can be obtained by one simple procedure. Values for the different starch fractions obtained by the in vitro method described here represent reproducible measurements that can be used to classify dietary starch according to its potential digestibility. In addition to these starch fractions, two terms, rapidly available glucose (RAG) and slowly available glucose (SAG), are introduced to reflect the rate at which glucose (from both sugars and starch) is likely to be absorbed in the small intestine.
The effect of various processing methods on physico-chemical properties of sword bean starch was studied. Seed grits and flour were cooked with and without soaking, wet-autoclaved, and roasted. The changes in starch associated with these processing methods were studied by observing changes in granular structure, water solubility index, water absorption index, molecular size distribution and the degree of gelatinization estimated by differential scanning calorimetry. Intact, ungelatinized starch granules of raw and dry-heat treated samples were observed under the light microscope. The starch granules were elliptical in shape and had an average length and breadth of 37–40 μm and 27 μm, respectively. Wet-processed samples had the lowest water solubility, higher water absorption and lower gelatinization enthalpies than the raw bean flour, whereas the dry heat-treated samples showed higher water solubility and higher gelatinization enthalpies. The starch molecular size distribution pattern showed a higher amount of high molecular size carbohydrates in dry heat-treated samples and a large fraction of intermediate molecular size carbohydrates in the wet-processed samples. The low molecular size carbohydrate content was low in wet-processed samples where processing was done with excess water.
The concept of resistant starch (RS) has evoked new interest in the bioavailability of starch and in its use as a source of dietary fiber, particularly in adults. RS is now considered to provide functional properties and find applications in a variety of foods. Types of RS, factors influencing their formation, consequence of such formation, their methods of preparation, their methods of estimation, and health benefits have been briefly discussed in this review.