Arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With at Least 2.5 Years' Follow-up Comparing Hamstring Tendon Autograft and Irradiated Allograft

Department of Orthopaedics, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College, Qingdao, China.
Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery (Impact Factor: 3.21). 07/2011; 27(9):1195-202. DOI: 10.1016/j.arthro.2011.03.083
Source: PubMed


To compare the clinical outcomes of arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with hamstring tendon autograft versus irradiated allograft.
All irradiated hamstring tendon allografts (gracilis and semitendinosus), which were sterilized with 2.5 Mrad of irradiation before distribution, were obtained from a single certified tissue bank. A total of 78 patients undergoing arthroscopic ACL reconstruction were prospectively randomized consecutively into 1 of 2 groups: autograft and irradiated allograft. The same surgical technique was used in all operations, which were performed by the same senior surgeon. Before surgery and at a mean of 42.2 months of follow-up, patients were evaluated by the same observer according to objective and subjective clinical evaluations.
Of the patients, 67 (36 in autograft group and 31 in irradiated allograft group) were available for full evaluation. When the irradiated allograft group was compared with the autograft group at the final follow-up by the Lachman test, anterior drawer test, pivot-shift test, and KT-2000 arthrometer (MEDmetric, San Diego, CA) assessment, statistically significant differences were found (P = .00011, P = .00016, P = .008, and P = .00021, respectively). Most importantly, 86.1% of patients in the autograft group and only 32.3% in the irradiated allograft group had a side-to-side difference of less than 3 mm according to KT-2000 assessment. The rate of laxity (side-to-side difference >5 mm) with irradiated allograft (32.3%) was higher than that with autograft (8.3%). The anterior and rotational stabilities decreased significantly in the irradiated allograft group. According to the overall International Knee Documentation Committee rating, functional and subjective evaluations, and activity level testing, no statistically significant differences were found between the 2 groups. However, patients in the irradiated allograft group had a shorter operative time and a longer duration of postoperative fever. When the patients had a fever, the laboratory examination findings of all patients were almost normal (white blood cell count, normal; erythrocyte sedimentation rate, 8 to 20 mm/h; and C-reactive protein level, 4 to 11 mg/L).
The clinical outcome of ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendon autograft was satisfactory, whereas the difference in instrumented laxity between the 2 groups was significant and the difference in functional test results was not significant.
Level II, prospective comparative study.

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    • "The junction between the transplanted tendon and the bone is a weak link in the early healing process [20–24]. Therefore, one of the focuses of the sports medicine field is how to effectively promote tendon and bone healing and how to strengthen the quality of healing. "
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    ABSTRACT: At present, due to the growing attention focused on the issue of tendon-bone healing, we carried out an animal study of the use of genetic intervention combined with cell transplantation for the promotion of this process. Here, the efficacy of bone marrow stromal cells infected with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) on tendon-bone healing was determined. A eukaryotic expression vector containing the BMP-2 gene was constructed and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bMSCs) were infected with a lentivirus. Next, we examined the viability of the infected cells and the mRNA and protein levels of BMP-2-infected bMSCs. Gastrocnemius tendons, gastrocnemius tendons wrapped by bMSCs infected with the control virus (bMSCs+Lv-Control), and gastrocnemius tendons wrapped by bMSCs infected with the recombinant BMP-2 virus (bMSCs+Lv-BMP-2) were used to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in New Zealand white rabbits. Specimens from each group were harvested four and eight weeks postoperatively and evaluated using biomechanical and histological methods. The bMSCs were infected with the lentivirus at an efficiency close to 100%. The BMP-2 mRNA and protein levels in bMSCs were significantly increased after lentiviral infection. The bMSCs and BMP-2-infected bMSCs on the gastrocnemius tendon improved the biomechanical properties of the graft in the bone tunnel; specifically, bMSCs infected with BMP-2 had a positive effect on tendon-bone healing. In the four-week and eight-week groups, bMSCs+Lv-BMP-2 group exhibited significantly higher maximum loads of 29.3 ± 7.4 N and 45.5 ± 11.9 N, respectively, compared with the control group (19.9 ± 6.4 N and 21.9 ± 4.9 N) (P = 0.041 and P = 0.001, respectively). In the eight-week groups, the stiffness of the bMSCs+Lv-BMP-2 group (32.5 ± 7.3) was significantly higher than that of the bMSCs+Lv-Control group (22.8 ± 7.4) or control groups (12.4 ± 6.0) (p = 0.036 and 0.001, respectively). Based on the histological findings, there was an increased amount of perpendicular collagen fibers formed between the tendon and bone in the bMSCs+Lv-Control and bMSCs+Lv-BMP-2 group, compared with the gastrocnemius tendons. The proliferation of cartilage-like cells and the formation of fibrocartilage-like tissue were highest within the bone tunnels in the bMSCs+Lv-BMP-2 group. These results suggest that this lentivirus can be used to efficiently infect bMSCs with BMP-2. Furthermore, tendons wrapped by bMSCs+Lv-BMP-2 improved tendon-bone healing.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to predict the hamstring graft sizes prior to anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery in adults by using preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fifty-one patients with anterior cruciate ligament rupture were prospectively evaluated. Diameter and cross-sectional areas of the gracilis and the semitendinosus tendons at two different levels were measured separately by preoperative MRI. In surgery, harvested gracilis and semitendinosus tendons were measured individually (2-stranded) and together (4-stranded) by using a graft sizing block. Radiological and operative sizes of the grafts were compared by Pearson's correlation test. ROC analysis was done to determine a possible cutoff value for the preoperative measurements. There were statistically significant correlations between the MR cross-sectional areas of gracilis, semitendinosus, gracilis + semitendinosus and intraoperative graft sizes of 2-stranded gracilis, 2-stranded semitendinosus and 4-stranded gracilis + semitendinosus tendons [P < 0.05]. No significant correlation was observed between the MR diameters of the gracilis, semitendinosus, gracilis + semitendinosus tendons and intraoperative graft sizes of 2-stranded gracilis, 2-stranded semitendinosus and 4-stranded gracilis + semitendinosus tendons [n.s]. Cross-sectional areas of the hamstring tendons in MR images can be used to estimate the sizes of hamstring grafts prior to anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery which may be very helpful to predict possible graft insufficiencies and take precautions if needed. Level IV.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The effect of low-dose gamma irradiation on healing of soft tissue allografts remains largely unknown. Hypothesis: The authors hypothesized that soft tissue allograft healing to bone would be delayed compared with that of autograft tissue and that low-dose (1.2 Mrad) gamma irradiation would not affect the healing response of allograft tissue after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Forty-eight New Zealand White rabbits underwent bilateral ACL reconstructions with semitendinosus tendon graft. Sixteen rabbits were reconstructed with autografts and the remainder with allografts. The 32 allograft rabbits each received 1 irradiated allograft (1.2 Mrad), with the contralateral leg receiving a nonirradiated allograft. Animals were euthanized at 2 weeks or 8 weeks postoperatively. Tensile stiffness, maximum load, and displacement at maximum load were measured. Tibial and femoral segments were sectioned perpendicular to the tunnel axis allowing for histologic and histomorphometric analyses at the tendon-bone interface. Results: There were no significant differences between the maximum load or stiffness values among all groups at 8 weeks. At 2 weeks, autograft exhibited significantly (P < .01) lower maximum load than did the nonirradiated grafts. Regarding histology, at both 2- and 8-week time points, autograft tendon displayed more advanced degenerative and remodeling processes in comparison with irradiated allograft and nonirradiated allograft. Discussion: The maximum load and stiffness of a healing tendon allograft in ACL reconstruction appear to be unaltered by low-dose (1.2 Mrad) irradiation. At 8 weeks, there were no biomechanical differences in tendon-bone healing of allografts when compared with autograft controls. Histologic analyses suggested a faster remodeling response in autograft specimens in comparison with allografts at both time points.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · The American Journal of Sports Medicine
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