Fifteen-year evolving trends of etiology and prognosis in hospitalized patients with heart failure

ArticleinZhonghua xin xue guan bing za zhi [Chinese journal of cardiovascular diseases] 39(5):434-9 · May 2011with7 Reads
Source: PubMed

    Abstract

    To investigate the etiological and prognostic changes of hospitalized patients with chronic heart failure.
    This retrospective study analyzed 7319 hospitalized patients (male 62.07%) with validated primary discharge diagnosis of chronic heart failure in Chinese PLA General Hospital in Beijing from January 1, 1993 to December 31, 2007. Etiological characteristics, comorbidities and 30-day hospitalized mortality in the following three periods: 1993 - 1997 (n = 1623), 1998 - 2002 (n = 2444), and 2003 - 2007 (n = 3252) were compared.
    (1) The patient age increased [(56.0 ± 17.5) years, (57.8 ± 17.6) years and (62.7 ± 15.5) years, P < 0.01] and hospital stay time decreased [(31.3 ± 17.4) days, (22.7 ± 14.1) days and (20.1 ± 15.2) days, P < 0.01] from 1993 to 2007. (2) The common causes of heart failure were coronary heart disease, hypertension, rheumatic valvular heart disease and diabetes mellitus. From 1993 - 1998 to 2003 - 2007, the proportion of patients with coronary heart disease, hypertension and diabetes mellitus rose from 37.2%, 23.3% and 12.3% to 46.8%, 46.7% and 21.1%, respectively (all P < 0.05). Meanwhile the proportion of patients with rheumatic valvular heart disease fell from 35.2% to 16.6% (P < 0.05). (3) The main etiologies and comorbidities were atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and renal failure. From 1993 - 1998 to 2003 - 2007, atrial fibrillation was the most common cause of heart failure, and the rate of myocardial infarction, pneumonia and renal failure rose from 11.0%, 8.9% and 5.2% to 14.7%, 14.5% and 9.1%, respectively (all P < 0.05) and the rate of COPD fell from 12.9% to 8.4% (P < 0.05). (4) The 30-day hospitalized mortalities in the three periods were 7.0%, 4.5% and 5.1%, respectively, and the mortalities in the 1998 - 2002 and 2003 - 2007 periods were lower than those of in the 1993 - 1998 period (all P < 0.05). The mortality related to coronary heart disease decreased significantly from 1993 to 2007 (9.3%, 5.0% and 3.8% in the three periods, respectively, P < 0.05).
    It is demonstrated that the primary diseases causing heart failure were coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and rheumatic valvular heart disease, and the former three diseases exhibited a upward trend and the later one exhibited a downward trend. Moreover, the proportion of comorbidities in patients with heart failure increased over the study period. The 30-day hospital mortality exhibited a downward trend and decreased significantly in patients with coronary heart disease or myocardial infarction.