Effects of inclusion level and source of dietary sodium on performance and meat characteristics of broiler chickens
Department of Poultry Science, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland.Archives of animal nutrition (Impact Factor: 1). 06/2011; 65(3):186-202. DOI: 10.1080/1745039X.2011.556331
The effect of different concentrations of dietary Na from three Na salts (NaCl, NaHCO3 and Na2SO4) was assessed in two experiments carried out on broiler chickens aged from 1 to 35 days. In Exp. 1, diets were supplemented with 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25% Na, which increased the average Na content of the diets to 0.19, 0.24 and 0.30% respectively. In Exp. 2, the amounts of selected Na salts (NaCI and Na2SO4) were reduced and the estimated Na contents of experimental diets amounted to 0.10, 0.13, 0.15 and 0.19%. In view of the risk factors for the development of foot pad dermatitis, our aim was to find an optimum source of Na and to keep dietary Na intake at the minimum level sufficient to support normal growth and acceptable slaughter quality. The present results suggest that the amount of Na required for the undisturbed growth of broilers and adequate feed conversion is not less than 0.15% of additional Na in the starter period (1-14 d), and not less than 0.11% in the grower period (until day 35). Higher dietary Na levels did not lead to further production advantages, and were found to increase the moisture content of droppings. Dry matter concentration of excreta was also affected by Na source. In comparison with NaHCO3, Na2SO4 seemed to be a better alternative for NaCl. Na2SO4 also tended to surpass NaHCO3 as a dietary alternative for NaCl in terms of feed utilisation during the starter period. The applied additional Na levels (0.25 and 0.15%) and Na sources had no effect on the sensory profile and composition of breast meat.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the response of broiler chickens to different dietary sodium (Na) levels. The experiment was performed on 432 male Ross 308 chickens, kept in three-tier battery cages, each with a floor area of 0.5 m 2. The chickens were divided into six experimental groups of eight replicates, each of nine birds. Six experimental diets were prepared: a basal diet without additional Na source and diets supplemented with NaCl in the amount of 0.52, 1.03, 1.54, 2.05 and 2.54 g/kg in the starter period (1-14 days) and 1.27, 2.54, 3.82, 5.09 and 6.36 g'kg in the grower period (15-35 days). The dietary Na, CI and K content was 0.22-2.61, 1.11-4.81 and 8.76-9.61 g/kg, respectively. Dietary electrolyte balance (DEB), denned as Na + + K + - CI -, averaged 210 mEq/kg in all diets. The Na content of basal diets was very low (0.33 g/kg in starter diets and 0.22 g/kg in grower diets). It inhibited the growth of broilers despite a high DEB resulting from a high K content (about 9 g/kg). The addition of NaCl to starter diets significantly increased the body weight (BW) of chickens, but only to the amount of 1.1 g Na per kg feed. The addition of 2.54 g NaCl per kg grower diets increased the Na and CI content of the diet to 1.16 g/kg and 2.68 g/kg, respectively, leading to a significant improvement in overall production results, slaughter value and tibia mineralization, without negative effect on excreta moisture. A further increase in the Na content of grower diets (to 1.69, 2.18 and 2.61 g/kg, respectively), accompanied by an increase in CI concentrations (to 3.38, 4.11 and 4.81 g/kg, respectively) did not increase the BW of chickens, feed conversion efficiency and slaughter value, while it increased excreta moisture and decreased parameters characterizing the mineralization and elasticity of the tibia in birds fed a diet with the highest Na content (2.61 g/ kg). As compared to the group fed the basal diet, the medium and highest Na dosages significantly decreased pH and dry matter concentration of small intestine contents; the treatment with the highest dietary Na levels stimulated bacterial β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase, yet it did not increase the caecal short-chain fatty acids concentration.
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ABSTRACT: The experiment was performed on 48 male meat-type Ross 308 chickens divided into six experimental groups, each of eight birds. Over a period of five weeks, the birds were fed diets containing sodium at two inclusion levels (0.15% or 0.25%) and from three sources (sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate or sodium sulfate). The growth performance of chickens and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) parameters were studied. Different inclusion levels and sources of sodium had no effect on the final body weights of broilers and feed conversion. An increase in the sodium content of diets decreased the dry matter content of small intestinal digesta (from 17.1% to 16.1%, p = 0.038) and digesta viscosity (from 2.09 to 1.83 mPas, p = 0.046), but it had no influence on the hydration of the cecal contents. The higher dietary level of sodium enhanced the activity levels of aminopeptidase in the small intestinal mucosa (from 66.8 to 72.6 μmol/min/g of protein, p = 0.030) and microbial a-glucosidase (from 29.7 to 34.4 mol/h/g, p = 0.050), whereas it had no effect on the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the cecal digesta. In comparison with sodium bicarbonate, sodium sulfate reduced the pH of gizzard contents (4.36 vs. 3.80, p = 0.030). Sodium sources had no effect on pH levels in the small intestine and the cecum. Compared with sodium chloride and sodium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate significantly decreased the activity levels of saccharase in the small intestinal mucosa (from 21.1 - 22.5 to 14.4 μmol/min/g of protein, p<0.001) and aminopeptidase (from 71 - 73.6 to 64.5 μmol/min/g of protein, p=0.021). Different sodium sources had no influence on the activities of the analyzed glycolytic enzymes and the production of SCFAs.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different dietary sodium levels on serum macroelement concentrations, growth performance and incidence of foot pad dermatitis (FPD) in female turkeys raised to six weeks of age. The influence of a low-sodium diet (without additional sodium) and diets supplemented with NaCl to increase sodium content by 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 g kg(-1) was compared. The dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) was high (242-248 mEq kg(-1)) due to a high potassium content (11.0 g kg(-1)). Turkeys fed the low-sodium diet were characterized by significantly lower concentrations of chloride (p=0.002) and phosphorus (p<0.001), and significantly higher magnesium levels (p<0.001), compared with the other groups. The lowest dietary inclusion of sodium (0.5 g kg(-1)) contributed to a significant increase in the body weights of turkeys at six weeks of age (p<0.001), and it improved feed conversion efficiency (p<0.001) in comparison with the low-sodium diet. No significant differences in body weight and feed conversion ratio followed experimental treatments with higher dietary NaCl addition. Diets supplemented with different amounts of sodium had no effect on litter moisture content, whereas the incidence of FPD increased significantly following the addition of dietary sodium at 1.0 g kg(-1) to 2.5 g kg(-1), compared with the low-sodium diet. The results of our study indicate that moderate sodium supplementation (0.5 g kg(-1)) of a sodium-deficient diet significantly increased the body weights of young turkeys, while it did not increase the incidence of FPD. A further increase in the sodium content of experimental diets did not increase the body weights of birds, and it enhanced the occurrence of FPD which was not related to increased litter wetness.
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