Impact of Reduced Patient Life Expectancy on Potential Cancer Risks from Radiologic Imaging

Center for Radiological Research and Department of Medicine and Radiology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA.
Radiology (Impact Factor: 6.87). 07/2011; 261(1):193-8. DOI: 10.1148/radiol.11102452
Source: PubMed


To quantify the effect of reduced life expectancy on cancer risk by comparing estimated lifetime risks of lung cancer attributable to radiation from commonly used computed tomographic (CT) examinations in patients with and those without cancer or cardiac disease.
With the use of clinically determined life tables, reductions in radiation-attributable lung cancer risks were estimated for coronary CT angiographic examinations in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease who underwent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and for surveillance CT examinations in patients treated for colon cancer. Statistical uncertainties were estimated for the risk ratios in patients who underwent CABG surgery and patients with colon cancer versus the general population.
Patients with decreased life expectancy had decreased radiation-associated cancer risks. For example, for a 70-year-old patient with colon cancer, the estimated reduction in lifetime radiation-associated lung cancer risk was approximately 92% for stage IV disease, versus 8% for stage 0 or I disease. For a patient who had been treated with CABG surgery, the estimated reduction in lifetime radiation-associated lung cancer risk was approximately 57% for a 55-year-old patient, versus 12% for a 75-year-old patient.
The importance of radiation exposure in determining optimal imaging usage is much reduced for patients with markedly reduced life expectancies: Imaging justification and optimization criteria for patients with substantially reduced life expectancies should not necessarily be the same as for those with normal life expectancies.

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Available from: Igor Shuryak
    • "Computed tomography (CT) is an important imaging procedure, but the radiation dose required is relatively high compared to conventional radiographic procedures. Therefore radiation protection should be optimised to minimise risks of adverse health effects (Brenner and Hall 2007, Smith-Bindman et al 2009, Brenner et al 2011, Pearce et al 2012). It is essential that performance and output of CT scanners are tested routinely. "
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    • "Fully diagnostic PET/CT studies may expose patients to radiation doses as high as 25 mSv. However, Brenner and Hall [170] have correctly pointed to the greatly reduced relevance of this perceived risk for patients with limited life expectancy [171]. Furthermore, a recent analysis concluded that “risks of medical imaging at effective doses below 50 mSv for single procedures or 100 mSv for multiple procedures over short time periods are too low to be detectable and may be nonexistent” and that “predictions of hypothetical cancer incidence and deaths in patient populations exposed to such low doses are highly speculative and should be discouraged” because they “are harmful … and may cause some patients and parents to refuse medical imaging procedures” [172]. "
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    • "[30] [31] [32] [33] [34] "
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    ABSTRACT: To overcome the health hazards related to the over dosage of radiopharmaceuticals, a study was conducted on 120 patients of different genders and age groups (from 10 – 50 years), who visited Punjab Institute of Nuclear Medicine (PINUM) at Faisalabad in Pakistan for thyroid scan. Patients were treated with different doses of Technitium-99m ranging from 1 to 5 mCi. Infinia Hawkeye-4 SPECT/CT was used to investigate Technitium-99m uptake measurements by thyroid. The results revealed that instead of presently used Technitium-99m dose of 3-10 mCi to get a thyroid scan in 1–4 min, the same scan can be acquired with a dose of 2-3 mCi in 4-8 min. The study helped to perform thyroid scan with a reduced dose of lowest activity to save patients, attendants and general public from hazardous effects of over dose of radioactive materials.
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