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Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.: Arecaceae): In health promotion and disease prevention


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Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is cultivated for its multiple utilities, mainly for its nutritional and medicinal values. The various products of coconut include tender coconut water, copra, coconut oil, raw kernel, coconut cake, coconut toddy, coconut shell and wood based products, coconut leaves, coir pith etc. Its all parts are used in someway or another in the daily life of the people in the traditional coconut growing areas. It is the unique source of various natural products for the development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. The parts of its fruit like coconut kernel and tender coconut water have numerous medicinal properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, immunostimulant. Coconut water and coconut kernel contain microminerals and nutrients, which are essential to human health, and hence coconut is used as food by the peoples in the globe, mainly in the tropical countries. The coconut palm is, therefore, eulogised as 'Kalpavriksha' (the all giving tree) in Indian classics, and thus the current review describes the facts and phenomena related to its use in health and disease prevention.
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Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine (2011)241-247
Document heading doi:
Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.: Arecaceae): In health promotion and disease
Manisha DebMandal1, Shyamapada Mandal2*
1Department of Physiology and Biophysics, KPC Medical College and Hospital, 1F Raja S C Mallick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata-700 032, India
2Department of Zoology, Gurudas College, Narkeldanga, Kolkata-700 054, India
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Article history:
Received 15 December 2010
Received in revised form 27 December 2010
Accepted 15 January 2011
Available online 20 March 2011
Medicinal property
Nutritional value
Disease prevention
*Corresponding author: Dr. Shyamapada Mandal, Department of Zoology, Gurudas
College, Narkeldanga, Kolkata-700 054, India.
1. Introduction
The coconut [Cocos nucifera (C. nucifera) L.] is an
important fruit tree (Figure 1) in the world, providing
food for millions of people, especially in the tropical and
subtropical regions and with its many uses it is often called
the tree of life[1]. At any one time a coconut palm has 12
different crops of nuts on it, from opening flower to ripe nut.
India is the third largest coconut producing country, after
Indonesia and the Philippines, having an area of about 1.78
million hectares under the crop. Annual production is about
7 562 million nuts with an average of 5 295 nuts/hectare[2].
In India, the four south Indian states namely Kerala, Tamil
Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh account for around
90% of the coconut production in the country[2]; the overall
state wise coconut production is depicted in Figure 2.
For thousands of years, coconut products have held a
respected and valuable place in Indian folk medicine. It is
believed to be antiblenorrhagic, antibronchitis, febrifugal,
and antigingivitic. In Ayurvedic medicine, the oil, milk,
cream and water of the coconut are all used to treat hair
loss, burns and heart problems. In India, the use of coconut
for food, and its applications in the Ayurvedic medicine
were documented in Sanskrit 4 000 years ago. Records show
that in the United States, coconut oil was one of the major
sources of dietary fats, aside from dairy and animal fats,
prior to the advent of the American edible oil (soybean and
corn) industry in the mid 1940s[3]. Virgin coconut oil (VCO)
is completely non-toxic to humans, and is referred to as the
drugstore in a bottle. In India, the coconut has religious
connotations; it is described as The fruit of aspiration
and a coconut is offered to the gods and cut at the start of
many new projects. Coconut water is produced by a 5 month
old nut that during World War II, was used in emergencies,
and put directly into a patients veins. From ancient times
the coconut is used as a very effective remedy for intestinal
worms of all kinds. Boiled toddy, known as jaggery, with
lime makes a good cement. Nutmeat of immature coconuts
is eaten or extracted cream is used on various foods.
2. Botanical description
Coconut (C. nucifera) belongs to the family of the
Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is cultivated for its multiple utilities, mainly for its
nutritional and medicinal values. The various products of coconut include tender coconut
water, copra, coconut oil, raw kernel, coconut cake, coconut toddy, coconut shell and wood
based products, coconut leaves, coir pith etc. Its all parts are used in someway or another in
the daily life of the people in the traditional coconut growing areas. It is the unique source of
various natural products for the development of medicines against various diseases and also
for the development of industrial products. The parts of its fruit like coconut kernel and tender
coconut water have numerous medicinal properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral,
antiparasitic, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, immunostimulant.
Coconut water and coconut kernel contain microminerals and nutrients, which are essential
to human health, and hence coconut is used as food by the peoples in the globe, mainly in the
tropical countries. The coconut palm is, therefore, eulogised as Kalpavriksha (the all giving
tree) in Indian classics, and thus the current review describes the facts and phenomena related to
its use in health and disease prevention.
Manisha DebMandal et al./Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine (2011)241-247
Arecaceae (Palmae), the subfamily Cocoideae. There are
mainly two distinct groups of coconut i.e. tall and the dwarf.
The tall varieties grow slow and bear fruits 6 to 10 years after
planting[2]. Its copra, oil and fiber are of good quality. This
type is comparatively hardy, and lives up to a ripe age of 80
to 120 years. As male flowers mature earlier than the female
flowers, this type is highly cross-pollinated. Nuts mature
within a period of 12 months after pollination.
The dwarf varieties are fast growing and bear early i.e.
takes 4 to 5 years[2]. Due to overlapping of male and female
phases, the dwarf varieties are self-pollinated. The nuts are
yellow, red, green and orange colored. These are less hardy
and require favorable climatic conditions and soil type for
better yield.
a b
Figure 1. Coconut (Cocos nucifera).
a: apical part of the tree with green coconut; b: fruit halves.
West Bengal
8% 2% 7%
Figure 2. State wise coconut production in India.
3. Historical cultivation
Cultivation of coconut depends on soil type, slope of land,
and rainfall distribution. It grows well on well drained loamy
and clayey soil. A year-round warm and humid climate
favors the growth of coconut. A mean annual temperature of
27 , an evenly distributed rainfall of 1 500-2 500 mm per
annum, and relative humidity above 60% provide the ideal
climatic conditions for the vigorous growth and yield of the
palm[1]. Under good climatic conditions, a fully productive
palm produces 12-16 bunches of coconuts per year, each
bunch with 8-10 nuts.
For the cultivation of coconut, usually 7-8 month old
seedlings, raised from fully mature fruits are used for
transplants. Nuts are planted in nursery after about 16
weeks. Usually 70-150 trees/ha are planted; with triangular
spacing of 10 m, 115 palms/ha; and for group or bouquet
planting, 3-6 palms planted 4-5 m apart[4]. It is desirable
to transplant in rainy season. During first 3 years, seedlings
are watered during drought, with an application of 16 L/tree
of water, twice a week. Female flowers set in 12 months and
fruits set to maturity in 8-10 months with a yield of 60-100
nuts/tree. A coconut tree under its lifetime can produce up
to 10 000 nuts.
4. Nutritional values
Coconut has multifarious utility. The tender coconut
water (TCW), the liquid endosperm, is an excellent natural
soft drink. It has a caloric value of 17.4/100 g. Coconut
water contains vitamin B, namely, nicotinic acid B3 (0.64 g/mL),
pantothenic acid B5 (0.52 g/mL), biotin (0.02 g/mL),
riboflavin B2 (<0.01 g/mL), folic acid (0.003 g/mL),
trace amount of thiamine B1 and pyridoxine B6[5]. Besides
coconut water contain sugars, sugar alcohols, vitamin
C, folic acid, free amino acids, phytohormones (auxin,
1, 3-diphenylurea, cytokinin), enzymes (acid phosphatase,
catalase, dehydrogenase, diastase, peroxidase, RNA
polymerases) and growth promoting factors[6].
Copra, the dried kernel, which is mainly used for oil
extraction, contains about 65% to 75% oil[2]. The unopened
spathe is tapped for toddy, which is converted into jaggery,
vinegar and sugar. The kernel (wet meat) is mainly used
in making curries, chutney, toffee, sweet and for other
cooking purposes[2]. The composition of dessicated coconut
has been documented by Bawalan and Chapman[7]; herein
the important nutrition components are depicted in Figure
3. Whereas, the nutritional components of coconut milk
extracted from freshly shredded meat are different as
recorded by Bawalan and Chapman[7]; Figure 4 and 5
represent the composition of fresh coconut milk. Coconut
oil is one of the most important edible oil for domestic use.
The fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol combinations
of VCO has been studied and recorded by Marina et al[8].
In the current review, the fatty acid and components are
represented in Figure 6 and 7.
Amount (%)
Carbohydrate Protein Fat and oil Natural sugar Moisture
Amount (%)
Figure 3. Composition of dessicated coconut.
Manisha DebMandal et al./Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine (2011)241-247 243
Protein Fat
Vitamin C
27 Cal
1.6 g 0.4 g
4.5 g
26 mg
36 mg
0.01 mg 0.01mg 0.4 mg
2 mg
Figure 4. Nutritional composition of coconut milk (bar not up to
Amount (g)
Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Phenylalanine Tyrosine Cysteine
Amino acid
Figure 5. Amino acid content of coconut milk.
5. Medicinal values
5.1. As an electrolyte
It is highly rich in inorganic ions such as K (290 mg %), Na
(42 mg %), Ca (44 mg %), Mg (10 mg %), P (9.2 mg %) etc.[9].
The concentration of these electrolytes in TCW generates
an osmotic pressure similar to that observed in blood[9]
and does not affect plasma coagulation. The high amount
of K in TCW is reported to lower the blood pressure[10]. The
ethanolic extract of C. nucifera endocarp was found to have
a vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effect, through nitric
oxide production in a concentration and endothelium-
dependent manner, due to direct activation of nitric oxide/
guanylate cyclase pathway, stimulation of muscarinic
receptors and/or via cyclooxygenase pathway[11].
C6:0 C8:0 C10:0 C12:0 C14:0 C16:0 C18:0 C18:1 C18:2
Fatty acid (%)
Fatty acid constituent
Figure 6. Fatty acid composition of virgin coconut oil.
TAG (%)
TAG combination
Figure 7. Triacylglycerol composition of virgin coconut oil.
TAG: triacylglycerol, Cp: caproic, C: capric, La: lauric, M: myristic,
P: palmitic, O: oleic.
5.2. Antidote effect
TCW is found to eliminate poisons in case of mineral
poisoning, and ameliorate drug induced over dosage
toxicity[9]. The TCW aids the quick absorption of drug and
makes their peak concentration in the blood easier by its
electrolytic effect, which is similar to fructose coupled faster
absorption into the cells and body[9].
5.3. Antioxidant effect
A free amino acid, L-arginine (30 mg/dL), is present
in TCW which significantly reduce the free radical
generation[10]. TCW also contain vitamin C (15 mg/100mL)
that significantly reduce lipid peroxidation when introduced
in rats[10]. VCO is capable of increasing antioxidant enzymes
when supplemented with diets in rats[12].
5.4. Cardioprotective effect
Coconut is composed of the fatty acids caprylic acid C-8:0
Manisha DebMandal et al./Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine (2011)241-247
(8%), capric acid C-10:0 (7%), lauric acid C-12:0 (49%),
myristic acid C-14:0 (18%), palmitic acid C-16:0 (8%),
stearic acid C-18:0 (2%), oleic acid C-18:1 (6%), linoleic
acid C-18:2 (2%)[6]. It is abundantly (65%) endowed with
medium chain saturated fatty acids (MCFAs), which allows
them to be directly absorbed from the intestine and sent
straight to the liver to be rapidly metabolized for energy
production and thus MCFAs do not participate in the
biosynthesis and transport of cholesterol[13]. Coconut water
has cardioprotective effects in myocardial infarction due to
rich content of mineral ions, especially potassium. Nevin
and Rajamohan showed that VCO lowered total cholesterol,
triglycerides, phospholoipids, low density lipoprotein
(LDL), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and increased
high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels[14]. The
polyphenol fraction of virgin coconut oil was found to
prevent in vitro LDL-oxidation.
5.5. Antithrombotic effect
VCO has significant antithrombotic effect over copra
oil[15]. A coconut oil-based diet high saturated fatty acid
(HSAFA)-diet lowers postprandial t-PA (tissue plasminogen
activator) antigen concentration, and this may favorably
affect the fibrinolytic system and the Lp(a) (lipoprotein-a)
concentration compared with the high mono and
polyunsaturated fatty acid (HUFA)-diet. The proportions of
dietary saturated fatty acids more than the percentage of
saturated fat energy seem to have a beneficial influence on
Lp(a) levels[16].
5.6. Antiatherosclerotic effect
Chlamydia pneumoniae, is suspected of playing a role
in atherosclerosis by provoking an inflammatory process
that result in the oxidation of lipoproteins with induction of
cytokines and production of proteolystic enzymes, a typical
phenomena in atherosclerosis[13]. Some of the pathogenic
gram-negative bacteria with an appropriate chelator have
been reported to be inactivated or killed by lauric acid and
monolaurin as well as capric acid and monocaprin[13].
Besides causing viral infection, the herpes simplex virus
(HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
have a role in the in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic
plaques after angioplasty and the presence of viral DNA
in the grafts used for bypass surgery constitute a potential
risk for atherosclerosis or restenosis[17]. The components
catechin, epicatechin along with condensed tannins (B-type
procyanidins) were present in the water extract obtained
from coconut husk fiber, that showed inhibitory activity
against acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1[18].
In fact, all members of the HSV family are reported to be
killed by the fatty acids and monoglycerides (MG) from
saturated fatty acids ranging from C-6 to C-14[20], which
include approximately 80% of the fatty acids in coconut
oil. Monolaurin is not formed in the body unless there is a
source of lauric acid in the diet, and coconut is a rich source
of monolaurin.
5.7. Hypolipidemic effect
VCO is capable of reducing lipid peroxidation content[15].
The hypolipidemic effect of coconut protein is due to the
high content of L-arginine[19]. Besides the high polyphenol
content in coconut is capable of maintaining the normal
levels of lipid parameters in tissues and serum[14] aided
by trapping of reactive oxygen species in aqueous
components such as plasma and interstitial fluid of the
arterial wall thereby inhibiting LDL oxidation, reversal of
cholesterol transport and reducing intestinal absorption of
5.8. Anticholecystitic effect
It is urinary antiseptic and is effective in the treatment
of kidney and urethral stones[21]. Monooctanoin (from
caprylic acid) is a digestion product of medium chain
triglycerides, is a cholesterol solvent that has been used for
the dissolution of retained cholesterol gallstones following
cholecystectomy. Complete gallstone dissolution has
occurred in approximately 50%-75% of patients receiving
monooctanoin; although mechanical stone removal is
still considered to be the treatment of choice for retained
gallstones, monooctanoin use appears promising for stone
dissolution in patients in whom mechanical removal has
been unsuccessful or is impossible[21].
5.9. Antibacterial activity
TCW has numerous medicinal properties, according to
Effiong et al[9], including good drink for cholera patients
because of its saline and albumen content; checking urinary
infection, and diarrhea. The most abundant and potent
MCFA in coconut is lauric acid, which comprises nearly 50%
of coconuts fat content. The MCFAs and their derivatives
e.g., MGs found in coconut are effective in destroying a wide
assortment of lipid-coated bacteria by disintegrating their
lipid membrane. For instance, they can be effective against
bacteria that can lead to stomach ulcers, sinusitis, dental
cavities, food poisoning, and urinary tract infections.
Monoglycerides, especially Monolaurin, has been used to
protect intravenously administrable oil-in-water emulsion
compositions against growth of Escherechia coli (E. coli),
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Staphylococcus
aureus (S. aureus) and Candida albicans (C. albicans). The
compositions can be medicaments containing lipophilic
drugs, especially Propofol, and/or total intravenous
nutritional compositions[22].
Coconut oil, obtained from its nuts, in concentrations of
5% to 40% (w/w) exhibited bactericidal activity against
P. aeruginosa, E. coli, Proteus vulgaris, and Bacillus
subtilis, which was attributed to monolaurin that enhanced
absorptivity due to the presence of surface active
emulsifying agents used in formulating the cream made from
coconut oil[23].
Emulsions of 1.25 mM monocaprin in citrate-lactate buffer
at pH 4 to 5 caused a >6- to 7-log10 reduction in viable
counts of Salmonella spp., E. coli in 10 min and Clostridium
jejuni was also more susceptible to monocaprin emulsions
at low pH[24]. Lauric acid, which is also present in mothers
milk, helps to protect a delicate nursing baby from harmful
pathogens[25]. Thus, like many other important medicinal
plants having antibacterial property[26,27], C. nucifera is
also excellent against different pathogenic bacteria causing
Manisha DebMandal et al./Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine (2011)241-247 245
several life-threatening infection to humans[28].
5.10. Anticaries activity
Decoction obtained from coconut tree roots are used as
mouthwash and gargle. In vivo assays demonstrated that
C. nucifera extract had low toxicity and did not induce
dermic or ocular reactions[29]. Thus, considering its low
toxicity, husk fiber extracts of C. nucifera have potential
in the treatment of oral diseases[30]. Coconut flour has
antimicrobial properties due to its high lauric acid content
that has been used as medicaments for some oral infections
such as mouth sores[31]. The glycolipid compound, sucrose
monolaurate, present in coconut has anti-caries effect
due to reduced glycolysis and sucrose oxidation in a non-
competitive manner caused by Streptococcus mutans and
thus prevents in-vitro dental plaque. In a clinical trial
association of coconut soap and 0.05% sodium hypochlorite
was used as a disinfecting agent in the reduction of denture
biofilm and stomatitis[32].
5.11. Antidermatophytic activity
The traditional use of coconut oil as a lotion in many
parts of the world is well founded. Coconut oil was shown
to have antiseptic effects and is used as an efficient, safe
skin moisturizer[33]. Monolaurin has statistically significant
in vitro broad-spectrum sensitivity against gram-positive
and gram-negative bacterial isolates from superficial skin
infections[34]. VCO and monolaurin have been suggested for
proactive treatment of atopic dermatitis colonization due to
their in vitro broad-spectrum activity against S. aureus[35].
Its selective antibacterial effects[20] make it useful for topical
5.12. Antiviral effect
Coconut oil is very effective against a variety of viruses
that are lipid-coated such as visna virus, CMV, Epstein-
barr virus, influenza virus, leukemia virus, pneumono virus,
hepatitis C virus. The MCFA in coconut oil primarily destroy
these organisms by disrupting their membranes, interfering
virus assembly and maturation[36]. The monoglycerides are
active; diglycerides and triglycerides are inactive against
these viruses. Of the saturated FAs, lauric acid has greater
antiviral activity than either caprylic acid, capric acid, or
myristic acid. Monolaurin acts by solubilizing the lipids
and phospholipids in the envelope of the virus, causing the
disintegration of the virus envelope[36]. The antiviral effects
of the FAs and MGs are additive, and total concentration is
critical for inactivating viruses[13].
5.13. Antifungal effect
The antimicrobial spectrum of monolaurin is broad
including fungal species such as Aspergillus sp.,
Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp., Fusarium sp., Alternaria
sp., C. albicans, Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Cryptococcus
neoformans[18]. Rihakova et al reported two different types
of antifungal effects in Aspergillus. niger (A. niger), one by
inhibition of spore germination and another by inhibition of
the radial growth, at monolaurin concentrations of 0.5 mg/mL
and > 1 mg/mL, respectively[37]. They can also help combat
yeast overgrowth, such as candida and thrush. VCO has been
used in the treatment of Candida infections full stop after
inections Ogbolu et al[38] compared the susceptibilities of
the Candida isolates to VCO and fluconazole using the agar-
well diffusion technique and found that C. albicans had
100% susceptibility to coconut oil at an minimum inhibition
concentration (MIC) of 25% (1:4 dilution), while fluconazole
had 100% susceptibility at an MIC of 64 gm/mL (1:2
dilution). Capric acid caused the fastest and most effective
killing of the C. albicans strains while lauric acid was
the most active at lower concentrations and after a longer
incubation time C. krusei showed the highest resistance
to coconut oil with an MIC of 100% (undiluted), while
fluconazole had an MIC of > 128 g/mL.
5.14. Antiprotozoal activity
The polyphenolic-rich extract of C. nucifera at 10 g/
mL is a strikingly potent leishmanicidal substance which
inhibited the growth of both promastigote and amastigote
developmental stages of Leishmania amazonensis after 60
min, presenting no in vivo allergenic reactions or in vitro
cytotoxic effects in mammalian system[18,39]. In traditional
Mexican medicine, C. nucifera has been used to treat
5.15. Anticancer effect
The aqueous extract from C. nucifera husk fibers may be a
source of new drugs with antineoplastic and anti-multidrug
resistance activities[41]. It is of great interest for cancer
therapy to identify new compounds that are able to overcome
resistance mechanisms and lead to tumor cell death.
5.16. Immunostimulatory effect
The virgin coconut oil enriched with Zn increased
Tc cells, Th cells, IL-2, but maintained the number of
neutrophil and NK cells, while the IgG level changed from
equivocal to negative in Candidiasis patient[42]. The coconut
globulin, cocosin, is a legume class, 208 kDa reserve
protein which belongs to the fourth group of proteins. Vigila
and Baskaran showed an increasing levels of RBC, WBC,
platelet, neutrophil, monocytes, eosinophil, B-lymphocytes,
T-lymphocytes and Hb after feeding coconut protein
to immunosuppressed animals, thus indicating strong
immunomodulatory activity of coconut protein[43].
5.17. Antidiabetic effect
The coconut kernel protein has potent anti-diabetic
activity through reversal of glycogen levels, activities of
carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and the pancreatic
damage to the normal levels due to its effect on pancreatic
-cell regeneration by means of arginine[44].
5.18. Hepatoprotective activity
Hepatoprotective effect of TCW is evidenced from the
histopathological studies of liver, which did not show any fatty
infiltration or necrosis, as observed in CCl4-intoxicated rats[10].
Manisha DebMandal et al./Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine (2011)241-247
5.19. Disinfectant activity
Coconut soap has been used as disinfecting agents
against Strepto mutans and C. albicans when associated
with brushing complete dentures with coconut soap[32]. A
disinfectant named lautericide has been prepared containing
acetate amine of coconut acid as the active agent, which
exerted a bactericidal and fungicidal action at 0.04% to
0.5% concentrations upon exposures for 2 to 10 minutes[45].
5.20. Insect repellant
The repellency of 10 % dodecanoic acid (DDA) against tick
has been validated and patented[46]. The active ingredient,
DDA, is a naturally occurring carboxylic acid that is the
main acid in coconut oil. The coconut oil has been in use, as
a vehicle, for the preparation of control agents against many
disease vectors, and the oil also showed some degree of
repellency against mosquitoes when used as control in many
5.21. Eco-friendly biodiesel
The Philippines has discovered that coconut methyl ester
(CME) or coco-biodiesel derived from coconut oil is better
than conventional diesel fuel. The World Fuel Charter allows
blends of up to 5% of biofuel however only 1% mix of coco-
biodiesel is required which is enough to significantly reduce
smoke emissions. The higher cetane number of CME (70)
than diesel (56) implies that CME burns more completely,
resulting in more mileage and lower emissions[48]. Also, CME
is safer to handle and store than diesel because it requires
a higher temperature to ignite it. Further CME being nearly
sulphur-free, is much less polluting than diesel. In terms of
lubricity also, CME has an edge over diesel.
5.22. Hormone like effect
Young coconut juice is believed to contain phytoestrogen
and other sex hormone-like substances which can be used
in hormone replacement therapy, in reducing the risk of
dementia and in wound healing in postmenopausal women,
as studied by Radenahmad in ovariectomized rats[49].
6. Conclusion
The coconut palm exerts a profound influence on the rural
economy of the many states where it is grown extensively
and it provides sustenance to more than 10 million people.
The export earnings derived by India from coconut are
around Rs 3 000 million. It is no wonder coconut culture
is spreading even to non-traditional belts that were, until
recently, considered unsuitable for the purpose.
Indias thrust now shall be to exploit the wealth potential of
the crop in all respects. Moreover coconut is an ecofriendly
crop which permits coexistence of multi-species plants. It
enriches soil fertility in association with other crops and is
quite amenable to organic farming if appropriate intercrops
are grown in the inter-spaces. Due to multifarious uses, the
future of the crop is very bright irrespective of the locations
where it is grown in the world.
The versatile coconut tree is a source of various chemical
compounds, which are responsible of the various activities
of the tree. Recently, modern medicinal research has
confirmed many health benefits of the multiple coconut
products in various forms. Hence extensive investigation
is needed to exploit their therapeutic utility to combat
diseases. A drug development program should be
undertaken to develop modern drugs with the compounds
isolated from coconut. Modern drugs require to be developed
after extensive investigation of its bioactivity, mechanism of
action, pharmacotherapeutics, after proper standardization
and clinical trials. As the global scenario is now changing
towards the use of non-toxic plant products having
traditional medicinal use, development of modern drugs from
C. nucifera should be emphasized for the control of various
diseases. Coconut imbibing a tremendous potential deserves
a special attention of the scientific fraternity to emerge as
a milestone for medical science of this millennium due to
its various medicinal uses. Further evaluation needs to be
carried out on C. nucifera in order to explore the concealed
areas and their practical clinical applications, which can be
used for the welfare of the mankind.
Conflict of interest statement
We declare that we have no conflict of interest.
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... Toddy contains heavy suspension of yeast and bacteria. LAB isolates which are obtained from neera possess potential probiotic properties [10]. Fermented beverage which is obtained from palm juice has the potential to be used as biofuel (Joseph et al., 2014). ...
... Palm oil is rich in carotenoid. It has numerous health benefits like helps in lowering of cholesterol, anticancer property, delays aging, protects against atherosclerosis [10]. Palm sap is collected from palm trees. ...
Neera is fresh sap obtained from mature inflorescence of palm tree and it is full of essential nutrients. Neera has innate natural fermentation tendency that is why it should be consumed fresh for maximum benefits. It has low glycemic index which makes this drink healthy option for diabetic patient. It helps in scavenging free radicals from body which leads to delaying in aging. The purpose of this study was to examine nutritional content, medicinal utilization, functional properties and various applications of neera. It contains 17 amino acids which are the building blocks of protein and immune system. Neera’s by product also very nutritious like palm syrup, palm jaggery, chocolates, candies, sweets, and vinegar. Along with their sweet taste these products are diabetic friendly. It is low in calories and has low pH. It helps in maintaining blood sugar. Apart of being sweet and nutritious it has low calorific value which helps in weight loss. If neera is commercialised in proper way it could be a best substitute in comparison with aerated drink. It is full of vitamins, minerals, amino acids. Its shelf life can be increased by filtration, pasteurization and by addition of preservatives.
... The nutrients present in coconut water include active components that could prevent oxidative stress [6,7]. Moreover, this refreshing drink possesses anti-inflammatory activity, cardio-protectant properties, and has shown to improve the lipidic profile and reduce high blood pressure [8][9][10][11]. It has also been used for oral rehydration, besides being proposed as an intravenous solution to hydrate patients in emergency situations [10,12]. ...
... Moreover, this refreshing drink possesses anti-inflammatory activity, cardio-protectant properties, and has shown to improve the lipidic profile and reduce high blood pressure [8][9][10][11]. It has also been used for oral rehydration, besides being proposed as an intravenous solution to hydrate patients in emergency situations [10,12]. ...
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The global coconut water market is projected to grow in the upcoming years, attributed to its numerous health benefits. However, due to its susceptibility to microbial contamination and the limitations of non-thermal decontamination methods, thermal treatments remain the primary approach to ensure the shelf-life stability and the microbiological safety of the product. In this study, the thermal inactivation of Listeria innocua, a Listeria monocytogenes surrogate, was evaluated in coconut water and in tryptone soy broth (TSB) under both isothermal (50–60 °C) and dynamic conditions (from 30 to 60 °C, with temperature increases of 0.5, 1 and 5 °C/min). Mathematical models were used to analyse the inactivation data. The Geeraerd model effectively described the thermal inactivation of L. innocua in both TSB and coconut water under isothermal conditions, with close agreement between experimental data and model fits. Parameter estimates and analysis revealed that acidified TSB is a suitable surrogate medium for studying the thermal inactivation of L. innocua in coconut water, despite minor differences observed in the shoulder length of inactivation curves, likely attributed to the media composition. The models fitted to the data obtained at isothermal conditions fail to predict L. innocua responses under dynamic conditions. This is attributed to the stress acclimation phenomenon that takes place under dynamic conditions, where bacterial cells adapt to initial sub-lethal treatment stages, leading to increased thermal resistance. Fitting the Bigelow model directly to dynamic data with fixed z-values reveals a three-fold increase in D-values with lower heating rates, supporting the role of stress acclimation. The findings of this study aid in designing pasteurization treatments targeting L. innocua in coconut water and enable the establishment of safe, mild heat treatments for refrigerated, high-quality coconut water.
... The coconut (Cocos nucifera) was used as a surrogate for the head or skull during head clamping, since the mature fruit has about the same size and shape as an adult head. It consists of a tough outer shell (exocarp) and a fibrous husk (mesocarp and endocarp) with a hollow center lined by soft meat (endosperm) and coconut water, 11 and approximates the calvarium which encases the brain and cerebrospinal fluid. The coconut husk fibers are densely packed, and together with the tough outer shell, creates a hard, compact layer that is more than 3 cm thick, 11 which should be able to withstand the pressure applied by the head pins and head clamp. ...
... It consists of a tough outer shell (exocarp) and a fibrous husk (mesocarp and endocarp) with a hollow center lined by soft meat (endosperm) and coconut water, 11 and approximates the calvarium which encases the brain and cerebrospinal fluid. The coconut husk fibers are densely packed, and together with the tough outer shell, creates a hard, compact layer that is more than 3 cm thick, 11 which should be able to withstand the pressure applied by the head pins and head clamp. The pins of the head clamp are meant to be embedded in the exocarp-mesocarp layer, and not the deeper endocarp layer encasing the coconut meat. ...
Objective: Neurosurgical boot camps allow trainees to hone practical skills in a risk-free environment, but the models and simulators used are relatively costly. In developing countries like the Philippines, low-cost alternatives have to be devised. The authors aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of using local, readily available, and inexpensive tropical fruits as surrogate models for basic neurosurgical skills training during a neurosurgical boot camp. Methods: Locally available tropical fruits were used to teach basic neurosurgical skills to trainees. Coconut, pomelo, and watermelon were used as models for head clamp application, scalp and dural suturing, and ventriculostomy, respectively. Feedback was obtained from the participants after the boot camp. Results: All eight residents thought that the boot camp was useful in learning new skills, and that the fruit models served their purpose. The trainees favored the fruit models that catered to the skill sets required according to level of training. The use of tropical fruits in the boot camp also provided an informal atmosphere that was conducive to learning. Conclusion: The novel use of tropical fruits as surrogate models in basic neurosurgical skills training was a feasible and affordable alternative in resource-limited settings, although the activity was perceived to be more useful to junior than to senior residents. The informal atmosphere generated by the use of the fruits contributed to an improved learning experience for the trainee.
... Namun minyak kelapa mengandung asam laurat yang tinggi, yang merupakan asam lemak rantai menengah (MCFA). Di dalam tubuh, MCFA memiliki daya cerna yang baik, sebagai sumber energi setelah dikonsumsi [6]. Asam lemak ini tidak disimpan dalam bentuk lemak tubuh [7]. ...
... Sebagai perbandingan, VCO yang diekstraksi menggunakan teknik pengolahan basah dari santan di bawah suhu yang terkendali menunjukkan efek yang lebih baik daripada minyak kopra karena mempertahankan sebagian besar kandungan yang menguntungkannya. VCO juga memiliki banyak efek biologis, nutrisi dan obat yang signifikan [6]. VCO tidak mengalami proses penghilangan bau dan dapat dikonsumsi, dalam keadaan utamanya, tanpa pemrosesan kimia lebih lanjut. ...
p>Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) adalah hasil modifikasi proses pembuatan minyak kelapa dengan kadar asam lemak bebas yang rendah, berwarna bening, berbau harum khas kelapa serta mempunyai daya simpan yang cukup lama. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kondisi optimum pembuatan VCO dan kualitas mutu VCO dengan metode sonikasi. Pada penelitian ini dipelajari pengaruh rasio volume aquadest dengan berat kelapa, lama sonikasi dan suhu operasi terhadap Jumlah VCO yang dihasilkan. Data dikumpulkan dan dianalisa dengan metode optimasi pada tiap variable bebasnya dan pada kondisi optimum dilakukan pengujian kualitas mutu VCO. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diperoleh kondisi optimum pembuatan VCO adalah rasio volume aquadest terhadap berat kelapa 1:2, lama ekstraksi secara sonikasi selama 45 menit dan suhu operasi 65<sup>o</sup>C. Hasil uji mutu VCO didapatkan bilangan iod 4,6110 dan asam lemak bebas 0,1373%. Hasil ini menunjukkan mutu VCO yang dihasilkan dengan metode ultrasonik memenuhi SNI.</p
... Ethyl acetate extract of the whole part of Biophytum sensitivum have shown antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat [17]. Cocos nucifera holds an important position in traditional medicine and has several health benefits, like antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, immunostimulant, and hypoglycemic [18]. Different plant parts of Cocos nucifera, such as husk, flower, and endocarp, have shown hypoglycaemic activity [19][20][21]. ...
... Coconut oil (CO) is obtained from coconut trees (Cocos nucifera), with a content of 65-75% of oil, and it has been used widely in food and industries [102]. Although CO may have some adverse effects because of its saturated fatty acid content [103], several biological activities of CO have been reported, including anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory [104], as well as its ability to improve Alzheimer's disease [105]. ...
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Multiple sclerosis disease (MS) is a 38.5 chronic neurological autoimmune disease that affects the nervous system, and its incidence is increasing globally. At present, there is no cure for this disease, and with its severity and disabling variety, it is important to search for possibilities that could help to slow its progression. It is recognized that the mechanisms of MS pathology, its development and degree of activity can be affected by dietary factors. In this review, the beneficial health effects of 10 plants oils-mainly seed oils, including pomegranate seed oil, sesame oil, acer truncatum bunge seed oil, hemp seeds oil, evening primrose seed oil, coconut oil, walnut oil, essential oil from Pterodon emarginatus seeds, flaxseed oil and olive oil-on MS are discussed. The literature data indicate that plant oils could be effective for the treatment of MS and its related symptoms primarily through reducing inflammation, promoting remyelination, immunomodulation and inhibiting oxidative stress. Plant oils may potentially reduce MS progression. Longitudinal research including a larger sample size with a longer duration is essential to confirm the findings from the selected plant oils. Moreover, new plant oils should be studied for their potential MS benefit.
... CCO is the main coconut oil type used within Sri Lanka, where the whole kernel is used in the manufacturing process. The world consumption of VCO is on an upward trend due to recently identified medicinal and some cosmetic values such as anti-aging, anti-cancer, antioxidant effect, and cardio-protective effects (Bansal et al. 2019;DebMandal and Mandal 2011). As a result of this high demand, some vendors mislead the consumers by providing DC oil instead of VCO or blending DC oil with VCO for profit gains. ...
Full-text available
Coconut oil is the main edible oil used in South and Southeast Asian countries. Different types of coconut oils are available in the market including virgin coconut oil (VCO), copra coconut oil (CCO), coconut oil extracted by desiccated coconut (DC oil), and refined bleached and deodorized coconut oil based on the manufacturing process. Due to recently identified medical and cosmetic benefits, a huge market has opened for VCO. On top of that, vendors tend to mislead consumers by marketing DC oil instead of VCO for unscriptural financial gain. A reliable accurate method was developed to differentiate VCO from other coconut oils based on their process-based markers. A headspace solid-phase microextraction sampling method combined with gas chromatography was used for the isolation and separation of volatiles, respectively. Mass chromatography was used for the analysis of different constituents in coconut oils. A set of unique chemical compounds was identified for each coconut oil type such as 2-pentanone for VCO extracted from the dry method, hexanal for CCO, and acetic acid for VCO extracted from wet method. It was able to identify four compounds, δ-caprolactone, oxime-methoxy-phenyl, δ-octalactonone, and δ-decalactone which were common to oil coconut oil types. Since these unique compounds are only available in particular oil types, it enables them to be used as marker or tracer compounds to confirm their authenticity.
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Carrier oils are used with essential oils to dilute and enhance skin penetration. They are composed of fatty acids, triglycerides, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes and are added to reduce potency and odor. Carrier oils have pharmaceutical applications and reduce cytotoxicity. Solvent extraction is a common practice in the production of industrial-scale carrier oils, but harmful to the environment, so new eco-friendly methods are being researched. This review documents the available characteristics of various carrier oils and identifies knowledge gaps for future studies.
Sunscreen is a chemical compound that helps shield the skin from ultraviolet light. Sunburn is caused by UVB radiation, but UVA radiation may cause more skin damage. A sunscreen that blocks both wavebands is ideal. The aim of this study was to use medicinal herbs and specific fixed oils to create a topical herbal sunscreen composition. The goal of this project is to create and evaluate a cosmetic (herbal sunscreen) that shields skin from the sun. Natural ingredients with a range of uses, such as emollient, moisturiser, base, anti-acne, and anti-sweating, include hibiscus and aloevera .Rose water, almond oil, vitamin E capsules, hibiscus flowers, etc. Actinic keratosis, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma can all be avoided with regular sunscreen use. Chemicals, either organic or inorganic, may be present in sunscreen. Sunscreen cream is another term for sunscreen. The object either absorbs or reflects solar radiation. UV radiation and provides skin defence. The use of screening materials that have been successful in lowering the indication has increased as a result of the rising incidence of skin cancers and the effects of UV radiation-induced photo damage
North Sulawesi is known as one of the places that produce Copra the most in Indonesia. In North Sulawesi, the agriculture sector is considered as one of the superior commodities for the economy. The people of North Sulawesi have been cultivating coconut to be processed into copra as one of their main sources of income. The plantation in Pakuure Village, Tenga sub-district, South Minahasa Regency is an area that is overgrown with coconut plants. This village it is one of the producers of coconut plants in North Sulawesi. Based on the interview conducted with all of the ten informants which are the copra buyers, and then the result shows all of them are the copra buyers, and most informants almost have the same answers about being a copra buyer as the main commodity. It is also discovered that each of the ten informants have their own different experiences and opinions as a copra buyer and how the supply chain can affect their income. The quality of copra determines the price of copra, thus affects their income. According to them the quality of copra determines the price of the copra. Good quality copra always gets the best price, while the bad quality ones tend to have the worst price, that of course affects their income as a copra buyer that the supply chain of copra definitely affects the income of the copra buyers, as most of them being a copra buyer as their main source of income. From the results of the interview with all informants, researcher found that the supply chain of copra definitely affects the income of the copra buyers, as most of them being a copra buyer as their main source of income. Especially when it comes to quality control, if the copra farmers came up with a huge amount bad quality copra, it can heavily affect the final outcome of the copra buyers. Keywords: supply chain
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Coconut oil obtained from the nuts of Cocos nucifera was formulated into creams in order to standardize its use and present it in an elegant form. Using the fusion method, oil in water (o/w) creams were formulated in concentrations of 5 to 40% w/w of oil. The release of active ingredients from creams was investigated using cream challenge and skin inoculation tests, whereby creams were exposed to various spots on skin inoculated with Ps. aeruginosa ATCC 7853, E. coli ATCC 9637, P. vulgaris (clinical isolate), B. subtilis ATCC 607 and C. albicans ATCC 10231. In addition A. niger (clinical isolate) and S. aureus ATCC 13709 were used for antimicrobial screening. The stability of creams was also evaluated using a standard method. The results showed that active ingredients of the coconut oil were released from the creams; this was shown from the good antimicrobial activity of the cream confirming that all formulation ingredients were compatible and did not interfere with activity of the oil. The creams were also found to be stable, as a result of their ability to withstand shock and maintain their physical characteristics.
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The ameliorative potential of coconut water in chloramphenicol induced toxicity was evaluated using albino wistar rats. Thirty (30) male wistar rats weighing between 100g to 150g were uniformly assigned to 6 groups of 5 rats each. Group 1 was the control group (treated with distilled water), group 2 was treated with coconut water only (20ml/kg body weight), group 3 was treated with a normal dose of chloramphenicol only (50mg/kg), group 4 was treated with 50mg/kg body weight of chloramphenicol and 20ml/kg coconut water, group 5 was treated with overdosed (100mg/kg body weight) chloramphenicol only, while group 6 was treated with overdosed chloramphenicol and 20ml/kg coconut water. The treatment lasted for 4 days, the animals were sacrificed on day 5 and their blood collected for enzyme assays. The serum enzymes investigated were; aspartate amino transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The result showed a significant increase in enzymes level when chloramphenicol was administered alone while the administration of coconut water alone showed a significant decrease in all the enzymes level when compared with groups given chloramphenicol alone. There was a decrease in enzymes level when the drug was co-administered with coconut water in a dose dependent relationship. These results suggest that coconut water can be exploited in the amelioration of chloramphenicol toxicity in a dose dependent therapy.
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Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of Emblica officinalis Gamin (E. officinalis; Family: Euphorbiaceae) seed and Nymphae odorata Aiton (N. odorata; Family: Nymphaeaceae) stamen extracts, alone and in combination, and in combination with amoxicillin (Ax) against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Methods: Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of amla, E. officinalis, seed (AMS; 500 mu g) and sapla, A odorata, stamen (SAP; 500 mu g) for 12 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates was determined following agar diffusion; in order to assess the combined antibacterial activity, AMS (250 mu g) plus SAP (250 mu g) were considered. The Ax (10 mu g) activity alone and in combination with AMS (250 mu g), and SAP (250 mu g) was determined by disk diffusion. The zone diameters of inhibition (ZDIs) for the agents were recorded, and growth inhibitory indices (GIIs) were calculated. Results: The MRSA isolates (n=12) had AMS (500 mu g) and SAP (500 mu g) ZDIs of 12-19 mm and 21-24 mm, respectively. The ZDIs (range 24-27 mm) increased by 3-4 mm due to combined action of AMS (250 mu g) and SAP (250 mu g) indicating synergy between extracts for MRSA (GII 0.634-0.742). The MRSA isolates were resistant to Ax (ZDI: 8-11 mm), which in combination with AMS and SAP had synergistic effect, both due to increased ZDI [mean +/- SD=(3.5 +/- 0.577) mm] and GII (0.631-0.894). Conclusions: The data suggest that the plants, E. officinalis and N. odorata alone or in combination, are promising in the development of phytomedicines, which may be used, alone or in combination with the antibiotic, Ax, against MRSA infection.
Coconuts play a unique role in the diets of mankind because they are the source of important physiologically functional components. These physiologically functional components are found in the fat part of whole coconut, in the fat part of desiccated coconut, and in the extracted coconut oil. Lauric acid, the major fatty acid from the fat of the coconut, has long been recognized for the unique properties that it lends to nonfood uses in the soaps and cosmetics industry. More recently, lauric acid has been recognized for its unique properties in food use, which are related to its antiviral, antibacterial, and antiprotozoal functions. Now, capric acid, another of coconut's fatty acids has been added to the list of coconut's antimicrobial components. These fatty acids are found in the largest amounts only in traditional lauric fats, especially from coconut. Also, recently published research has shown that natural coconut fat in the diet leads to a normalization of body lipids, protects against alcohol damage to the liver, and improves the immune system's anti- inflammatory response. Clearly, there has been increasing recognition of health- supporting functions of the fatty acids found in coconut. Recent reports from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration about required labeling of the trans fatty acids will put coconut oil in a more competitive position and may help return to its use by the baking and snack food industry where it has continued to be recognized for its functionality. Now it can be recognized for another kind of functionality: the improvement of the health of mankind.
Coconut oil, a traditional moisturizer used for centuries by people in the tropics, does not have any clinical studies documenting its effectivity and safety. This study aims to determine effectivity and safety of coconut oil compared to mineral oil as moisturizer for mild to moderate xerosis. A review board-approved randomized double-blind controlled trial was conducted in 34 patients after negative patch-testing. Patients applied either coconut or mineral oil twice a day for two weeks. Quantitative outcomes for effectivity, measured at baseline and each weekly visit, were skin hydration (Corneometer CM825®) and skin lipids (Sebumeter SM810®); for safety, transepidermal water loss [TEWL](Tewameter TM210®) and skin surface pH (Skin pH meter PH900®). Patients and investigator evaluated symptoms of dryness, scaling, roughness, and pruritus using visual analogue scales (VAS) and grading of xerosis. Both groups showed significant improvement in skin hydration and increased skin surface lipid levels. TEWL and Skin pH were not affected. Objective instrumental determinations showed no significant difference between both groups. Patient and investigator subjective grading of xerosis and VAS showed general trend toward better, though not statistically evident, with coconut over mineral oil. Coconut oil is as effective and safe as mineral oil as a moisturizer.
Background aims Experimental and epidemiological studies indicate an association between dietary saturated fatty acids and thrombosis, but the effects of individual fatty acids on haemostasis are still controversial. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effect of feeding virgin coconut oil (VCO) on blood coagulation factors, lipid levels and in vitro oxidation of LDL in comparison with copra oil (CO) and sunflower oil (SFO) in cholesterol (1%) and oil (10% w/w) fed rats. Methods Rats were given the test oils along with cholesterol for 45 days. After the experimental period, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, thrombotic risk factor levels viz. fibrin, fibrinogen, factor V, 6-ketoPGF1α and prothrombin time were measured. In vitro Cu2+ induced oxidation of LDL, erythrocyte membrane and LDL TBARS content and plasma antioxidant vitamins (A and E) were also evaluated. Results Administration of VCO showed significant antithrombotic effect compared to copra oil and the effects were comparable with sunflower oil fed animals. The antioxidant vitamin levels were found to be higher in VCO fed animals than other groups. LDL isolated from VCO fed animals when subjected to oxidant (Cu2+) in vitro showed significant resistance to oxidation as compared to the LDL isolated from other two groups. Dietary administration of VCO reduced the cholesterol and triglyceride levels and maintained the levels of blood coagulation factors. Results also indicate that VCO feeding can prevent the oxidation of LDL from oxidants. These properties of VCO may be attributed to the presence of biologically active unsaponifiable components viz. vitamin E, provitamin A, polyphenols and phytosterols.
ŘIHÁKOVÁ Z., FILIP V., PLOCKOVÁ M., ŠMIDRKAL J., ČERVENKOVÁ R. (2002): Inhibition of Aspergillus niger DMF 0801 by monoacylglycerols prepared from coconut oil. Czech J. Food Sci., 20: 48-52. The objectives of the present study were to test the antifungal properties (inhibition of radial growth, inhibition of the moul d spore germination) of lauroylglycerol and mixtures of monoacylglycerols synthesised from coconut oil (MIX-I and MIX-II) against Aspergillus niger DMF 0801. The content of monoacylglycerols in lauroylglycerol, MIX-I and MIX-II was 99.9% (w/w), 97.7% (w/w) and 75,1% (w/w), respectively. The content of 1-lauroylglycerol in MIX-I and MIX-II was calculated from the content of lauric acid and content of monoacylglycerols. The inhibition of the radial growth of Aspergillus niger DMF 0801 by lauroylglycerol was stronger than that caused by MIX-I and MIX-II. The inhibition effect of spore germination caused by lauroylglycerol and MIX-I was nearly the same. The inhibition of spore germination increased with increasing content of monoacylglycerol and also with increasing 1-lauroylglycerol content in monoacylglycerols. The level of spore germination inhibition was related to the purity of tested substances. The results of this study indicate that monoacylglycerols made from coconut oil have antifungal activity.
Virgin coconut oil (VCO) directly extracted from fresh coconut meat at 50°C temperature was tested for its effect on the activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation levels in male Sprague–Dawley rats, compared to copra oil (CO) and groundnut oil (GO) as control. Oils were fed to rats for 45 days along with a semi-synthetic diet and after the experimental period various biochemical parameters were done. Individual fatty acid analyses of VCO and CO were done using gas chromatography. Effect of polyphenol fraction isolated from the oils was also tested for the ability to prevent in vitro microsomal lipid peroxidation induced by FeSO4. The results showed that GO, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, reduced the levels of antioxidant enzymes and increased lipid peroxidation, indicated by the very high MDA and conjugate diene content in the tissues. PF fraction from VCO was found to have more inhibitory effect on microsomal lipid peroxidation compared to that from the other two oils. VCO with more unsaponifiable components viz. vitamin E and polyphenols than CO exhibited increased levels of antioxidant enzymes and prevented the peroxidation of lipids in both in vitro and in vivo conditions. These results showed that VCO is superior in antioxidant action than CO and GO. This study has proved that VCO is beneficial as an antioxidant.
Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of tender coconut water (TCW) were investigated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-intoxicated female rats. Liver damage was evidenced by the increased levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and decreased levels of serum proteins and by histopathological studies in CCl4-intoxicated rats. Increased lipid peroxidation was evidenced by elevated levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) viz, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroperoxides (HP) and conjugated dienes (CD), and also by significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes activities, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) and glutathione reductase (GR) and also reduced glutathione (GSH) content in liver. On the other hand, CCl4-intoxicated rats treated with TCW retained almost normal levels of these constituents. Decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes in CCl4-intoxicated rats and their reversal of antioxidant enzyme activities in TCW treated rats, shows the effectiveness of TCW in combating CCl4-induced oxidative stress. Hepatoprotective effect of TCW is also evidenced from the histopathological studies of liver, which did not show any fatty infiltration or necrosis, as observed in CCl4-intoxicated rats.
A study on the commercial virgin coconut oil (VCO) available in the Malaysian and Indonesian market was conducted. The paper reported the chemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of VCO. There was no significant difference in lauric acid content (46.64–48.03%) among VCO samples. The major triacylglycerols obtained for the oils were LaLaLa, LaLaM, CLaLa, LaMM and CCLa (La, lauric; C, capric; M, myristic). Iodine value ranged from 4.47 to 8.55, indicative of only few unsaturated bond presence. Saponification value ranged from 250.07 to 260.67mg KOH/g oil. The low peroxide value (0.21–0.57mequiv oxygen/kg) signified its high oxidative stability, while anisidine value ranged from 0.16 to 0.19. Free fatty acid content of 0.15–0.25 was fairly low, showing that VCO samples were of good quality. All chemical compositions were within the limit of Codex standard for edible coconut oil. Total phenolic contents of VCO samples (7.78–29.18mg GAE/100g oil) were significantly higher than refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) coconut oil (6.14mg GAE/100g oil). These results suggest that VCO is as good as RBD coconut oil in chemical properties with the added benefit of being higher in phenolic content.