Health Conditions in Methamphetamine-Dependent Adults 3 Years After Treatment

ArticleinJournal of Addiction Medicine 3(3):155-63 · September 2009with6 Reads
DOI: 10.1097/ADM.0b013e3181a17c79 · Source: PubMed
: Medical conditions in methamphetamine (MA) users have not been well characterized. Using both self-report and physical examination data, the aims of this study were to (1) describe the frequency of medical conditions in a sample of MA users 3 years posttreatment; (2) evaluate the association between medical conditions and MA use frequency; and (3) examine the relationship of route of administration with medical outcomes. : MA-dependent adults (N = 301) who participated in the Methamphetamine Treatment Project were interviewed and examined 3 years after treatment. Medical, demographic, and substance use characteristics were assessed using the Addiction Severity Index and Life Experiences Timeline. Current and lifetime medical conditions, electrocardiogram characteristics, and physical examination abnormalities were assessed. : Among the most frequently reported lifetime conditions were wounds and burns (40.5%, N = 122) and severe dental problems (33%, N = 99), and a significant proportion of the sample evidenced prolonged corrected QT interval (19.6%, N = 43). Although health conditions were not associated with MA use frequency during follow-up, intravenous MA use was significantly associated with missing teeth (odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-4.7) and hepatitis C antibodies (odds ratio = 13.1; confidence interval, 5.6-30.1). : In this sample of MA users, dental problems and corrected QT prolongation were observed at elevated rates. Although posttreatment MA use frequency was not associated with a majority of medical outcomes, intravenous MA use exacerbated risk for dental pathology and hepatitis C. Longer term follow-up research is needed to elucidate health trajectories of MA users.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : Physical exercise has been shown to benefit diverse medical and behavioral conditions. This study assesses the feasibility and efficacy of an 8-week endurance and resistance training program on fitness measures in individuals undergoing residential treatment for methamphetamine (MA) dependence. : A total of 39 MA-dependent individuals were randomized to 3 days/week of exercise training (ET, n = 15) or health education without training (equal attention [EA], n = 14) over 8 weeks. Aerobic performance ((Equation is included in full-text article.)O2max) was measured by indirect calorimetry, body composition by skinfolds, muscle strength by 1-repetition maximum (1-RM), and endurance at 85% of 1-RM for both leg press (LP) and chest press (CP). : A total of 29 individuals completed the study for a 74% adherence rate. Baseline characteristics (mean ± SD) were balanced between groups: age 31 ± 7 years; height = 1.74 ± 0.07 m; weight 82.0 ± 15.0 kg. The ET group significantly improved (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2max by 0.63 ± 0.22 L/min (+21%), LP strength by 24.4 ± 5.6 kg (+40%), and CP strength by 20.6 ± 5.7 kg (+49%). The ET group increased LP and CP endurance by 120% and 96%, respectively and showed significant reductions in body weight of 1.7 ± 2.4 kg (-2%), % body fat of 2.8 ± 1.3% (-15%), and fat weight 2.8 ± 1.8 kg (-18%). All changes were significant (P < 0.001) for ET, and no changes were seen for the EA group. : Individuals recovering from MA dependence showed substantial improvements in aerobic exercise performance, muscle strength and endurance, and body composition with ET. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of an ET intervention in these participants and also show excellent responsiveness to the exercise stimulus resulting in physiological changes that might enhance recovery from drug dependency.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011
  • Article · Mar 2013
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methamphetamine (MA) is a drug that is widely used in many parts of the world. It has multiple neurobiological impacts on the nervous system, some of which are transitory and some more long lasting. MA activates the reward system of the brain and produces effects that are highly reinforcing, which can lead to abuse and dependence. Routes of administration that produce rapid onset of the drug's effects (i.e., smoking and injection) are likely to lead to more rapid addiction and more medical and psychiatric effects. The medical effects of MA use are extensive, and chronic use of MA can produce significant neurological damage as well as damage to cardiovascular, pulmonary, and other organ systems. Both acute and chronic MA use can lead to extreme paranoia, anxiety, and depression, and following discontinuation of MA use, cognitive deficits and anhedonia can persist for months. No effective pharmacotherapies have been developed for the treatment of MA dependence, although this is an area of very active research. Several behavioral treatments have been shown to reduce MA use, but better treatments are needed. The research agenda for MA is substantial, with development of effective pharmacotherapies as one of the most important priorities.
    Article · Dec 2013
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