Pathology quiz case 3. Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX).
Available from: Iwona Cicha
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ABSTRACT: Background: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is an uncommon, rapidly growing cutaneous neoplasm of uncertain histogenesis. Thus far, there are no guidelines for diagnosis and therapy of this tumor. Patients and Methods: We included 18 patients with 21 AFX, and 2,912 patients with a total of 2,939 AFX cited in the literature between 1962 and 2014. Results: In our cohort, excision with safety margin was performed in 100% of primary tumors. Local recurrences were observed in 25% of primary tumors and parotid metastases in 5%. Ten-year diseasespecific survival was 100%. The literature research yielded 280 relevant publications. Over 90% of the reported cases were negative for cytokeratins, S100, desmin and human melanoma black 45 (HMB-45). Recurrent AFX was reported in 7.6% and metastasizing AFX in 2.75% cases. No significant differences in the recurrence and survival rates following wide local excision versus Mohs microsurgery were observed. Twenty-year diseasespecific survival rate was 97.8%. Conclusion: A well-selected panel of immunohistochemical markers is necessary to establish AFX diagnosis with sufficient certainty. Adequately treated, AFX has an excellent prognosis, but long-term follow-up is recommended due to the potential for aggressive behavior.
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