Article

Seasonal Variation in TP53 R249S-Mutated Serum DNA with Aflatoxin Exposure and Hepatitis B Virus Infection

Molecular Carcinogenesis Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.
Environmental Health Perspectives (Impact Factor: 7.98). 07/2011; 119(11):1635-40. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1103539
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and dietary aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure are etiological factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in countries with hot, humid climates. HCC often harbors a TP53 (tumor protein p53) mutation at codon 249 (R249S). In chronic carriers, 1762T/1764A mutations in the HBV X gene are associated with increased HCC risk. Both mutations have been detected in circulating cell-free DNA (CFDNA) from asymptomatic HBV carriers.
We evaluated seasonal variation in R249S and HBV in relation to AFB1 exposure.
R249S was quantitated by mass spectrometry in CFDNA in a cross-sectional survey of 473 asymptomatic subjects (237 HBV carriers and 236 noncarriers) recruited in three villages in the Gambia over a 10-month period. 1762T/1764A HBV mutations were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the HBV S gene was sequenced in 99 subjects positive for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg).
We observed a seasonal variation of serum R249S levels. Positivity for R249S and average concentration were significantly higher in HBsAg-positive subjects surveyed during April-July (61%; 5,690 ± 11,300 R249S copies/mL serum) than in those surveyed October-March [32% and 480 ± 1,030 copies/mL serum (odds ratio = 3.59; 95% confidence interval: 2.05, 6.30; p < 0.001)]. Positivity for HBV e antigen (HBeAg) (a marker of HBV replication) and viral DNA load also varied seasonally, with 15-30% of subjects surveyed between April and June HBeAg positive, compared with < 10% surveyed during other months. We detected 1762T/1764A mutations in 8% of carriers, half of whom were positive for R249S. We found HBV genotype E in 95 of 99 HBsAg-positive subjects.
R249S is detectable in CFDNA of asymptomatic subjects. Evidence of temporal and quantitative variations suggests an interaction among AFB1 exposure, HBV positivity, and replication on TP53 mutation formation or persistence.

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    • "Quantitation of extracted DNA was performed by fluorimetry using PicoGreen (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR). R249S was detected and quantified against a synthetic, internal standard plasmid by short oligonucleotide mass analysis (SOMA) as described previously (Lleonart et al., 2005; Villar et al., 2011). Plasma concentrations were expressed as copies of R249S- mutated DNA per ml of plasma. "
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    ABSTRACT: Over 100 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) are validated in the TP53 tumor suppressor gene. They define haplotypes, which may differ in their activities. Therefore, mutation in cancer may occur at different rates depending upon haplotypes. However, these associations may be masked by differences in mutations types and causes of mutagenesis. We have analyzed the associations between 19 SNPs spanning the TP53 locus and a single specific aflatoxin-induced TP53 mutation (R249S) in 85 in hepatocellular carcinoma cases and 132 controls from Thailand. An association with R249S mutation (P = 0.007) was observed for a combination of two SNPs (rs17882227 and rs8064946) in a linkage disequilibrium block extending from upstream of exon 1 to the first half of intron 1. This domain contains two coding sequences overlapping with TP53 (WRAP53 and Hp53int1) suggesting that sequences in TP53 intron 1 encode transcripts that may modulate R249S mutation rate in HCC. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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    • "Thus, based on RFLP assay, serum specimens negative for R249S mutation might contain levels that were too low for detection by this method. Second, the presence and amount of R249S mutation in serum may fluctuate among individuals according to season, with a pattern differs from the well-known seasonal variations in exposure to AFB1 (Villar et al., 2011). In addition, individual exposure to AFB1 is likely to fluctuate among different geographic areas and ecological zones (Liu et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) are major risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of HBV genetic variation and the R249S mutation of the p53 gene, a marker of AFB1-induced HCC, in Thai patients chronically infected with HBV. Sixty-five patients with and 89 patients without HCC were included. Viral mutations and R249S mutation were characterized by direct sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in serum samples, respectively. The prevalences of T1753C/A/G and A1762T/G1764A mutations in the basal core promotor (BCP) region were significantly higher in the HCC group compared to the non-HCC group. R249S mutation was detected in 6.2% and 3.4% of the HCC and non-HCC groups, respectively, which was not significantly different. By multiple logistic regression analysis, the presence of A1762T/G1764A mutations was independently associated with the risk of HCC in Thai patients.
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the 5th most common cancers, with 80z of the cases occurring in low resource countries. Its etiology is dominated by complex interplay between chronic infection by hepatitis virus B or C (HBV, HCV), metabolic diseases and exposure to environmental carcinogens. In areas of high incidence of HCC, the most common risk factors are chronic HB carriage and exposure to a mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), which contaminates many staples and causes mutations at the third base of codon 249 in theTP53 tumor suppressor gene in hepatocytes (R249S mutation). In this review, we summarize studies using a very sensitive and quantitative detection method, short-oligonucleotide mass analysis, to measure R249S in cell-free DNA isolated from the plasma of asymptomatic subjects and patients with chronic liver disease and/or HCC. These studies have identified that high levels of R249S were strongly associated with HBV-related HCC. Low to intermediate levels ofR249S, in contrast, were detectable in asymptomatic subjects exposed to AFB1, with seasonal variations informative of the complex interactions between mutagenesis by AFB1 and chronic infection by HBV. Overall, we suggest that formation of R249S occurs in response to AFB1 exposure, well ahead of cancer development, thus generating large populations of cells at high risk for neoplastic transformation. In addition, R249S mutations may inactivate pro-apoptotic activities of p53 and contribute to rendering hepatocytes resistant to liver cell destruction by chronic inflammation, thus limiting chronic liver disease symptoms.
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