Acute painful swelling of the extremities and scrotum are debilitating clinical manifestations of Wuchereria bancrofti infection. The ongoing global program to eliminate filariasis using mass drug administration is expected to decrease this and other forms of filarial morbidity in the future by preventing establishment of new infections as a consequence of eliminating transmission by the mosquito vector. We examined whether mass treatment with anti-filarial drugs has a more immediate health benefit by monitoring acute filariasis morbidity in Papua New Guinean communities that participated in a 5-year mass drug administration trial.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.
"It is likely that a reduced man-vector contact due to improved mosquito proofing of houses and use of bed nets, in combination with the many MDA applications, are the main reasons for this promising finding. Bm14 prevalences are usually found to be higher than CFA prevalences, even after application of MDAs (Weil et al., 2008; Joseph et al., 2011b), but a similar lower Bm14 than CFA prevalence was also observed after four high compliance MDAs in Papua New Guinea (Tisch et al., 2011). By using two wealth indicators (family possession of fridge and/or TV), the questionnaire survey among the pupils showed that the average economic capability of their families decreased when moving from the centre to the periphery of the city. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Urban lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been listed among the challenges to the ongoing global efforts to eliminate LF. This is partly because the control strategies developed for rural areas - where most LF occurs - do not easily comply with human organization and behaviour in urban areas, and partly because the urban vectors thrive and proliferate in poorly planned urban settlements. This study investigated LF infection, disease and transmission in the medium-sized city of Tanga (approx. 300,000 inhabitants), Tanzania, after seven rounds of mass drug administration (MDA). Three representative sites with varying distance from the city centre were selected for the study. Pupils from one public primary school at each site were screened for circulating filarial antigens (CFA; marker of adult worm infection) and antibodies to Bm14 (marker of exposure to transmission). Community members were examined for CFA, microfilariae and chronic manifestations. Questionnaires were administered to pupils and heads of community households, and vector surveys were carried out in selected households. Although there was evidence of considerable reduction in infection and transmission, there was still LF in the city, with mf and CFA prevalences well above the cut-off levels for stopping MDA. In this respect, the LF situation resembled that seen in nearby rural areas outside the city. The study emphasizes the importance of motivating the urban individuals to engage and comply with the full range of LF intervention measures (MDAs, use of mosquito proofing measures including bed nets, environmental sanitation to prevent vector breeding) in order to reach successful LF control in the city. The high LF disease burden noted, despite the reduction in infection and transmission, moreover emphasizes the importance of allocating resources for morbidity management, to ensure true elimination of LF as a public health problem.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Since 2004 there has been an increased recognition of the importance of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) as impediments to development. These diseases are caused by a variety of infectious agents - viruses, bacteria and parasites - which cause a diversity of clinical conditions throughout the tropics. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has defined seventeen of these conditions as core NTDs. The objectives for the control, elimination or eradication of these conditions have been defined in World Health Assembly resolutions whilst the strategies for the control or elimination of individual diseases have been defined in various WHO documents. Since 2005 there has been a drive for the expanded control of these diseases through an integrated approach of mass drug administration referred to as Preventive Chemotherapy via community-based distribution systems and through schools. This has been made possible by donations from major pharmaceutical companies of quality and efficacious drugs which have a proven track record of safety. As a result of the increased commitment of endemic countries, bilateral donors and non-governmental development organisations, there has been a considerable expansion of mass drug administration. In particular, programmes targeting lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, trachoma and soil transmitted helminth infections have expanded to treat 887. 8 million people in 2009. There has been significant progress towards guinea worm eradication, and the control of leprosy and human African trypanosomiasis. This paper responds to what the authors believe are inappropriate criticisms of these programmes and counters accusations of the motives of partners made in recently published papers. We provide a detailed response and update the information on the numbers of global treatments undertaken for NTDs and list the success stories to date.
The paper acknowledges that in undertaking any health programme in environments such as post-conflict countries, there are always challenges. It is also recognised that NTD control must always be undertaken within the health system context. However, it is important to emphasise that the availability of donated drugs, the multiple impact of those drugs, the willingness of countries to undertake their distribution, thereby committing their own resources to the programmes, and the proven beneficial results outweigh the problems which are faced in environments where communities are often beyond the reach of health services. Given the availability of these interventions, their cost effectiveness and the broader development impact we believe it would be unethical not to continue programmes of such long term benefit to the "bottom billion".
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Parasites & Vectors
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The β-diketiminato nickel(i) complex K2[L(tBu)Ni(I)(N2(2-))Ni(I)L(tBu)] reacts with CO2via reductive disproportionation to form CO and CO3(2-) containing products, whereas after employment of the Ni(I) precursor [L(tBu)Ni(I)(N2)Ni(I)L(tBu)] reductive coupling of CO2 was observed giving an oxalate bridged dinickel(ii) complex. The addition of KC8 to the carbonate and oxalate compounds formed leads to the regeneration of the initial Ni(I) complexes in an N2 atmosphere, thus closing synthetic cycles.
No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Chemical Communications