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Google Effects on Memory: Cognitive Consequences of Having Information at Our Fingertips

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Abstract

The advent of the Internet, with sophisticated algorithmic search engines, has made accessing information as easy as lifting a finger. No longer do we have to make costly efforts to find the things we want. We can "Google" the old classmate, find articles online, or look up the actor who was on the tip of our tongue. The results of four studies suggest that when faced with difficult questions, people are primed to think about computers and that when people expect to have future access to information, they have lower rates of recall of the information itself and enhanced recall instead for where to access it. The Internet has become a primary form of external or transactive memory, where information is stored collectively outside ourselves.

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... Interest in the effect of the Internet and digital technology on memory grew substantially with the publication of a paper in Science by Sparrow, Liu, and Wegner (2011). In that paper, Sparrow et al. reported a series of experiments demonstrating that when participants believe that information is saved on a computer, they remember it less well than when they believe it is not saved on a computer. ...
... The impaired performance observed by Sparrow et al. (2011) in the Save condition relative to the Erase condition has come to be known as the Google Effect. According to Sparrow et al., the effect was observed because participants came to rely upon the computer as their transactive memory partner, relieving them of the need to learn and remember the statements using their internal memory. ...
... In subsequent experiments, Sparrow et al. (2011) examined other consequences of saving, focusing in particular on how people remember information differently when they know that information is saved. According to the transactive memory framework, when information is stored externally, what becomes important to remember is where the information can be found when it is needed, not the details of the actual information itself. ...
Preprint
Digital technologies have changed the everyday use of human memory. When information is saved or made readily available online, there is less need to encode or maintain access to that information within the biological structures of memory. People increasingly depend on the Internet and various digital devices to learn and remember, but the implications and consequences of this dependence remain largely unknown. The present chapter provides an overview of research to date on memory in the digital age. It focuses in particular on issues related to transactive memory, cognitive offloading, photo taking, social media use, and learning in the classroom.
... Globalna potrošnja u maloprodaji iznosi od 18 do 20 triliona USD (od čega 2 triliona USD otpada na proizvode namenjene obradi digitalnih informacija i zabavi), a žene kontrolišu oko 80% od tog iznosa. [36] Više izveštaja o potrošnji označava da nacionalna potrošnja opada u razvijenim državama, a jedino strogo raste u ekonomijama koje imaju brz rast: u Indiji i Kini. Na vrhu je jak porast srednje klase velikih (najveći rast u potrošačkoj grupi) -upravo u tim državama. ...
... Pretraživačke mašine kao što su Google, Bing i Baidu obezbeđuju pretraživanje informacija na jednostavan način, ali uvode značajne nove pozicije. Skorašnje akademsko istraživanje [36] ...
... • jedan omogućava ljudima u različitim mestima širom sveta jednostavno deljenje sa senzorima, i • drugi omogućavaju senzorima da sarađuju sa drugim senzorima. 36 NTERNET STVARI U HOTELSKOJ INDUSTRIJI Internet stvari (IoT) imaju potencijal da transformišu hotelsku industriju dubokim promenama u tome kako hoteli, odmarališta, kazina, restorani i druge kompanije koje se bave uslugama zabave prikupljaju podatke, povezuju sa korisnicima i automatizuju procese. IoT se odnosi na umrežavanje fizičkih objekata upotrebom ugrađenih senzora, aktuatora i drugih uređaja koji mogu da prikupljaju i prenose informacije o aktivnostima u realnom vremenu u okruženju. ...
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Knjiga opisuje vodece Internet tehnologije. Naglasak je na Internetu stvari i 5G mobilnim mrezama. Metaversum, kao sastavni deo ove oblasti objasnjava osnovni koncept.
... МНЕМИЧЕСКОГО "GOOGLE-ЭФФЕКТА" Ласьков В данной работе представлен опыт использования веб-технологий (HTML, CSS, JavaScript) при изучении мнемического "Google-эффекта". Данный эффект заключается в тенденции забывать информацию после ее сохранения на компьютер (Sparrow, Liu, Wegner, 2011). Настоящая работа исследует, сохранится ли "Google-эффект" при наличии у респондента эксплицитной мнемической цели запомнить материал. ...
... На основе уже упомянутых языков JavaScript, HTML5 и CSS3 было создано два веб-приложения, направленных на изучение мнемического "Google-эффекта". Его суть заключается в том, что информация, сохраненная на компьютере или другом электронном электронном носителе запоминается хуже, чем та, что была удалена с устройства, и, следовательно, доступ пользователя к ней закрыт [9]. Существуют также и исследования, опровергающие наличие самого "Google-эффекта" [5]. ...
... In this paper we present the experience of using web technologies (HTML, CSS, JavaScript) in psychological study of the mnemonic "Google-effect". This effect consists of a tendency to forget information after the command "save" is assigned to a computer (Sparrow, Liu, Wegner, 2011). The present study explores whether the "Google-effect" would remain if the participant has an explicit mnemonic goal to remember the material. ...
Article
В данной работе представлен опыт использования веб-технологий (HTML, CSS, JavaScript) при изучении мнемического “Google-эффекта”. Данный эффект заключается в тенденции забывать информацию после ее сохранения на компьютер (Sparrow, Liu, Wegner, 2011). Настоящая работа исследует, сохранится ли “Google-эффект” при наличии у респондента эксплицитной мнемической цели запомнить материал. Иными словами, изучалась специфика взаимодействия компьютерных операций с мнемическими целями, связанная с воспроизведением материала. Семьдесят студентов-добровольцев (10 мужского пола) приняли участие в компьютерной игре, где имитировалась деятельность частного детектива. Благодаря возможностям сбора различного рода данных через веб-интерфейс, уда- лось проанализировать результаты несколькими способами, что сподвигло нас к дальнейшему развитию понимания природы “Google-эффекта”.
... While this process of outsourcing memory online extends our "memory" almost indefinitely, it comes at a cost such that our own memory for the information can be impaired. Since the phenomenon, often dubbed as the "Google effect", was first examined by Sparrow et al. (2011), additional research has been done to understand offloading memory and its underlying mechanisms (e.g., Ferguson et al., 2015;Kahn & Martinez, 2020;Storm et al., 2017). The four articles in the special issue take a closer look at the costs and benefits of offloading memory and its boundary conditions. ...
... With the vast amount of information readily available on the Internet, searching online to acquire information has become almost an automatic action we take when trying to learn new knowledge (Sparrow et al., 2011). Does Internet search facilitate knowledge acquisition and learning, or does it result in memory offloading and in turn learning deficits? ...
... Offloading memory to external sources online may impair internal memory encoding and storage (e.g., Fisher et al., this volume;Sparrow et al., 2011;Storm et al., 2017). Do the Internet-induced memory deficits selectively affect memory for certain information while leaving other aspects of memory intact? ...
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This special issue brings together the scholarship that advances our knowledge on remembering in the age of the Internet and social media. The studies reported in the ten articles address diverse topics in three broad areas prominent in current research: offloading memory and the associated costs, benefits, and boundary conditions, autobiographical memory online, and false memory in a misinformation age. They employ innovative and rigorous methodological approaches that are ecologically valid in the online context. Their findings reveal complex and dynamic characteristics of human memory in a digitally mediated world that shapes our learning, our sense of self, and our beliefs and decision making. Collectively, the studies provide rich theoretical insights into the workings and functions of memory. This special issue ushers in a new era of research on memory in the age of the Internet and social media. https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/pmem20/30/4?nav=tocList
... However, despite its ubiquity, DLL often goes unnoticed, since speakers do not usually think of themselves as novices. Indeed, a number of experiments have shown that there is a gap between what people feel they know about something and what they are actually able to explain about it [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. Perhaps we feel that we know more about something because our layman concepts are quite sufficient to get by. ...
... The resourcefulness with which people find ways to enhance their memory limitations or ease their information processing demands when engaged in a task has been widely documented [14][15][16], for example, by setting alarms on their mobile phones or by using calculators to make calculations at the supermarket. Furthermore, there is a long literature stemming from Wegner's pioneering work [24] on TMS [10,11], which refers to structured collectives in which not everyone knows all of the information that the group collectively possesses, but its members know who knows what so that anyone can access the information when necessary. These are obvious examples of cognitive artefacts, but language itself can also be seen in this light. ...
Article
The division of linguistic labour (DLL), initially theorized by philosophers, has gained the attention of cognitive scientists in the last decade. Contrary to some controversial philosophical accounts of DLL, we propose that it is an extended mind strategy of offloading conceptual understanding onto other people. In this article, we empirically explore this proposal by providing an exploratory experimental paradigm to search for the mechanisms underwriting DLL and how they may work in practice. We developed a between-subjects experiment in which participants had to categorize two pairs of highly confusable dog breeds after receiving categorization training on just one pair of breeds. In the treatment group, participants were grouped in dyads and were allowed to interact with each other by means of the labels of these four dog breeds. In their queries to trained ‘experts’, novices frequently used labels to refer to breeds that they could not identify themselves. Experts were highly responsive to their paired novices' queries, and the rates of querying for the two members within a dyad were positively correlated. Independent categorization failure and offloading categorization success lead to subsequent increases in querying by novices, indicating adaptive use of offloading. Self-reports of breed knowledge were higher for experts within a dyad compared to isolated experts. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Concepts in interaction: social engagement and inner experiences’.
... corresponding internal mental representation. Previous research has already shown that external memory is used to store information outside ourselves and that this information is still connected to our memory (Sparrow et al., 2011). However, whether actively deleting information in the external memory can facilitate human forgetting of the connected memory has not been empirically investigated yet. ...
... We also hypothesize that deletion is not only an action that causes digital objects to be forgotten in external memory, but may also support intentional forgetting of associated memory content (Hypothesis 5; Bjork et al., 1998;Anderson and Hanslmayr, 2014). Sparrow et al. (2011) showed that individuals were worse at recalling information that had been stored in external memory than information that had not been stored on the computer. This indicates that individuals need to be convinced that they will not need the information designated as irrelevant in the future in order to forget: they need to trust the system. ...
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In the digital age, saving and accumulating large amounts of digital data is a common phenomenon. However, saving does not only consume energy, but may also cause information overload and prevent people from staying focused and working effectively. We present and systematically examine an explanatory AI system (Dare2Del), which supports individuals to delete irrelevant digital objects. To give recommendations for the optimization of related human-computer interactions, we vary different design features (explanations, familiarity, verifiability) within and across three experiments (N1 = 61, N2 = 33, N3= 73). Moreover, building on the concept of distributed cognition, we check possible cross-connections between external (digital) and internal (human) memory. Specifically, we examine whether deleting external files also contributes to human forgetting of the related mental representations. Multilevel modeling results show the importance of presenting explanations for the acceptance of deleting suggestions in all three experiments, but also point to the need of their verifiability to generate trust in the system. However, we did not find clear evidence that deleting computer files contributes to human forgetting of the related memories. Based on our findings, we provide basic recommendations for the design of AI systems that can help to reduce the burden on people and the digital environment, and suggest directions for future research.
... A vivência neste ecossistema físico-digital tem produzido diferentes impactos em nossas relações com as pessoas e com o meio construído, envolvendo, por exemplo, discussões sobre mudanças nos nossos processos de cognição (DERAGON, 2011;WILMER;SHERMAN;CHEIN, 2017;YAMAMOTO;ANANOU, 2020), memorização (KAHNEMAN, 2011;SPARROW;WEGNER, 2011;KASPERSKY LAB, 2015) e de exposição e vigilância social (ZUBOFF, 2019). De modo semelhante, caberíamos especular a ideia que este ecossistema tem influenciado a forma como percebemos a cidade. ...
... A vivência neste ecossistema físico-digital tem produzido diferentes impactos em nossas relações com as pessoas e com o meio construído, envolvendo, por exemplo, discussões sobre mudanças nos nossos processos de cognição (DERAGON, 2011;WILMER;SHERMAN;CHEIN, 2017;YAMAMOTO;ANANOU, 2020), memorização (KAHNEMAN, 2011;SPARROW;WEGNER, 2011;KASPERSKY LAB, 2015) e de exposição e vigilância social (ZUBOFF, 2019). De modo semelhante, caberíamos especular a ideia que este ecossistema tem influenciado a forma como percebemos a cidade. ...
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Diante da crescente simbiose entre homem e máquina, a ideia de percepção urbana necessita ser revisitada na era digital. Por meio da estratégia metodológica da argumentação lógica, tem-se como objetivo debater a percepção do meio urbano com o advento das transformações e inserções das ferramentas digitais. Parte-se das teorias de percepção advindas das abordagens construtivista e ecológica, como também, do pensamento ambiental dos anos 1960 e 1970 sobre percepção. A análise concentra-se mais especificamente em três tipos de abordagens digitais: mapeamento por sensoriamento remoto, tecnologias em crowdsourcing e human-like machine perception, de forma a fornecer uma nova maneira de olhar para fenômenos existentes, categorizá-los e extrair ideias-síntese para pesquisas posteriores. Apesar da crescente dependência da máquina com relação ao ser humano para apreender, indica-se cada vez mais uma certa inconsciência humana nesse processo e a necessidade de reflexão da máquina como uma possível aliada nos estudos urbanos, e não um instrumento de alienação.
... 2011 saw Sparrow and associates explore how undergraduate students' memories changed when they anticipated access to information later. 13 Students were less likely to recall specific knowledge when they were anticipated to have access to it in the future, but they were more likely to remember where to obtain the exact information. 13 In a recent study, a group of university students were examined to see how being a member of highly connected networks (like the Internet) affects the spread of accurate information as well as the underlying cognitive methods required to produce accurate information. ...
... 13 Students were less likely to recall specific knowledge when they were anticipated to have access to it in the future, but they were more likely to remember where to obtain the exact information. 13 In a recent study, a group of university students were examined to see how being a member of highly connected networks (like the Internet) affects the spread of accurate information as well as the underlying cognitive methods required to produce accurate information. 5 The study's findings imply that being a part of highly connected networks can aid people in problem-solving by aiding the spread of accurate information, but that these networks do not spread the cognitive techniques required to independently acquire accurate information. ...
Article
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A lot of folks use social networking sites every day. Adults now often browse social networking sites thanks to the rise in smartphone use. Their cognition and sleep cycles may be impacted by this habit. The purpose of this study was to ascertain how internet addiction affected both sleep quality and cognition. To ascertain how internet use affects the quality of sleep. To examine the relationship between adult internet addiction and cognition. Cross-sectional prospective study was the study's design. Preliminary data will be gathered after receiving ethical approval and informed consent. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) Questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) were used to collect the data. Inclusion standards: 18 to 22-year-old age range. Major mental and neurological conditions; individuals with head injuries; exclusion criteria. Utilizing statistical analysis all data was entered into an MS Excel data sheet, and after the study is over, SPSS software version 17.0 will be used to statistically analyse the data. The average, standard deviation, and percentage of the data were displayed. It has been demonstrated through our study that adults are increasingly using smartphones to visit social networking sites. Their cognitive and sleep patterns are both impacted by this behaviour. Therefore, it is crucial to spread the crucial knowledge among students in order to encourage the proper internet usage pattern and lessen students' sleep issues. : In order to prevent sleep issues, we must raise awareness among students about the need of using the internet in the right way.
... Na verdade, a internet funciona hoje como memória externa ou memória transactiva onde a informação é coletivamente depositada fora de nós mesmos (Sparrow et al., 2011), e é um dos melhores exemplos de especialização funcional e alocação de recursos. Ao dependermos cada vez mais do ciberespaço para realizar as nossas tarefas quotidianas, já não temos de recordar a informação; tudo que necessitamos é saber onde a encontrar e recuperar. ...
... Isto significa uma adaptação em relação ao nosso ambiente tecnológico, uma vez que tentar lembrar muitas informações específicas é menos eficiente do que lembrar como aceder a essas informações específicas. Sparrow et al. (2011) concluíram, num estudo empírico, que os estudantes esperavam ter acesso futuro à informação (através da internet) e, por esse motivo, era menos provável que se lembrassem de informação específica, embora recordassem como encontrar essa informação. Num outro estudo empírico, Fisher et al. (2015) determinaram que pesquisar informação na internet aumentava a confiança do indivíduo no seu próprio conhecimento. ...
Article
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Em tempos de intensa mediatização, aparece o problema da potencial desfragmentação da memória perante um espaço virtual aberto e infinito. Compreender o papel da memória nas sociedades contemporâneas implica contemplar sua expansão mediatizada, responsável pela profusão e aceleração da produção de traços memoriais pelas sociedades. Este artigo apresenta as principais correntes de pensamento dos estudos da memória e traça as atuais implicações políticas e sociais da memória. Além disso, analisa o papel dos media sobre a noção de memória, nomeadamente, o paradoxo da memória digital, o encurtamento e a poluição da memória provocada pelos media digitais, e a internet como uma espécie de memória palimpséstica da atualidade.
... In fact, the internet today is used as external memory or transactive memory where information is collectively deposited outside ourselves (Sparrow et al., 2011), and is one of the best examples of functional specialization and resource allocation. As we increasingly rely on cyberspace to perform our daily tasks, we no longer have to remember information; all we need is to know where to find and retrieve it. ...
... This means an adaptation to our technological environment since trying to remember a lot of specific information is, now, less efficient than remembering how to access that specific information. Sparrow et al. (2011) concluded in an empirical study that students expected to have future access to information (via the internet) and therefore were less likely to remember specific information although they remembered how to find that information. In another empirical study, Fisher et al. (2015) determined that searching for information on internet increased an individual's confidence in her own knowledge. ...
Article
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In times of intense mediatization, we face the problem of the potential defragmentation of memory in the face of an open and infinite virtual space. Understanding the role of memory in contemporary societies implies contemplating its mediatized expansion, responsible for the profusion and acceleration with which societies produce memorial traces. This paper presents the main schools of thought in memory studies and traces the current political and social implications of memory. Also, it analyzes the role of media on the very notion of memory, namely, the paradox of digital memory, the shortening and pollution of memory caused by digital media, and the Internet as a kind of palimpsestic memory of the present time.
... If test persons are convinced that information can now or later be retrieved from the internet, their performance in mentally recollecting this information will be worse. In addition, recognition of this information is far worse than remembering the place where it is stored on a computer [42]. But all these negative effects could be reduced by transforming the passive interaction with an artificial system to an active learning process. ...
Article
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In our daily life navigation systems play a pivotal role. These technical aids are used to find a way in unknown environments. Nowadays, they are already integrated into cars or available as smartphone apps. However, navigation is not necessarily successful when using such navigation aids. A highly debated but widely accepted consensus is that the increased use of navigation aids is associated with decreasing navigation skills (i.e., cognitive skills) and social interaction. In the current discussion paper, we therefore want to focus on how to reduce such (possibly) detrimental effects while engaging people in active spatial learning during the use of a navigation device. As we will demonstrate, such an active engagement can be realized rather easily and in a very simple manner: an explicit instruction (and people’s will to follow it). The way the instruction and the task are presented does not seem to matter (i.e., self-read, experimenter-read, or AI-read). The most simple but decisive element for effective wayfinding may be found on the individual psychological level, rather than on the design level for artificial systems. Thus, our discussion paper wants to 1) provide ideas on how to reduce possible detrimental effects in wayfinding (short-term and long-term) and 2) stimulate research on the psychological issues in addition to the technical issues.
... The constant access to the internet might hinder teens' memory abilities or the ability to engage in effortful thinking (Nasi & Koivusilta, 2012). Research indicates that near-constant access to the internet influences the kind of information people choose to remember (Sparrow et al., 2011). Such a finding might suggest an adaptation to the online environment where it is more efficient to remember where to access information easily than remembering specific information. ...
Article
The rapid spread of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in recent decades has pushed the use of smartphones, tablets, and their applications to become pervasive tools used in everyday life, especially among adolescents (Khang et al., 2013; Odaci & Çıkrıkçı, 2014). The possibility of being constantly connected significantly increases the amount of time adolescents spend online, and Web and mobile applications are ubiquitous in many adolescents’ lives (Durak, 2018). Research has shown that adolescents use the Internet more frequently (compared to adults) than other generations and in a more multipurpose context (Cain & Gradisar, 2010; Livingstone et al., 2011; O’Keeffe et al., 2011; Tzavela et al., 2015, Casaló & Escario, 2018). The use of digital applications has also dramatically changed the way adolescents relate to their peers, access information, and engage in social relationships, and has also had a profound influence on their health, including their well-being (e.g., the impact of smartphone uses on the sleep-waking cycle), and on their cognitive development (e.g., level of attention in carrying out a task). Given the importance of considering technology use as having a profound role in adolescent development, one key question many scholars are now attempting to answer concerns how adolescents’ online presence shapes their offline lives; this question could be encapsulated as follows: “Is technology use changing adolescents’ behaviors, their social, physical, and cognitive development?”
... With so many events being documented and shared, from wedding pictures to a photograph of a fancy meal, remembering the events and their details may be too demanding on cognitive resources. This means that offloading information from the experience itself onto something tangible (i.e., a picture) may have become another function of photograph taking of events [3] . ...
Article
Two studies examined the question of whether photograph taking of an event influences the positivity of the evaluations of the event at a later point in time. Memories of photographed events yielded higher positivity ratings than memories that were not photographed. Although we expected fading of positivity ratings to occur more slowly over a period of two months for memories of photographed events, we found faster affect fading for those memories in Study 2 instead. The findings of the two studies support the idea that taking photographs of events sustains the affective reconstruction of autobiographical memories, regardless of whether these events are special, such as vacation memories, or more mundane, such as memories of the past weekend.
... One popular topic of discussion is whether modern technology is leading us to depend upon our devices to store information for us. In this vein, a remarkable contribution was the study conducted by Sparrow et al. (2011), where the authors coined the term "Google effect" (otherwise known as digital amnesia). The "Google effect" refers to the phenomenon where "the expectation of having later access to information can make us less inclined to encode and store that information in long-term memory" (Wilmer et al., 2017, p. 7). ...
Chapter
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The ever-evolving digital technology is transforming us in unexpected ways. In the last few decades, almost any dimension of human life is being affected by these devices, from a global perspective (e.g., we can video chat immediately with someone being thousands of kilometers away) to the individual cognitive sphere. For instance, we no longer memorize telephone numbers or instructions to get to a given place; we just trust these artifacts and let them perform more and more actions we used to do by ourselves in the past. This new reality poses profound implications for human nature, particularly for cognitive architecture. There is a growing body of scientific literature highlighting the effects of digital technology over cognitive processes, such as attention, memory, or motivation. However, there is little evidence regarding to what extent technology is related with thinking and reasoning. Is the use of technology enhancing the way we think and reason, and thus making us smarter? Or is it the opposite, and they are taking away from us the cognitive effort we used to conduct ourselves, and thus making us cognitive lazier and brainless. Throughout this chapter, three goals are aimed, namely, (a) depicting the state of the art of the studies regarding the relationship between digital technology and cognition, especially possible changes in the way we think and reason; (b) reflecting about the future envisioned concerning how technology should be aligned with social needs (rather than social needs being deceived to meet the interests of giant companies behind technology design). In doing so, the normative way of thinking and reasoning will be discussed, that is, what is considered the right way to deploy them. Finally, (c) drawing some lines of action to raise awareness. Instead of waiting for a better technological design, specific actions at an individual level to take back control over technology can already be conducted. Social change is happening, it depends on us whether it will be the social change we wish, desire, and deserve, or not.
... Kedua, secara terpisah untuk ketergantungan, penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Musa dan Ishak (2021) memiliki kemiripan dari hasil penelitian. Ketergantungan yang dimaksud mungkin mengarah ke istilah Google Effect dimana pengguna cenderung untuk tidak menyimpan informasi dipikiran mereka karena percaya Google dapat memberikan bantuan jawaban saat dibutuhkan (Sparrow et al., 2011). Persentase siswa sebesar 70% yang terdampak efek ini. ...
... Our reliance on AI for tasks that were once part of the normal repertoire of human activities has saturated modern societies. These include the well-known 'Google effect', or relying on the Internet in place of our own memory, and a reduction in the desire to engage in demanding mental tasks and encode new information in our brains (Sparrow et al. 2011;Bohannon 2011;Storm et al., 2017). Where once our friends and family members were part of a network of transactive memory partners with whom we shared information, the Internet increasingly fills that role and has become for many the sole arbiter of knowledge (Wegner and Ward 2013). ...
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The invention of agriculture 12,000 years ago has been called the worst mistake in human history. Alongside the social, political, and technological innovations that stemmed from it, there came a litany of drawbacks ranging from social inequality, a decline in human health, to the concentration of power in the hands of a few. Millennia after the invention of agriculture, another revolution—the digital revolution—is having a similar impact on humanity, albeit at a scale and speed measured in decades. Despite the tremendous advances brought about by this revolution, there is today a rapidly expanding gulf within and between societies along technological lines; alarming effects on sociality and cognition due to a persistent online presence; and a concentration of power in the form of wealth and data within a handful of tech companies, the likes of which has never been seen before. While the effects of agriculture can now be discerned with thousands of years of hindsight, those of the digital revolution can be witnessed in real time. Is the digital revolution paving the way for a more equitable and stable world, or is it leading humanity down a road that will prove to be more detrimental the more ensconced in technology we become?
... The present findings are also noteworthy because-to our knowledge-they arise from the first experiment designed to examine the potential benefits of pretesting in the context of learning new information via the Internet. Research has suggested that people tend to rely on the Internet to store and access information in a way that may reduce the extent to which they store that information internally (Marsh & Rajaram, 2019;Sparrow et al., 2011). Importantly, as suggested by the present results, pretesting might have the potential to enhance the way students learn new information encountered on the Internet. ...
... Механизм «аннулирования» -это ослабление стремления к «живому» сохранению знаний в связи с техническим прогрессом в архивации и делегированием функции запоминания внешним по отношению к человеку системам. Сходное явление известно под названием «эффект Google», суть которого заключается в формировании нового гибридного типа памяти, когда человек запоминает алгоритм поиска нужного материала в сети, но не само его содержание (Sparrow, Liu, Wegner 2011). Быстрое обновление материальной среды и идеологического ландшафта требует забывания предшествующего опыта решения функционально аналогичных задач. ...
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The aim of the article is to condense the empirical variety of forms of intentional forgetting to a limited number of qualitatively specific types of interaction with evocative (memory evoking) objects. First, an analysis of the positive functions of selective reversible forgetting at the individual and collective levels is carried out. Then methodological contradictions in the interpretation of the relationship between the constructs of collective and individual memory are discussed. To solve these contradictions, it is proposed to consider collective memory as primary in relation to individual memory. At the same time, collective memory is understood as a multirole activity mediated by evocative objects and aimed at achieving a positive group identity. The article proposes a new theoretical framework for interpreting the processes of collective and individual intentional forgetting, which includes four types of active interaction with evocative objects: ignoring, destruction, functional replacement and creation of hyperstimulating evocative environments. Ignoring practices leave the evocative object intact. They are carried out in the form of physical distancing, exclusion of unwanted memories from communication, and masking the evocative aspects of the object. The destructive practices imply the physical destruction of external conditions that provoke actualization of the mnemonic trace of the event. The mechanism of functional replacement consists in interfering with the evocative content of the object either through its alternative use, or by creating an alternative object with similar functionality. The practices of creating hyperstimulating evocative objects are aimed at controlling and localizing intense mnemonic reactions in socially sanctioned contexts.
... Complex information systems can lead to cognitive fatigue, distraction (via multi-modal delivery), and performance loss from neural switching. Such factors are not being sufficiently considered when deciding on the appropriate level of AI use, when not to use it, and how to better design human in/on the loop processes and partnerships (Drnec, Marathe, Lukos, & Metcalfe, 2016;Endsley, 2016;Sparrow, Liu, & Wegner, 2011). ...
Technical Report
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Recent developments in the field of artificial intelligence (AI) have highlighted the significant potential of the technology to increase Defence capability while reducing risk in military operations. However, it is clear that significant work also needs to be undertaken to ensure that introduction of the technology does not result in adverse outcomes. Defence's challenge is that failure to adopt the emerging technologies in a timely manner may result in a military disadvantage, while premature adoption without sufficient research and analysis may result in inadvertent harms. To explore how to achieve ethical AI in Defence, a workshop was held in Canberra from 30 July to 1 August 2019. 104 people from 45 organisations attended, including representatives from Defence, other Australian government agencies, the Trusted Autonomous Systems Defence Cooperative Research Centre (TASDCRC), civil society, universities and Defence industry. The outputs of the workshop represent a small part of a substantial and ongoing investment in appropriate methodologies, frameworks and theories to guide the development, evaluation, deployment and adaptation of ethical AI and autonomous systems across Defence and the TASDCRC. This report articulates the views of participants and outcomes of the workshop for further consideration and does not represent the views of the Australian Government. This report will be provided to support the development of Defence policy, doctrine, research and project management.
... Specifically, photo-takers could come to rely on the information stored in the camera and, in so doing, offload responsibility for remembering photographed information onto the camera's external memory store. Some have argued that saving information serves as a "forget" cue akin to those that appear within the directed forgetting paradigm (Eskritt & Ma, 2014;Sparrow et al., 2011). If this is the case, impairments associated with saving information could be caused by mechanisms argued to underlie directed forgetting effects such as retrieval inhibition (Bjork, 1989), selective rehearsal (Basden et al., 1993), or context shifts (Sahakyan & Kelley, 2002). ...
... They are concerned about the external memory stored in computer and internet devices while losing natural internal memory and intellectual abilities to examine the learning content critically. An experiment published in Science Magazine in the US demonstrated that students remember less information when they know that they could easily access it later on the computer (Sparrow et al., 2011). This reliance on the web and computerstored learning content appear to increase plagiarism, as demonstrated by the capability of searching for the answers online instead of learning how to complete the assignments or problems using their natural abilities. ...
Article
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This study sought to investigate the ontological paradox of computer-based technologies used in education and learning. The argument of this article is that today, the use of computer-based technologies to enhance learning and disseminate knowledge is indispensable; however, this leads to an onto-educational shift in the way we regard intellectual development of learners as a subjective factor in education and the employed learning technologies themselves; a natural human subjective element of learning and knowledge is considered to be ineffective, while technologically stored and transferred facts of knowledge are given higher regard. Computer-based technologies used in education are appraised and institutionalized to the height that learners are sometimes unable to reflect on their own without recourse to the aid of such technologies. It is not enough to employ technology and technologically enhance learning, but also we have to question its impact on the intellectual development of learners. Appropriating Heidegger’s phenomenology, the ontology of the human subject provides a philosophical and normative foundation for a comprehensive analysis of the use of computer-based learning in the technological frame since it allows us to rethink more seriously about subjective factors in education in today's growing technological society. This article recommends that the embracement of educational and learning technologies should consider both subjective and technological aspects; a blended education and learning system would be appropriate.
... The present findings are also noteworthy because-to our knowledge-they arise from the first experiment designed to examine the potential benefits of pretesting in the context of learning new information via the Internet. Research has suggested that people tend to rely on the Internet to store and access information in a way that may reduce the extent to which they store that information internally (Marsh & Rajaram, 2019;Sparrow et al., 2011). Importantly, as suggested by the present results, pretesting might have the potential to enhance the way students learn new information encountered on the Internet. ...
... There is very little currently available empirical work in cognitive psychology, he concludes, on which tech-pessimists base their claims that memory is deteriorating. Moreover, the empirical work that is cited (i.e., Sparrow et al., 2011) investigates the performance on memory tasks when facts are stored in folders on a computer in the lab. It is not obvious that findings from such an artificial setting say anything about the cognitive effects of Internet use in the wild. ...
Article
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Smartphone use plays an increasingly important role in our daily lives. Philosophical research that has used first wave or second wave theories of extended cognition in order to understand our engagement with digital technologies has focused on the contribution of these technologies to the completion of specific cognitive tasks (e.g., remembering, reasoning, problem-solving, navigation). However, in a considerable number of cases, everyday smartphone use is task-unrelated. In psychological research, these cases have been captured by notions such as absent-minded smartphone use (Marty-Dugas et al., 2018) or smartphone-related inattentiveness (Liebherr et al., 2020). Given the prevalence of these cases, we develop a conceptual framework that can accommodate the functional and phenomenological characteristics of task-unrelated smartphone use. To this end, we will integrate research on second wave extended cognition with mind-wandering research and introduce the concept of ‘extended mind-wandering’. Elaborating the family resemblances approach to mind-wandering (Seli, Kane, Smallwood, et al., 2018), we will argue that task-unrelated smartphone use shares many characteristics with mind-wandering. We will suggest that an empirically informed conceptual analysis of cases of extended mind-wandering can enrich current work on digitally extended cognition by specifying the influence of the attention economy on our cognitive dynamics.
... Así mismo, puede volverse desventajoso para los estudiantes o las personas en formación, porque no retienen a largo plazo y para poder enfrentarse a retos complejos a futuro, se hace indispensable el aprendizaje de tareas complejas (Shors, 2009citado por Lara, 2017. Por ello, es materia de preocupación que sea Internet quien se esté encargando de todos los desafíos cognitivos y se abandonen las tareas de memorización (Sparrow, Liu y Wegner, 2011;Storm, Stone y Benjamin, 2016citados por Lara, 2017. (2013), esta supresión de las tareas memorísticas en los miembros de un grupo se conoce como el "efecto Google"; y peor aún, este acceso inconsciente y desmedido a la información lleva al individuo a creer que sabe cosas que en realidad acaba de averiguar en Internet y que, de forma fugaz, serán reemplazadas por un nuevo dato a corto plazo. ...
... Así mismo, puede volverse desventajoso para los estudiantes o las personas en formación, porque no retienen a largo plazo y para poder enfrentarse a retos complejos a futuro, se hace indispensable el aprendizaje de tareas complejas (Shors, 2009citado por Lara, 2017. Por ello, es materia de preocupación que sea Internet quien se esté encargando de todos los desafíos cognitivos y se abandonen las tareas de memorización (Sparrow, Liu y Wegner, 2011;Storm, Stone y Benjamin, 2016citados por Lara, 2017. (2013), esta supresión de las tareas memorísticas en los miembros de un grupo se conoce como el "efecto Google"; y peor aún, este acceso inconsciente y desmedido a la información lleva al individuo a creer que sabe cosas que en realidad acaba de averiguar en Internet y que, de forma fugaz, serán reemplazadas por un nuevo dato a corto plazo. ...
Article
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Debido al constante contacto con las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación (TIC) surgen generaciones de individuos conocidos como millennials, nativos o generación digitales; caracterizados por una forma de pensar distinta y un manejo de altos volúmenes de información, incluso en multitarea. A partir de una revisión de literatura basada en investigación de nativos digitales, nuevas tecnologías y pedagogía, se realiza una compilación de los aspectos distintivos de esta nueva generación que justifican la importancia de reconocer sus particularidades.
... Social media use usually involves multi-tasking; the elderly tend to utilize their basic functions such as communication and interaction with others, whereas the younger population likes to treat them as convenient and comprehensive Internet platforms to seek and share information. Studies have suggested that excessive access to information via social media serves as a substitution effect on memory [70]. Additionally, over-reliance on social media to handle various activities may cause anatomical changes in parts of the cerebral cortex that relate to memory [21]. ...
Article
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Changes to memory performance in the course of aging may be influenced by behavioral factors. The use of social media among elderly people is increasing, but studying its effect on cognitive functions such as memory remains at an early stage of development. Meanwhile, the linking mechanisms underlying the association between social media use and memory performance, if any exist, have not been revealed. This study attempted to examine the association between the use of WeChat, the most popular social media platform in China, and memory performance among older people, and to test the possible mediating role of depression underlying this association. Data were drawn from the five-wave survey of the China Family Panel Study (CFPS), and 4929 respondents aged 60 or older (mean age = 68.19, SD = 5.84, 48.2% females) were included. Based on the descriptive statistics, the chi-squared test, Student’s t-test, correlation analysis, and mediation analysis were conducted. The results indicated that the usage rate of WeChat among the sample was 20.1%. After controlling for demographic variables, the use of WeChat was related to higher levels of memory performance and lower levels of depression. Moreover, depression partially mediated the relationship between WeChat use and memory performance. To maintain memory performance and promote cognitive health in the course of aging, using social media and alleviating depression merit special attention.
... "Google effect" indicates that when people use the Internet as an external storage, they need to remember "where" it is instead of the information itself (Sparrow et al. (2011), Ward (2013). The studies of psychology of internet, suggested that Internet search reduced the need for effort to process and remember information (Carr (2020)). ...
Preprint
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The one of most popular tools for measuring online behavior is Google Trends, an open tool that provides information on trends and the variations of online interest in selected keywords and topics over time. In this paper I show some stylised facts about economic activities like exchange, prices, and credits, from non official statistics. I use Google Trend data for measuring this words searching as proxy of financial actions determinants in Republic of Armenia. I use the Holt-Winters model for predict the patterns of people searches for exchange, prices, and credit over a given time interval. JEL classification: C22, C32, C5.
... Our findings may also help guide research and shape policy on a critical modern issue, online consumer privacy, since the extent to which people can feel ownership over the personal data that firms collect (34) likely shapes their preferences for how such data are treated. In fact, identifying loss aversion and the endowment effect for information may be particularly relevant in the digital age, when unprecedented access to information complicates and potentially changes the way we value ite.g., being able to easily look up a fact makes it less important to remember (67). But that makes the finding that we do indeed feel ownership over-and an accompanying loss aversion forinformation all the more unexpected and interesting. ...
Article
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We often talk about interacting with information as we would with a physical good (e.g., “consuming content”) and describe our attachment to personal beliefs in the same way as our attachment to personal belongings (e.g., “holding on to” or “letting go of” our beliefs). But do we in fact value information the way we do objects? The valuation of money and material goods has been extensively researched, but surprisingly few insights from this literature have been applied to the study of information valuation. This paper demonstrates that two fundamental features of how we value money and material goods embodied in Prospect Theory—loss aversion and different risk preferences for gains versus losses—also hold true for information, even when it has no material value. Study 1 establishes loss aversion for noninstrumental information by showing that people are less likely to choose a gamble when the same outcome is framed as a loss (rather than gain) of information. Study 2 shows that people exhibit the endowment effect for noninstrumental information, and so value information more, simply by virtue of “owning” it. Study 3 provides a conceptual replication of the classic “Asian Disease” gain-loss pattern of risk preferences, but with facts instead of human lives, thereby also documenting a gain-loss framing effect for noninstrumental information. These findings represent a critical step in building a theoretical analogy between information and objects, and provide a useful perspective on why we often resist changing (or losing) our beliefs.
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Cognitive health is necessary for human development. However, the hyperconsumption of biotechnologies (smartphones, internet, video games, social networks, virtual reality) can cause damage to cognitive health and, therefore, to human health and development. Consequently, such research focuses on limiting the consumption of specific technologies in minors in order to protect their health. This research is divided in five parts: the contextualization on the colonization of biotechnological consumption; a diagnosis of neuronal violence and consequences for human development; a review of the cognition sequelae due to the abuse of biotechnologies, based on selected medical research; an exposition on the necessary relationships between the moral order and the legal one, from philosophical realism and natural law approaches; proposal of minimum fundamental rules, based, in turn, on a biojuridical specification of principles to protect cognitive health, which serve as preliminary support to elaborate a future Universal Declaration for the Protection of Cognitive Health, as an essential biological basis for human development.
Chapter
In the chapter, adolescent development, brain development, positive and negative effects of social media on academic achievements, and the educational experiences of young, virtual learners will be examined. Further discussion will entail the importance of social-emotional competencies found in learners that contribute and enhance students' overall positive functioning in academic settings. Pertinent research and literature related to the above stated themes, will also be explored, analysed, and discussed within the context of the chapter's framework.
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This article criticizes the culture of normalizing anomalies using complementary reflection
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Adaptive intelligence features collective adaptation as a hallmark of human intelligence. Any thought and behavior labeled as adaptively intelligent must contribute to the perpetuation of human populations instead of being destructive to this perpetuation. Whereas most intellectual capacities captured by conventional IQ tests can be replaced by “intelligent” machines, adaptive intelligence—the ability to deliver contextually relevant outputs for the survival and sustainable development of humans and the world they inhabit—may be a uniquely human ability. In this chapter, we link adaptive intelligence to cultural evolution theories. We further propose that adaptive intelligence is supported by a concatenation of mutually reinforcing individual and interpersonal capacities. These capacities have evolved and are evolving to support adaptation of human populations to the environment and its changes. Furthermore, adaptive intelligence is solution-oriented; it enables human groups to identify/create and implement optimally adaptive strategies to meet challenges in concrete physical, socioeconomic and social ecologies. Based on these ideas, we propose a conceptual framework for understanding, measuring and developing a psychological system of adaptive intelligence.
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The purpose of this essay is to show the importance of social, humanistic studies, of heritage education and the use of technologies to listen to the voices of traditional communities to safeguard knowledge about these cultural heritage and generate heritage education that is closer to the public and of the community.
Book
The past remains essential - and inescapable. A quarter-century after the publication of his classic account of man's attitudes to his past, David Lowenthal revisits how we celebrate, expunge, contest and domesticate the past to serve present needs. He shows how nostalgia and heritage now pervade every facet of public and popular culture. History embraces nature and the cosmos as well as humanity. The past is seen and touched and tasted and smelt as well as heard and read about. Empathy, re-enactment, memory and commemoration overwhelm traditional history. A unified past once certified by experts and reliant on written texts has become a fragmented, contested history forged by us all. New insights into history and memory, bias and objectivity, artefacts and monuments, identity and authenticity, and remorse and contrition, make this book once again the essential guide to the past that we inherit, reshape and bequeath to the future.
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Various theories and models discuss how instructional designers can develop systems that allow learners to engage in problem-solving. To date, many of these theories and models that guide design often describe how learners engage in meaning-making within a situated context; however, they do not address strategies instructional designers can use to coordinate contextual factors impacting the environment. While these perspectives provide a more authentic view of action, they often overlook the design decision-making processes to support learning that occur within these situated environments. This makes it challenging to design learning systems that support complex interactions. Although studies have begun to emerge focusing on instructional design decisions, there is a need for a framework to guide how instructional designers engage in decision-making while designing for situated, real-world experiences. We then offer a theoretical design framework to facilitate design decision-making by conjecturing within a bounded rationality, exploring through analogical reasoning, and designing-in-action.
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The human fascination with the art of predicting the future derives from the practical need to anticipate events to make adequate decisions. While science fiction has undoubtedly contributed greatly to this field, there are a large number of other forms of expression of the same desire to predict the future in almost every field of activity—from the arts to science, from technology to linguistics, and from artificial intelligence to magic—all of which constantly contribute to bringing the future closer to the present. However, there is one field that potentially has the greatest predictive power of them all: that is the field of law. To release this latent power of law, this article argues, a cognitive revolution has to take place, one that is related to the perception of time. Awareness about this cognitive change is dawning and is currently manifesting itself in a general trend derived from related trends of convergence in language and technology. These trends are captured by the rise of the rhetorical figures of oxymora and paradoxes, or so-called “essentially oxymoronic concepts,” that increasingly pervade all human activities. Over the course of time, these concepts appear to have shown the magical power of bringing opposites into closer contact and possibly transcending their apparent contradictions to create a new reality. Pondering the future role of law while considering the present perception of time based on the dichotomy of the past and the future, this article inquires how far oxymora and paradoxes such as science fiction and space-time indicate an acceleration, a gradual shrinking and even a possible disappearance of time (as we know it).
Conference Paper
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Os Programas de Pós-Graduação em Ciência, Tecnologia e Sociedade (PPGCTS) e Ciência da Informação (PPGCI) da UFSCar promoveram a segunda edição do Seminário Informação, Inovação e Sociedade (II SIIS), realizado de modo virtual, no dia 19 de outubro de 2020, em consonância com a 17a Semana Nacional da Ciência e Tecnologia, promovida pelo MCTIC, com o tema “Inteligência Artificial: a nova fronteira da ciência brasileira”. O II SIIS teve como tema central “Inteligência Artificial: diálogos a partir da Informação, Inovação e Sociedade”, configurando-se como principal espaço de divulgação e de articulação da produção científica desenvolvida ao longo das investigações que dizem respeito ao conhecimento, à tecnologia e à inovação em âmbitos nacional e internacional, a partir do olhar das áreas de Ciência da Informação (CI) e Ciência, Tecnologia e Sociedade (CTS), como um amplo campo de estudo das relações entre a informação e os aspectos evolutivos da tecnologia, na promoção da inovação e seu impacto nos diversos segmentos da sociedade contemporânea. O evento promoveu 3 palestras e contou com 62 trabalhos apresentados remotamente, distribuídos em seis sessões temáticas, coordenados e mediados pelos organizadores do evento. Participaram com apresentação de trabalhos, mestres, doutores e pós-doutores, oriundos de diferentes áreas do conhecimento e vinculados a diferentes instituições nacionais e internacionais. As palestras promovidas durante o evento foram: “Qual o impacto da Inteligência Artificial e dos dados (abertos e conectados) na Educação?” Prof. Dr. Seiji Isotani (Professor Titular na área de Computação e Tecnologias Educacionais junto ao Instituto de Ciências Matemáticas e de Computação da Universidade de São Paulo (ICMC-USP-São Carlos).“Por que não dá para deixar tudo nas mãos dos algoritmos?" Dr. Francisco Camargo (Pós-Doutorando na Oxford Internet Institute da University of Oxford - Reino Unido). “A Qualidade dos Dados em Tempos de Inteligência Artificial e Big Data” Prof. Dr. Dalton Lopes Martins (Professor no curso de Biblioteconomia e do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência da Informação PPGCinf da Faculdade de Ciência da Informação (FCI) na Universidade de Brasília (UnB) e no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Comunicação PPGCOM (Mestrado) da Faculdade de Informação e Comunicação da Universidade Federal de Goiás. Os resumos dos trabalhos apresentados no II SIIS, passaram por avaliação de Comitê Científico e compõe esta publicação.
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The article considers understanding as a social and cognitive phenomenon, analyses the conditions for the formation of understanding in oral and written communications. Text comprehension is a fundamental element of human literacy, since without comprehension it is impossible to use information, reflect and draw conclusions, on the basis of which it is possible to achieve goals and participate in social life. Thus, in the modern world it is one of the key elements of socialisation. Understanding the text is based not only on the technical skills of reading and writing, but also on the general outlook of a person, his ideas about different areas of life. Studies conducted during mass distance learning have shown that a break in personal teacher-student communication during training had a negative impact on the reading skills of schoolchildren. In addition to regularity, both social attitudes and value views of parents, as well as the cognitive experience of the student, the level of his speech development are important for effective reading and understanding. Reading is considered by the authors not just as a set of cognitive skills, but also as a social action. Studies show that the reading skills and comprehension of new knowledge by schoolchildren are influenced by: the socio-economic status of the family, the attitudes and principles adopted in it. The article also shows that a long time spent by schoolchildren on the Internet negatively affects both their comprehension of texts and empathy. In addition, the problems of integrating the individual into the digital environment and the impact of digitalisation on consciousness and thinking are analysed. On the background of the growth of leisure preferences on the Internet, there is a decrease in the importance of reading for schoolchildren. An increase in school load also negatively affects interest in reading. The authors hypothesise that social stratification between schoolchildren with different levels of literacy can be reduced by using earlier teaching of semantic reading. The authors show that the study of these issues is important not only for pedagogical and psychological sciences, but also for sociology.
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Remembering of episodic memory is characterized by autonoetic consciousness, which enables us to mentally re-experience the past events. It means that the system of episodic memory enables us to mentally travel into the temporally passed event. The orientation of mental time travel is not only for the past events, also for the future or counterfactual events. And then, the memory system could be interpreted as a system to recombine episodic details and construct events in various time frames. We introduce some research which is related to this memory system; episodic future thinking, details in autobiographical memory, cognitive offloading, intentional cognitive control and forgetting, and computational study on subjective meta-memory. Finally, we discuss the recent perspective of episodic memory or episodic sciences and future research directions. Key words:
Research
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In October of 2012, Thomas H. Davenport and DJ Patil through the Harvard Business Review published the popularized article “Data Scientist: The Sexiest Job of the 21st Century.” The article was a reflection of a rapidly-growing sector of the technology industry: data science. But what exactly is data science? Or more specifically, how does data science apply in our daily lives? Although the richness and complexities of data science are evidently seen, its daily application and uses aren’t always easily visible to the public eye. Data science, despite its position as the key player in many projects, usually serves as the stage crew who assist in operations backstage; this leads to many misconceptions and miscreditations to the data science behind many projects. The purpose of this white paper will be to address the growing rise of data science and also its application in major fields such as election polling, search engines (SEOs), and nutrition labels (USDA).
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Conducted 10 experiments to evaluate the notion of "depth of processing" in human memory. Undergraduate Ss were asked questions concerning the physical, phonemic, or semantic characteristics of a long series of words; this initial question phase was followed by an unexpected retention test for the words. It was hypothesized that "deeper" (semantic) questions would take longer to answer and be associated with higher retention of the target words. These ideas were confirmed by the 1st 4 experiments. Exps V-X showed (a) it is the qualitative nature of a word's encoding which determines retention, not processing time as such; and (b) retention of words given positive and negative decisions was equalized when the encoding questions were equally salient or congruous for both types of decision. While "depth" (the qualitative nature of the encoding) serves a useful descriptive purpose, results are better described in terms of the degree of elaboration of the encoded trace. Finally, results have implications for an analysis of learning in terms of its constituent encoding operations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Preexisting word knowledge is accessed in many cognitive tasks, and this article offers a means for indexing this knowledge so that it can be manipulated or controlled. We offer free association data for 72,000 word pairs, along with over a million entries of related data, such as forward and backward strength, number of competing associates, and printed frequency. A separate file contains the 5,019 normed words, their statistics, and thousands of independently normed rhyme, stem, and fragment cues. Other files provide n x n associative networks for more than 4,000 words and a list of idiosyncratic responses for each normed word. The database will be useful for investigators interested in cuing, priming, recognition, network theory, linguistics, and implicit testing applications. They also will be useful for evaluating the predictive value of free association probabilities as compared with other measures, such as similarity ratings and co-occurrence norms. Of several procedures for measuring preexisting strength between two words, the best remains to be determined. The norms may be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive/.
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Several of the design factors that must be considered in linking computers together into networks are also relevant to the ways in which individual human memory systems are linked into group memory systems. These factors include directory updating (learning who knows what in the group), information allocation (assigning memory items to group members), and retrieval coordination (planning how to find items in a way that takes advantage of who knows what). When these processes operate effectively in a group, the group's transactive memory is likely to be effective.
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The most influential theory of group behavior that has ever been developed is currently in disfavor. This is the theory of the group mind. Social commentators once found it very useful to analyze the behavior of groups by the same expedient used in analyzing the behavior of individuals. The group, like the person, was assumed to be sentient, to have a form of mental activity that guides action. Rousseau (1767) and Hegel (1807) were the early architects of this form of analysis, and it became so widely used in the 19th and early 20th centuries that almost every early social theorist we now recognize as a contributor to modern social psychology held a similar view. McDougall, Ross, Durkheim, Wundt, and LeBon, to name just a few, were willing to assume that the group has a mental life that plays a part in the patterning of group behavior.
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The literature on transactive memory (TM) continues to grow in several interrelated scholarly fields. Although this increased interest in TM systems has been beneficial, it has also led to a plurality and confusing interpretation of TM theory. To identify gaps and ambiguities in TM literature, this article provides a comprehensive overview of TM theory, distinguishes TM systems from related cognitive concepts, and reviews theory extensions and research in dyads, groups, and teams. Suggested areas for future research and theory extensions are face-to-face communication influencing TM systems, social interaction processes related to expert inferences, task context and levels of analysis, and extension of research to work teams. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In 3 experiments involving 17 groups of undergraduates, the amount and organization of recall of word lists varied with the type of incidental task performed during presentation of the list. All Ss heard a randomized list of high-strength primary word associates. When the incidental task required using the word as a semantic unit (rating the word as to its pleasantness), recall and organization were equivalent to those of a control group with no incidental task. When the incidental task involved the word as an object (checking for certain letters or estimating the number of letters in the word), recall and organization were greatly reduced. Effects were unaltered by incidental-plus-recall instructions, doubling presentation time, and presenting the list twice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The authors investigated processing of self-descriptive emotional information in depression using a modified Stroop color-naming task. Depressed (n = 58) and nondepressed control (n = 44) participants were required to name the color in which positive and negative adjectives, differing in the degree to which they described the person, were presented. These target adjectives were primed by emotional phrases that also varied according to degree of self-reference. Analyses indicated that depressed participants showed slower color-naming latencies for self-descriptive negative targets primed by self-descriptive negative phrases than for any other prime-target condition. No effect of prime-target relation was found for positive material with depressed participants, and nondepressed controls showed no effect of prime-target relation for material in either valence. These results support the hypothesis that negative information about the self is highly interconnected in the cognitive system of depressed patients.
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