Article

Case-control study on the use of mobile and cordless phones and the risk for malignant melanoma in the head and neck region

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Abstract

The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma has increased during the last decades in Sweden as in many other countries. Besides of ultraviolet radiation and constitutional factors such as light-sensitive skin and poor ability to tan few risk factors are established. Some studies indicate that electromagnetic fields might be of concern. In this case-control study we assessed use of mobile and cordless phones in 347 cases with melanoma in the head and neck region and 1184 controls. These subjects constituted 82% and 80%, respectively, that answered the questionnaire. Overall no increased risk was found. However, in the most exposed area; temporal, cheek and ear, cumulative use >365h of mobile phone yielded in the >1-5-year latency group odds ratio (OR)=2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.7-6.1 and cordless phone use gave OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.1-3.8. Highest OR was calculated for first use of mobile or cordless phone before the age of 20 years regardless of anatomical localisation in the head and neck region. No interaction was found with established risk factors such as red, medium blond or fair hair colour, blue eyes, skin type I or II (never or sometimes tanned), severe sunburns as teenager or heredity. The results must be interpreted with caution due to low numbers and potential methodological shortcomings in a case-control study. However, the findings might be consistent with a late carcinogenic effect from microwaves, i.e. tumour promotion, but need to be confirmed.

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... En la tabla 2 se resumen las principales características de los estudios incluidos. De los estudios incluidos en la revisión, siete fueron estudios de casos y controles [11][12][13][14][15][16][17] , cinco revisiones sistemáticas [18][19][20][21][22] , un estudio de cohortes 23 y un metaanálisis 24 . En cuanto al ámbito geográfico, se habían realizado en 14 países. ...
... Destaca asimismo la posibilidad de un mayor riesgo de aparición de este tipo de tumor tras 5-6 años de manejo del dispositivo y con un tiempo acumulado de llamadas de 1640 horas 19,20 . • Melanomas: los estudios analizados señalan la zona temporal de la cabeza, la mejilla, la oreja y el cuello como las áreas corporales con mayor exposición a las radiaciones no ionizantes y con mayor riesgo de melanoma 17,23 . Además, estos estudios apuntan la existencia de un riesgo dos veces mayor en las personas con un uso acumulativo de llamadas telefónicas mayor de 365 horas (aproximadamente 12 minutos al día) y con un periodo de latencia mayor de 5 años, revelando efectos cancerígenos a largo plazo. ...
... Además, estos estudios apuntan la existencia de un riesgo dos veces mayor en las personas con un uso acumulativo de llamadas telefónicas mayor de 365 horas (aproximadamente 12 minutos al día) y con un periodo de latencia mayor de 5 años, revelando efectos cancerígenos a largo plazo. Estos resultados deberían ser confirmados en estudios que incluyan muestras más contundentes y mayores periodos de seguimiento 17,23 . ...
Article
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Objective: To synthesize and analyse systematic reviews, case-control studies, cohort studies and meta-analysis that investigate the association between exposure to radiofrequency from mobile phones and the appearance of tumours in adults. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in Scopus, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, Medline and Cinahl of articles published in English and Spanish between January 2005 and February 2016 that analyse the risk of tumour associated with exposure to radiofrequency from mobile phones in adults. The recommendations of the PRISMA Declaration were followed, and the quality of the articles was analysed with the AMSTAR tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results: 1034 studies were found, fourteen of which were included. Most studies agree that it is not possible to determine a relationship in the short term, although long-term (over 10 years) radiofrequency emitted by mobile phones can cause tumour effects, with an increased risk by ipsilateral exposure and latency. Conclusions: Although radiofrequency from mobile phones has tumour effects on humans, the available scientific evidence is not robust. More rigorous follow-up studies with larger sample sizes and broader periods are necessary to learn more about the long-term effects.
... In a Norwegian cross-sectional study investigating fertility among Norwegian Navy employees, personnel in job functions classified as exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields were more likely to report a previous skin cancer (10). However, in a recent case-control study of melanoma of the head and neck, no overall association with self-reported use of mobile or cordless phones was found (11). ...
... In a Swedish case-control study including 347 melanoma cases and 1,184 controls, no association was reported between overall mobile phone use and risk of melanoma of the head and neck (11). This is compatible with our findings. ...
... We observed slightly elevated risk estimates for melanoma of both head/neck and torso/legs after a long subscription duration, but the resulting IRR ratio was close to unity. In the Swedish study, Hardell et al. (11) reported an increased risk of melanoma of the temporal area, including the cheek and ear, among heavy users (>365 hours of cumulative use) of cordless phones (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1, 3.8) and mobile phones (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% CI: 0.7, 6.1) who started phone use 1-5 years before diagnosis. We had no detailed information on specific tumor location on the head/ neck area or on amount of mobile phone use that would allow us to evaluate the latter findings in our study. ...
Article
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The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified radiofrequency radiation as possibly carcinogenic. Previous studies have focused on intracranial tumors, although the skin receives much radiation. In a nationwide cohort study, 355,701 private mobile phone subscribers in Denmark from 1987 to 1995 were followed up through 2007. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma by using Poisson regression models adjusted for age, calendar period, educational level, and income. Separate IRRs for head/neck tumors and torso/leg tumors were compared (IRRs) to further address potential confounders. We observed no overall increased risk for basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, or melanoma of the head and neck. After a follow-up period of at least 13 years, the IRRs for basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma remained near unity. Among men, the IRR for melanoma of the head and neck was 1.20 (95% confidence interval: 0.65, 2.22) after a minimum 13-year follow-up, whereas the corresponding IRR for the torso and legs was 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 0.91, 1.47), yielding an IRR of 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 0.54, 2.00). A similar risk pattern was seen among women, though it was based on smaller numbers. In this large, population-based cohort study, little evidence of an increased skin cancer risk was observed among mobile phone users.
... It has also been suggested that there may be an increase in risk of leukaemia, 15,16 through exposure of bone marrow, and of malignant melanoma. 17 In May 2011, an IARC Working Group concluded that there is 'limited evidence in humans' for the carcinogenicity of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, based on associations between glioma and acoustic neuroma and exposure to these fields from wireless phones. 1 For meningioma and for non-CNS cancers, the IARC Working Group found the available evidence to be 'insufficient to reach a conclusion on the potential association with mobile phone use'. The epidemiological evidence, which has been extensively reviewed, 1,18-25 came largely from retrospective casecontrol studies, notably the INTERPHONE multicentre study [26][27][28] and studies from the Hardell group in Sweden. ...
... These results are consistent with the limited published data for non-CNS tumours. 4,[15][16][17][18]39 As found in the Danish cohort, mobile phone users in our study had a slightly lower incidence of lung cancer and all cancer than non-users; in the Million Women Study, mobile phone users were less likely than non-users to be current smokers at baseline, and it is possible that the slightly reduced risk of lung cancer reflects some residual confounding with smoking. ...
Article
Background: Results from some retrospective studies suggest a possible increased risk of glioma and acoustic neuroma in users of mobile phones. Methods: The relation between mobile phone use and incidence of intracranial central nervous system (CNS) tumours and other cancers was examined in 791,710 middle-aged women in a UK prospective cohort, the Million Women Study. Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Women reported mobile phone use in 1999 to 2005 and again in 2009. Results: During 7 years' follow-up, 51,680 incident invasive cancers and 1,261 incident intracranial CNS tumours occurred. Risk among ever vs never users of mobile phones was not increased for all intracranial CNS tumours (RR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.90-1.14, P = 0.82), for specified CNS tumour types nor for cancer at 18 other specified sites. For long-term users compared with never users, there was no appreciable association for glioma (10+ years: RR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.55-1.10, P = 0.16) or meningioma (10+ years: RR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.66-1.84, P = 0.71). For acoustic neuroma, there was an increase in risk with long term use vs never use (10+ years: RR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.07-5.64, P = 0.03), the risk increasing with duration of use (trend among users, P = 0.03). Conclusions: In this large prospective study, mobile phone use was not associated with increased incidence of glioma, meningioma or non-CNS cancers.
... Such significant environmental changes may have a serious impact on human biology and health. As a proof of such impact, a series of epidemiological studies on the increased risk of tumorigenesis in ''heavy'' users of wireless telephony exists (Hardell et al., , 2011Sadetzki et al., 2008;Sato et al., 2011). Some studies indicate that long-term RFR exposure in humans can cause various non-cancer disorders, e.g., headache, fatigue, depression, tinnitus, skin irritation, hormonal disorders and other conditions (Abdel-Rassoul et al., 2007;Buchner & Eger, 2011;Chu et al., 2011;Johansson, 2006;Santini et al., 2002;. ...
... During recent years, a number of epidemiological studies indicated a significant increase in incidence of various types of tumors among long-term or ''heavy'' users of cellular phones . Briefly, reports pointed to the increased risk in brain tumors (Cardis et al., 2010;Hardell and Carlberg, 2009;, acoustic neuroma Sato et al., 2011), tumors of parotid glands (Sadetzki et al., 2008), seminomas , melanomas (Hardell et al., 2011) and lymphomas in these cohorts of people. To that, a significant increase in tumor incidence among people living nearby cellular base transceiver stations was also reported (Eger et al., 2004;Wolf and Wolf, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
This review aims to cover experimental data on oxidative effects of low-intensity radiofrequency radiation (RFR) in living cells. Analysis of the currently available peer-reviewed scientific literature reveals molecular effects induced by low-intensity RFR in living cells; this includes significant activation of key pathways generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of peroxidation, oxidative damage of DNA and changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It indicates that among 100 currently available peer-reviewed studies dealing with oxidative effects of low-intensity RFR, in general, 93 confirmed that RFR induces oxidative effects in biological systems. A wide pathogenic potential of the induced ROS and their involvement in cell signaling pathways explains a range of biological/health effects of low-intensity RFR, which include both cancer and non-cancer pathologies. In conclusion, our analysis demonstrates that low-intensity RFR is an expressive oxidative agent for living cells with a high pathogenic potential and that the oxidative stress induced by RFR exposure should be recognized as one of the primary mechanisms of the biological activity of this kind of radiation.
... Such a significant increase in electromagnetic radiation is a natural concern about risks to human health. A proof of such an influence is a series of epidemiological studies which show a higher risk of oncological diseases in active mobile phone users [10][11][12][13]. ...
... According to modern studies, the influence of the anthropogenic electromagnetic field on ecological systems can be divided into three components (Fig. 3): the influence of low-frequency EMF sources, the influence of the radio frequency range of EMF on components of the ecosystem, and the impact of EMFs on man-made objects in the ecosystem. The influence of EMFs on the human body includes changes accompanied by annoyance, deterioration of memory, rapid fatigue, headaches, poor sleep, inhibition of conditioned reflexes [10][11][12][13][14][15]. These changes caused by EMF of low intensity, can accumulate in the human body in conditions of long-term exposure. ...
... 913 914 They also alter saliva, 915 thyroid hormones 916 and long-term use is linked with brain tumours. 917 5. Low level microwaves (0.3-300 GHz) affect brain enzymes and increase calcium ion efflux, affecting brain development and including biomarkers for cancers. 936 937 938 939 6. ELF power frequencies remain linked with brain tumours, 940 dementia, 941 Some EHS patients react badly to CFLs, probably because, in addition to visible light, CFLs emit: (a) EM radiation from the electronic ballast, (b) EM radiation on the wiring, (c) photons at invisible ultraviolet (UV) frequencies from the mercury. ...
Book
Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity is categorised as a multisymptomatic 'el-allergy' in the Nordic classification of 2000 (R.68.8). Its symptoms are 'certainly real' and it can be a 'disabling condition' (W.H.O., 2005). It was first recorded in the mid 20th century as an occupational illness, but it has now spread into the general population through environmental exposure from increasing levels of electromagnetic fields and radiation. This Summary covers current research on this syndrome, covering EM Sensitivity and EM Hypersensitivity. It includes tables of symptoms, EMF sources and exposure guidelines, along with references to scientific studies. This New Edition adds updates, international doctors' protocols, aspects of quantum biology, evidence for sensitivity in animals and plants, case studies, disability issues and human rights.
... Unfortunately, today we have some sound signals on the human health problems caused by long-term MW exposure from wireless devices. During the last years, epidemiological studies indicated on the significantly increased risk of different types of tumors among heavy users of a cell phone, including brain tumors [1][2][3], acoustic neuroma [4,5], tumors of parotid glands [6], seminomas [7], melanomas [8], and lymphomas [9]. Furthermore, it was reported on a significant increase in tumor incidence among people living nearby cellular base transmitting stations [10,11]. ...
... Because people may be adversely affected by the environmental impact of such electromagnetic fields (EMFs), it is of great scientific and social interest to explore the possible health hazards (Behari, 2010) potentially caused by this radiation spectrum. Major research is associated mainly with cell phones, while at the same time the other sources have been neglected with the exception of the epidemiological and partially clinical studies involving DECT phones (Hardell & Carlberg, 2009;Hardell et al., 2004Hardell et al., , 2006Hardell et al., , 2011Khurana et al., 2010). Mobile phone-like radiation studies have been performed during the last decades investigating a variety of biological effects, in humans with clinical studies and experimental work with rodents, flies and cell cultures. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The model biological organisms Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila virilis have been utilized to assess effects on apoptotic cell death of follicles during oogenesis and reproductive capacity (fecundity) decline. A total of 280 different experiments were performed using newly emerged flies exposed for short time daily for 3-7 d to various EMF sources including: GSM 900/1800 MHz mobile phone, 1880-1900 MHz DECT wireless base, DECT wireless handset, mobile phone-DECT handset combination, 2.44 GHz wireless network (Wi-Fi), 2.44 GHz blue tooth, 92.8 MHz FM generator, 27.15 MHz baby monitor, 900 MHz CW RF generator and microwave oven's 2.44 GHz RF and magnetic field components. Mobile phone was used as a reference exposure system for evaluating factors considered very important in dosimetry extending our published work with D. melanogaster to the insect D. virilis. Distance from the emitting source, the exposure duration and the repeatability were examined. All EMF sources used created statistically significant effects regarding fecundity and cell death-apoptosis induction, even at very low intensity levels (0.3 V/m blue tooth radiation), well below ICNIRP's guidelines, suggesting that Drosophila oogenesis system is suitable to be used as a biomarker for exploring potential EMF bioactivity. Also, there is no linear cumulative effect when increasing the duration of exposure or using one EMF source after the other (i.e. mobile phone and DECT handset) at the specific conditions used. The role of the average versus the peak E-field values as measured by spectrum analyzers on the final effects is discussed.
... Consequently, the recent epidemiological studies unexpectedly indicated a significant increase in the occurrence of various tumors among long-term and "heavy" users of cellular phones. These include brain tumors [2,3], acoustic neuromas [4,5], tumors of parotid glands [6], seminomas [7], melanomas [8] and lymphomas [9]. Similarly, an increase in tumor incidence among people living nearby cellular base transmitting stations was also reported [10,11]. ...
Article
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Radiofrequency radiation (RFR), e.g. electromagnetic waves emitted by our cell phones and Wi-Fi, are referred to as non-ionizing. This means that in contrast to the ionizing radiation, which does induce ionization of water and biologically important macromolecules, RFR does not have a capacity for such effects. Unlike, for example X-rays, the energy of RFR is not enough to break electrons off the molecules. However, is RFR completely safe for public health? Traditionally, the industry and the public bodies said yes. Nevertheless, new research data change this perception. Oxidative stress is an induced imbalance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant systems resulting in oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA; and is closely connected to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in living cells [1]. The notion that the low intensity RFR can bring about significant oxidative stress in living cells has been doubted for years. The logic is simple: as low intensity radiofrequency electromagnetic waves are not able to ionize molecules, they can do nothing wrong for the living tissues. However, during the last decades a worldwide increase in penetration of wireless communication systems, including cellular telephony and Wi-Fi, attracted massive attention to possible biological effects of low intensity RFR. Consequently, the recent epidemiologi-cal studies unexpectedly indicated a significant increase in the occurrence of various tumors among long-term and "heavy" users of cellular phones. These include brain tumors [2, 3], acoustic neuromas [4, 5], tumors of parotid glands [6], seminomas [7], melanomas [8] and lymphomas [9]. Similarly, an increase in tumor incidence among people living nearby cellular base transmitting stations was also reported [10, 11]. As a result, in 2011 the World Health Organization/ International Agency for Research on Cancer classified radiofrequency radiation as a possible carcinogen to humans [12].
... Classification of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) as "possibly carcinogenic to humans" (group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) / the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 [1] was a milestone on the way to awareness of global risk for human biology from expansion of wireless technologies all over the world. There exists a number of epidemiological studies which demonstrate carcinogenic effects of low intensity RFR emitted by cell phones [2][3][4][5] and base transceiver stations [6,7]. To that, there is a set of experimental data showing that low intensity RFR results in cancer promotion in animal models [8][9][10][11]. ...
Article
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Objective: Oxidative mechanisms of the mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) have been demonstrated recently. This opens the need for antioxidative approach for protection of living cells from harmful effects of RFR. In this study, we aimed to assess the antioxidant potential of monochromatic red light of light-emitting diodes (LED) in RFR-exposed embryonic cells. Methods: One group of Japanese quail embryos was exposed in ovo to GSM 900 MHz RFR (I = 1 14 µW/cm2; SAR = 0.17 mW/kg; t = 158 h; discontinuously) before and during the first hours of incubation. The second group of embryos was exposed to RFR in the same regimen and additionally to LED red light (λmax = 630-650 nm; I = 0.1 mW/cm2; t = 180 c; discontinuously). The third group of embryos were served as control. The rate of somitogenesis, level of lipid peroxidation, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in tissues of 38-h embryos were assessed. Results: Red light of LED exposure resulted in statistically significant reversion of the rate of somitogenesis decreased under RFR exposure; as well as in reversion of significantly increased level of lipid peroxidation and decreased catalase activity in tissues of RFR exposed embryos. In vitro significant suppression of SOD and catalase activities by short-term RFR exposure were partially reversed by LED red light treatment. Conclusion: Red light of LED can protect embryonic cells from oxidative stress caused by low intensity RFR exposure. This is of particularly importance in terms of potential mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of low intensity RFR, which in turn depends on the oxidative potential of RFR.
... However, the BioInitiative working group, together with other researchers [8,10,[12][13][14][15][16], suggest that adverse health effects are observed at low levels of exposure 0.1 µ W/cm 2 . Studies suggest that RF-EMF exposures with powers below the recommendations of the ICNIRP have effects related to changes in brain activity [17], affecting cognitive and motor performance [12,13], infertility problems in the male reproductive system [18,19], DNA damage [20,21], association to different brain tumors and intensity of RF-EMF, and having a greater effect in children and teenagers than in adults [4,6,12,[22][23][24][25]. These studies suggest that exposure to RF-EMF is an important factor to consider as a "possible carcinogen" classified in group 2B by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) [26]. ...
Article
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A novel compact device with spectrum analyzer characteristics has been designed, which allows the measuring of the maximum power received in multiple narrow frequency bands of 300 kHz, recording the entire spectrum from 78 MHz to 6 GHz; the device is capable of measuring the entire communications spectrum and detecting multiple sources of electromagnetic fields using the same communications band. The proposed device permits the evaluation of the cross-talk effect that, in conventional exposimeters, generates a mistake estimation of electromagnetic fields. The device was calibrated in an anechoic chamber for far-fields and was validated against a portable spectrum analyzer in a residential area. A strong correlation between the two devices with a confidence higher than 95% was obtained; indicating that the device could be considered as an important tool for electromagnetic field studies.
... 64 A study assessing the link between RF exposure from cell phone use and melanomas (an aggressive skin cancer) in the head and neck showed no association. 65,66 A prospective study of British middle-aged women found no increased risk for any type of cancer in association with cell phone use. ...
Technical Report
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This report can be downloaded using the following link: http://www.bccdc.ca/resource-gallery/Documents/Guidelines%20and%20Forms/Guidelines%20and%20Manuals/EH/RPS/BCCDC%20RF%20Health%20Report.pdf
... Additionally, Larjabaara et al. [14] found that gliomas are not preferentially located in the parts of the brain with the highest exposure. Finally, Hardell et al. [15] assessed the use of mobile and cordless phones in 347 cases of melanoma in the head and neck region and 1184 controls and found no increased risk. ...
Article
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This study concerns the effects of microwave on health because they pervade diverse fields of our lives. The brain has been recognized as one of the organs that is most vulnerable to microwave radiation. Therefore, in this article, we reviewed recent studies that have explored the effects of microwave radiation on the brain, especially the hippocampus, including analyses of epidemiology, morphology, electroencephalograms, learning and memory abilities and the mechanisms underlying brain dysfunction. However, the problem with these studies is that different parameters, such as the frequency, modulation, and power density of the radiation and the irradiation time, were used to evaluate microwave radiation between studies. As a result, the existing data exhibit poor reproducibility and comparability. To determine the specific dose-effect relationship between microwave radiation and its biological effects, more intensive studies must be performed.
... In a Swedish study on cutaneous malignant melanoma diagnosed during the period between 2000-2003, no increased risk was observed overall (82). In the shortest latency period of >1-5 years and highest cumulative use of >365 h, wireless phone use (mobile phone and/or cordless phone) yielded OR =1.6, 95% CI =0.96-2.9. ...
Article
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During the use of handheld mobile and cordless phones, the brain is the main target of radiofrequency (RF) radiation. An increased risk of developing glioma and acoustic neuroma has been found in human epidemiological studies. Primarily based on these findings, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at the World Health Organization (WHO) classified in May, 2011 RF radiation at the frequency range of 30 kHz‑300 GHz as a 'possible' human carcinogen, Group 2B. A carcinogenic potential for RF radiation in animal studies was already published in 1982. This has been confirmed over the years, more recently in the Ramazzini Institute rat study. An increased incidence of glioma in the brain and malignant schwannoma in the heart was found in the US National Toxicology Program (NTP) study on rats and mice. The NTP final report is to be published; however, the extended reports are published on the internet for evaluation and are reviewed herein in more detail in relation to human epidemiological studies. Thus, the main aim of this study was to compare earlier human epidemiological studies with NTP findings, including a short review of animal studies. We conclude that there is clear evidence that RF radiation is a human carcinogen, causing glioma and vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma). There is some evidence of an increased risk of developing thyroid cancer, and clear evidence that RF radiation is a multi‑site carcinogen. Based on the Preamble to the IARC Monographs, RF radiation should be classified as carcinogenic to humans, Group 1.
... Exposure to an EMF has also been linked with allergic reactions confirmed by a marked increase in the number of mast cells [9]. Numerous epidemiological studies have confirmed a significant increase in the risk of brain tumours [10,11], parotid gland tumours [12], malignant melanoma [13], and lymphomas [14]. ...
Article
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Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a 28-day exposure to a 50 Hz electromagnetic field of 10 kV/m on the oxidative stress in selected rat central nervous system (CNS) structures. Material and methods: Twenty male Wistar rats served as experimental subjects. Ten rats were exposed to an electromagnetic field with a frequency of 50 Hz, intensity of 10 kV/m, and magnetic induction of 4.3 pT for 22 hours a day. The control group of ten rats was subject to sham exposure. Homogenates of the frontal cortex, hippocampus, brainstem, hypothalamus, striatum, and cerebellum were evaluated for selected parameters of oxidative stress. Results: Following the four-week exposure to a low-frequency electromagnetic field, the mean malondialdehyde levels and total oxidant status of CNS structures did not differ significantly between the experimental and control groups. However, the activities of antioxidant enzymes in brain structure homogenates were decreased except for frontal cortex catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and hippocampal glutathione reductase. The low-frequency electromagnetic field had no effect on the nonenzymatic antioxidant system of the examined brain structures except for the frontal cortex. Conclusion: The four-week exposure of male rats to a low-frequency electromagnetic field did not affect oxidative stress in the investigated brain structures.
... In the study of Hardel et al. in 2011, he concluded that there is no relationship between the use of mobile phones and skin cancer [20]. ...
Article
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Background Skin health has become a worldwide concern. Most of the studies investigated the effect of mobile phone radiation on DNA and animals, but a few studies were carried out about skin diseases in mobile phone and tablet users. Few systematic studies have examined the relationship between mobile phone exposure and skin diseases. Methods We evaluated the association between mobile phones and tablets and skin diseases. We checked databases including PubMed, Scopus, Springer, Cochrane, and Google Scholar from 1995 to 2013. The eligibility criteria were descriptive, and observational studies were in English and Persian language, and the subjects were of all ages and reported skin disease. Results Most of the studies focused on signs and less on skin cancer. In total, 6 studies were included with 392119 participants with age over 25 years. In a nationwide cohort study in Denmark for BCC, the IRR (incidence rate ratios) estimates remained near unity among men and women. In the other studies, they reported an increase in temperature, hypersensitivity of warmth, facial dermatitis, angiosarcoma of the scalp, and burning sensations in the facial skin after mobile phone use on the exposed side and more within the auricle and behind/around the ear. Conclusions Overall evaluations showed that the level of evidence associated with the effects of radiation from the mobile phone and tablet on the skin is poor. This review shows a necessity for more studies in this area.
... Significant increase of electromagnetic radiation is a natural concern about the risks to human health. Proofs of such influence are series of epidemiological studies, which show an increased risk of oncological diseases in active mobile phone users [7][8][9][10]. ...
... Furthermore, children are more vulnerable to mobile radiation, for two reasons, says Dr Lennart Hardell [2], a cancer specialist at Orebro University Hospital in Sweden. First, they have thinner skulls so absorb radio waves more quickly, and with smaller brains the absorption is more concentrated. ...
Preprint
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Electromagnetic radiation from cellphones (or mobile phones) consists of high-frequency radio waves (microwaves). Although largely denied by conflict of interest companies, the adverse biological effects of microwave radiation from cellphones have been indeed observed in humans [1-2]. Several health problems have been reported worldwide due to cell phones and cell towers much below the FCC and ICNIRP guidelines. Most common complaints are: Sleep disruption, Dizziness Headache Palpitations of the heart Concentration Visual disorders Forgetful memory Cardiovascular problems Depression Buzzing in the head Fatigue Altered reflexes The main clinical manifestations were tumors, blood changes, reproductive and cardiovascular abnormalities, depression, irritability, and memory impairment. Many of these are related to changes in the electrical activity of the brain. Therefore, many people are concerned that radio frequency energy from cell phones will cause cancer or other serious health hazards
... Karinen et al. found differences in protein expression in volunteers' forearm skin exposed to radiofrequency modulated electromagnetic field (RF-EMF, mobile phone radiation) and suggested protein expression in human skin might be affected by the exposure to RF-EMF (31). The exponential increase in the usage of mobile phones, which emit radiofrequency, has prompted some studies on the effects of prolonged use of mobile phones on skin and risk of melanoma (32). Infrared radiation with intermediate energy causes an increase in the vibrational energy of biomolecules and causes the production of free radicals within the skin (33). ...
Article
The term barrier function as applied to human skin often connotes the physical properties of this organ that provides protection from its surrounding environment. This term does not generally include skin pigmentation. However, skin pigmentation, which is the result of melanin produced in melanocytes residing in the basal layer of the skin and exported to the keratinocytes in the upper layers, serves equally important protective function. Indeed, changes in skin pigmentation are often the most readily recognized indicators of exposure of skin to damaging agents, especially to natural and artificial radiation in the environment. Several recent studies have shed new light on (1) the mechanisms involved in selective effects of subcomponents of UV radiation on human skin pigmentation and (2) the interactive influences between keratinocytes and melanocytes, acting as "epidermal melanin unit," that manifest as changes in skin pigmentation in response to exposure to various forms of radiation. This article provides a concise review of our current understanding of the effects of the nonionizing solar radiation, at cellular and molecular levels, on human skin pigmentation.
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Electromagnetic field (EMF) is a kind of radiation and is emitted to environment from some medical diagnostic equipment, radio and television, communication devices such as cell phones, and other electrical appliances. It can have some risks to biological systems. There are some published documents on the possible human health risks of it including epidemiologic, in vivo, and in vitro studies. This review article focuses on the advers health effects of electromagnetic fields on reproductive and developmental system, psychological system, nervous system, genotoxic effects, carcinogenesis, ear and vestibular system, ocular system, melatonin production and circadian rhythms. Although there are some studies which indicated some possible effects on these physiological systems, the data is limited to reach exact conclusion. Further studies are needed to prove safety and biological effects of EMF.
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WiMAX is a brand new mobile communication technology whose impact on health and the environment has never been fully researched and evaluated by Taiwanese academia or regulatory departments such as the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA). This article introduces WiMAX technology, reviews the international scientific literature, investigates the potential health risks of WiMAX, considers risk management in Taiwan, and applies the concept of Uncertain Matrix of Knowledge. We found that the government used insufficient scientific evidence prior to drawing up and implementing WiMAX policy. The principles of deliberative and participatory democracy in Taiwan were eroded and ignored. By introducing the concept of the Uncertain Matrix of Knowledge and the methodology of the California EMF Program and SCENIHR, we addressed the problems of risk management and WiMAX policy making in Taiwan and also gave suggestions such as extended peer communities, technological democracy and risk communication.
Technical Report
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The Radiofrequency Toolkit was developed in response to requests from BC’s medical and environmental health officers to the BCCDC for assistance in assessing and communicating the risk to health from exposure to the many devices which emit radiofrequency waves. Students, public health residents, and specialists in epidemiology from outside BCCDC collaborated with staff from BCCDC and the National Collaborating Center for Environmental Health (NCCEH) on this project. The toolkit provides background on the physics of RF, its sources, measurement and exposure characteristics as well as an evaluation of the current scientific literature on potential biological and health effects associated with exposure to RF.
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We investigated whether cellular phone use was associated with increased risk of tumors using a meta-analysis of case-control studies. PubMed and EMBASE were searched from inception to July 2018. The primary outcome was the risk of tumors by cellular phone use, which was measured by pooling each odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI). In a meta-analysis of 46 case-control studies, compared with never or rarely having used a cellular phone, regular use was not associated with tumor risk in the random-effects meta-analysis. However, in the subgroup meta-analysis by research group, there was a statistically significant positive association (harmful effect) in the Hardell et al. studies (OR, 1.15-95% CI, 1.00 to 1.33-n = 10), a statistically significant negative association (beneficial effect) in the INTERPHONE-related studies (case-control studies from 13 countries coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC); (OR, 0.81-95% CI, 0.75 to 0.89-n = 9), and no statistically significant association in other research groups' studies. Further, cellular phone use with cumulative call time more than 1000 h statistically significantly increased the risk of tumors. This comprehensive meta-analysis of case-control studies found evidence that linked cellular phone use to increased tumor risk.
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Breast cancer occurring in women under the age of 40 is uncommon in the absence of family history or genetic predisposition, and prompts the exploration of other possible exposures or environmental risks. We report a case series of four young women-ages from 21 to 39-with multifocal invasive breast cancer that raises the concern of a possible association with nonionizing radiation of electromagnetic field exposures from cellular phones. All patients regularly carried their smartphones directly against their breasts in their brassieres for up to 10 hours a day, for several years, and developed tumors in areas of their breasts immediately underlying the phones. All patients had no family history of breast cancer, tested negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2, and had no other known breast cancer risks. Their breast imaging is reviewed, showing clustering of multiple tumor foci in the breast directly under the area of phone contact. Pathology of all four cases shows striking similarity; all tumors are hormone-positive, low-intermediate grade, having an extensive intraductal component, and all tumors have near identical morphology. These cases raise awareness to the lack of safety data of prolonged direct contact with cellular phones.
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Aim: Long-term exposure of humans to low intensity radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) leads to a statistically significant increase in tumor incidence. Mechanisms of such the effects are unclear, but features of oxidative stress in living cells under RF-EMR exposure were previously reported. Our study aims to assess a production of initial free radical species, which lead to oxidative stress in the cell. Materials and methods: Embryos of Japanese quails were exposed in ovo to extremely low intensity RF-EMR of GSM 900 MHz (0.25 µW/cm2) during 158-360 h discontinuously (48 c - ON, 12 c - OFF) before and in the initial stages of development. The levels of superoxide (O2·-), nitrogen oxide (NO·), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) and antioxidant enzymes' activities were assessed in cells/tissues of 38-h, 5- and 10-day RF-EMR exposed and unexposed embryos. Results: The exposure resulted in a significant persistent overproduction of superoxide and nitrogen oxide in embryo cells during all period of analyses. As a result, significantly increased levels of TBARS and 8-oxo-dG followed by significantly decreased levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were developed in the exposed embryo cells. Conclusion: Exposure of developing quail embryos to extremely low intensity RF-EMR of GSM 900 MHz during at least one hundred and fifty-eight hours leads to a significant overproduction of free radicals/reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage of DNA in embryo cells. These oxidative changes may lead to pathologies up to oncogenic transformation of cells.
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This study was designed to investigate the transient and cumulative impairments in spatial and non-spatial memory of C57Bl/6J mice exposed to GSM 1.8 GHz signal for 90 min daily by a typical cellular (mobile) phone at a specific absorption rate value of 0.11 W/kg. Free-moving male mice 2 months old were irradiated in two experimental protocols, lasting for 66 and for 148 days respectively. Each protocol used three groups of animals (n = 8 each for exposed, sham exposed and controls) in combination with two behavioural paradigms, the object recognition task and the object location task sequentially applied at different time points. One-way analysis of variance revealed statistically significant impairments of both types of memory gradually accumulating, with more pronounced effects on the spatial memory. The impairments persisted even 2 weeks after interruption of the 8 weeks daily exposure, whereas the memory of mice as detected by both tasks showed a full recovery approximately 1 month later. Intermittent every other day exposure for 1 month had no effect on both types of memory. The data suggest that visual information processing mechanisms in hippocampus, perirhinal and entorhinal cortex are gradually malfunctioning upon long-term daily exposure, a phenotype that persists for at least 2 weeks after interruption of radiation, returning to normal memory performance levels 4 weeks later. It is postulated that cellular repair mechanisms are operating to eliminate the memory affecting molecules. The overall contribution of several possible mechanisms to the observed cumulative and transient impairments in spatial and non-spatial memory is discussed.
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The use of cellular telephones has increased dramatically during the 1990's in the world. In the 1980's the analogue NMT system was used whereas the digital GSM system was introduced in early 1990's and is now the preferred system. Case reports of brain tumours in users initiated this case-control study on brain tumours and use of cellular telephones. Also other exposures were assessed. All cases, both males and females, with histopathologically verified brain tumour living in Uppsala-Örebro region (1994-96) and Stockholm region (1995-96) aged 20-80 at the time of diagnosis and alive at start of the study were included, 233 in total. Two controls to each case were selected from the Swedish Population Register matched for sex, age and study region. Exposure was assessed by questionnaires supplemented over the phone. The analyses were based on answers from 209 (90%) cases and 425 (91%) controls. Use of cellular telephone gave odds ratio (OR) = 0.98 with 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.69-1.41. For the digital GSM system OR = 0.97, CI = 0.61-1.56 and for the analogue NMT system OR = 0.94, CI = 0.62-1.44 were calculated. Dose-response analysis and using different tumour induction periods gave similar results. Non-significantly increased risk was found for tumour in the temporal or occipital lobe on the same side as a cellular phone had been used, right side OR = 2.45, CI = 0.78-7.76, left side OR = 2.40, CI = 0.52-10.9 Increased risk was found only for use of the NMT system. For GSM use the observation time is still too short for definite conclusions. An increased risk for brain tumour in the anatomical area close to the use of a cellular telephone should be especially studied in the future.
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A decrease in melatonin secretion has been observed in small mammals under exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields. As there is some concern about possible health effects of the increasing use of radiocellular telephones emitting radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, we examined whether such fields would alter melatonin levels in the human. Volunteers were two groups totalling 38 men, 20-32 yr old. Exposures were to commercially available cellular telephones of the GSM 900 type (Global System for Mobile communication at 900 MHz) or DCS 1800 type (Digital Communication System at 1800 MHz), for 2 hr/day, 5 days/wk, for 4 wk, at their maximum power. Attention of the volunteers was sustained by TV projection of movies. Blood samples were collected hourly during the night and every 3 hr in the daytime. Four sampling sessions were performed at 15-day intervals: before the beginning of the exposure period, at the middle and the end of the exposure period, and 15 days later to evaluate the persistence or late appearance of potential effects. Evaluated parameters were the maximum serum concentration, the time of this maximum, and the area under the curve of the hormone profile. Melatonin circadian profile was not disrupted in 37 young male volunteers submitted to a typical pattern of exposure to the electromagnetic fields generated by two common types of cell phones.
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The majority of the radiofrequency energy emitted by a cellular telephone is absorbed by the hand and head of the user. The total energy absorbed is a function of the specific absorption rate, duration of use, and the manner in which the phone is used. In addition to concerns about potential harmful effects of such exposure, such as the issue of risk of brain cancer, change in brain function related to cell phone radiofrequencies also is of concern. Studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of cell phone use on brain electrical activities, neurophysiology, and behavior. The study by Volkow and colleagues in this issue of JAMA1 is the first investigation in humans of glucose metabolism in the brain after cell phone use.
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The increase in numbers of mobile phone users was accompanied by some concern that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) might adversely affect acute health especially in children and adolescents. The authors investigated this potential association using personal dosimeters. A 24-hour exposure profile of 1484 children and 1508 adolescents was generated in a population-based cross-sectional study in Germany between 2006 and 2008 (participation 52%). Personal interview data on socio-demographic characteristics, self-reported exposure and potential confounders were collected. Acute symptoms were assessed twice during the study day using a symptom diary. Only few of the large number of investigated associations were found to be statistically significant. At noon, adolescents with a measured exposure in the highest quartile during morning hours reported a statistically significant higher intensity of headache (Odd Ratio: 1.50; 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 2.19). At bedtime, adolescents with a measured exposure in the highest quartile during afternoon hours reported a statistically significant higher intensity of irritation in the evening (4th quartile 1.79; 1.23, 2.61), while children reported a statistically significant higher intensity of concentration problems (4th quartile 1.55; 1.02, 2.33). We observed few statistically significant results which are not consistent over the two time points. Furthermore, when the 10% of the participants with the highest exposure are taken into consideration the significant results of the main analysis could not be confirmed. Based on the pattern of these results, we assume that the few observed significant associations are not causal but rather occurred by chance.
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The association between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and the risk of uveal melanoma was investigated in a case-control study in nine European countries. Incident cases of uveal melanoma and population as well as hospital controls were included and frequency matched by country, 5-year birth cohort and sex. Subjects were asked whether they had worked close to high-voltage electrical transmission installations, computer screens and various electrical machines, or in complex electrical environments. Measurements of two Scandinavian job-exposure matrices were applied to estimate lifelong cumulative EMF exposure. Unconditional logistic regression analyses, stratified by sex and eye colour were calculated, adjusting for several potential confounders. 293 patients with uveal melanoma and 3198 control subjects were interviewed. Women exposed to electrical transmission installations showed elevated risks (OR 5.81, 95% CI 1.72 to 19.66). Positive associations with exposure to control rooms were seen among men and women, but most risk increases were restricted to subjects with dark iris colour. Application of published EMF measurements revealed stronger risk increases among women compared to men. Again, elevated risks were restricted to subjects with dark eye colour. Although based on a low prevalence of exposure to potential occupational sources of EMF, our data indicate that exposed dark-eyed women may be at particular risk for uveal melanoma.
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Cordless and mobile (cellular) telephone use has increased substantially in recent years causing concerns about possible health effects. This has led to much epidemiological research, but the usual focus is on mobile telephone radiofrequency (RF) exposure only despite cordless RF being very similar. Access to and use of cordless phones were included in the Mobile Radiofrequency Phone Exposed Users Study (MoRPhEUS) of 317 Year 7 students recruited from Melbourne, Australia. Participants completed an exposure questionnaire-87% had a cordless phone at home and 77% owned a mobile phone. There was a statistically significant positive relationship (r = 0.38, p < 0.01) between cordless and mobile phone use. Taken together, this increases total RF exposure and its ratio in high-to-low mobile users. Therefore, the design and analysis of future epidemiological telecommunication studies need to assess cordless phone exposure to accurately evaluate total RF telephone exposure effects.
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Epidemiology of rare cutaneous malignancies in the general population is poorly documented. This descriptive study aimed to estimate the incidence and trends of all skin malignancies between 1989 and 2005. Data on skin tumors were extracted from the Netherlands Cancer registry (except for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) data-only available from Comprehensive Cancer Centre South) and categorized according to the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, third edition, codes. Age-standardized incidence rates (European standardized population rate, ESR) per 100,000 person-years were calculated per year and for the period between 2001 and 2005. Estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) were estimated by Poisson regression models. A total of 356,620 skin tumors were diagnosed between 1989 and 2005. Excluding BCC, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and melanoma, the remaining skin tumors constituted about 2% of all skin malignancies. The incidence of melanoma showed the steepest increase (EAPC, 4.0%), and ESR was close to that observed for SCC (EAPC, 2.3%) between 2001 and 2005 (17.1 versus 19.6). Hematolymphoid tumors (ESR=0.74) were mainly cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (60.8%). No significant increases in incidence were observed for lymphomas, and appendageal, fibromatous, and myomatous carcinomas during 1989-2005. In addition to keratinocytic cancers and melanoma, there is a wide variety of skin tumors that constitute <2% of all skin malignancies. The incidence of UV-related skin tumors increased significantly and more steeply than did those of other skin malignancies.
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Melanoma rates continue to increase; however, few risk factors other than sun sensitivity and ultraviolet radiation (including sun exposure) have been identified. Although studies of farmers have shown an excess risk of melanoma and other skin cancers, it is unclear how much of this is related to sun exposure compared with other agricultural exposures. We examined dose-response relationships for 50 agricultural pesticides and cutaneous melanoma incidence in the Agricultural Health Study cohort of licensed pesticide applicators, along with ever use of older pesticides that contain arsenic. Logistic regression was used to examine odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with pesticide exposure adjusted for age, sex, and other potential confounders. We found significant associations between cutaneous melanoma and maneb/mancozeb (>or= 63 exposure days: OR = 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2-4.9; trend p = 0.006), parathion (>or= 56 exposure days: OR = 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.4; trend p = 0.003), and carbaryl (>or= 56 exposure days: OR = 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.5; trend p = 0.013). Other associations with benomyl and ever use of arsenical pesticides were also suggested. Most previous melanoma literature has focused on host factors and sun exposure. Our research shows an association between several pesticides and melanoma, providing support for the hypotheses that agricultural chemicals may be another important source of melanoma risk.
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The Hardell-group conducted during 1997-2003 two case control studies on brain tumours including assessment of use of mobile phones and cordless phones. The questionnaire was answered by 905 (90%) cases with malignant brain tumours, 1,254 (88%) cases with benign tumours and 2,162 (89%) population-based controls. Cases were reported from the Swedish Cancer Registries. Anatomical area in the brain for the tumour was assessed and related to side of the head used for both types of wireless phones. In the current analysis we defined ipsilateral use (same side as the tumour) as >or=50% of the use and contralateral use (opposite side) as <50% of the calling time. We report now further results for use of mobile and cordless phones. Regarding astrocytoma we found highest risk for ipsilateral mobile phone use in the >10 year latency group, OR=3.3, 95% CI=2.0-5.4 and for cordless phone use OR=5.0, 95% CI=2.3-11. In total, the risk was highest for cases with first use <20 years age, for mobile phone OR=5.2, 95% CI=2.2-12 and for cordless phone OR=4.4, 95% CI=1.9-10. For acoustic neuroma, the highest OR was found for ipsilateral use and >10 year latency, for mobile phone OR=3.0, 95% CI=1.4-6.2 and cordless phone OR=2.3, 95% CI=0.6-8.8. Overall highest OR for mobile phone use was found in subjects with first use at age <20 years, OR=5.0, 95% CI 1.5-16 whereas no association was found for cordless phone in that group, but based on only one exposed case. The annual age-adjusted incidence of astrocytoma for the age group >19 years increased significantly by +2.16%, 95% CI +0.25 to +4.10 during 2000-2007 in Sweden in spite of seemingly underreporting of cases to the Swedish Cancer Registry. A decreasing incidence was found for acoustic neuroma during the same period. However, the medical diagnosis and treatment of this tumour type has changed during recent years and underreporting from a single center would have a large impact for such a rare tumour.
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During recent years there has been increasing public concern on potential cancer risks from microwave emissions from wireless phones. We evaluated the scientific evidence for long-term mobile phone use and the association with certain tumors in case-control studies, mostly from the Hardell group in Sweden and the Interphone study group. Regarding brain tumors the meta-analysis yielded for glioma odds ratio (OR)=1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.9-1.1. OR increased to 1.3, 95% CI=1.1-1.6 with 10 year latency period, with highest risk for ipsilateral exposure (same side as the tumor localisation), OR=1.9, 95% CI=1.4-2.4, lower for contralateral exposure (opposite side) OR=1.2, 95% CI=0.9-1.7. Regarding acoustic neuroma OR=1.0, 95% CI=0.8-1.1 was calculated increasing to OR=1.3, 95% CI=0.97-1.9 with 10 year latency period. For ipsilateral exposure OR=1.6, 95% CI=1.1-2.4, and for contralateral exposure OR=1.2, 95% CI=0.8-1.9 were found. Regarding meningioma no consistent pattern of an increased risk was found. Concerning age, highest risk was found in the age group <20 years at time of first use of wireless phones in the studies from the Hardell group. For salivary gland tumors, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and testicular cancer no consistent pattern of an association with use of wireless phones was found. One study on uveal melanoma yielded for probable/certain mobile phone use OR=4.2, 95% CI=1.2-14.5. One study on intratemporal facial nerve tumor was not possible to evaluate due to methodological shortcomings. In summary our review yielded a consistent pattern of an increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma after >10 year mobile phone use. We conclude that current standard for exposure to microwaves during mobile phone use is not safe for long-term exposure and needs to be revised.
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We recently reported an increased risk of uveal melanoma among mobile phone users. Here, we present the results of a case-control study that assessed the association between mobile phone use and risk of uveal melanoma. We recruited 459 uveal melanoma case patients at the University of Duisburg-Essen and matched 455 case patients with 827 population control subjects, 133 with 180 ophthalmologist control subjects, and 187 with 187 sibling control subjects. We used a questionnaire to assess mobile phone use and estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of risk for uveal melanoma using conditional logistic regression. Risk of uveal melanoma was not associated with regular mobile phone use (OR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5 to 1.0 vs population control subjects; OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.6 to 2.3 vs ophthalmologist control subjects; and OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.5 to 2.6 vs sibling control subjects), and we observed no trend for cumulative measures of exposure. We did not corroborate our previous results that showed an increased risk of uveal melanoma among regular mobile phone users.
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In 1982 physicians at a hospital melanoma clinic in Montreal noticed that among their patients there had been seven men working in a single telecommunications company. This raised suspicions that working in that industry might be associated with development of malignant melanoma of the skin (MMS). A preliminary gross comparison with general population rates indicated that there was an increased risk in this working group. To estimate the risk of MMS more accurately, a standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated based on the rates of MMS in the local population of the Greater Metropolitan Montreal Area for the years 1976-83. During that period, among workers in all plants for the company, 10 male cases of MMS were observed for an expected number of 3.7 (SIR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.31-5.02). No cases were observed among female workers (expected = 1.3). The excess was significant among cases with a short latency (less than 20 years since beginning of employment). There was no apparent pattern of exposure based on job titles or departments.
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Several studies suggest that work in electrical occupations is associated with an increased risk of cancer, mainly leukaemia and brain tumours. These studies may, however, not be representative if there is a publication bias where mainly positive results are reported. To study an unselected population the incidence of cancer was followed up over a 17 year period (1970-87) in a cohort of 2.8 million Danes aged 20-64 years in 1970. Each person was classified by his or her industry and occupation in 1970. Before tabulation of the data on incidence of cancer, each industry-occupation group was coded for potential exposure to magnetic fields above the threshold 0.3 microT. Some 154,000 men were considered intermittently exposed and 18,000 continuously exposed. The numbers for women were 79,000 and 4000 respectively. Intermittent exposure was not associated with an increased risk of leukaemia, brain tumours, or melanoma. Men with continuous exposure, however, had an excess risk of leukaemia (observed (obs) 39, expected (exp) 23.80, obs/exp 1.64, 95% CI 1.20-2.24) with equal contributions from acute and other leukaemias. These men had no excess risk of brain tumours or melanoma. A risk for breast cancer was suggested in exposed men but not in women. The risk for leukaemia in continuously exposed men was mainly in electricians in installation works and iron foundry workers. Besides electromagnetic fields other exposures should be considered as possible aetiological agents.
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Breast cancer is a disease of modern life. As societies industrialize, risk increases, yet it is unclear which of the myriad changes coming with industrialization drives this increase. One important hallmark of modern life is the pervasive use of electric power. Electric power produces light at night (LAN) and electric and magnetic fields (EMF), either or both of which may alter pineal function and its primary hormone melatonin, thereby, perhaps increasing the risk of breast cancer. This hypothesis, stated a decade ago, is now receiving considerable experimental and epidemiological attention. The circumstantial case for the hypothesis has three aspects: light effects on melatonin, EMF effects on melatonin, and melatonin effects on breast cancer. The strongest of these aspects is the effects of light on melatonin. It is clear that the normal nocturnal melatonin rise in humans can be suppressed by light of sufficient intensity. The evidence for an effect of melatonin on breast cancer in experimental animals is strong, but the evidence in humans is scant and difficult to gather. The weakest aspect of the circumstantial case is EMF effects on melatonin. Whereas a half dozen independent laboratories have published findings of suppression in animals, there are inconsistencies, and there are no published data on humans. The direct evidence bearing on the hypothesis is sparse but provocative. Two laboratories have published data showing substantial increases in chemically induced breast cancer in rats by a weak AC (alternating current) magnetic field. The epidemiological evidence is very limited but has offered some support as well. An effect of electric power on breast cancer would have profound implications, and this possibility deserves continued investigation.
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The purpose of this report is to review the literature on cancer among persons employed in agriculture, to characterize the value of this line of research, and to recommend future directions. Farmers, despite a generally favorable mortality, appear to experience elevated rates for several cancers, including leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, soft-tissue sarcoma, and cancers of the skin, lip, stomach, brain, and prostate. The rates for several of these tumors (i.e., non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, skin, brain, and prostate) appear to be increasing in the general population. No set of established etiologic factors explains all the cancer excesses observed among farmers, although several are associated with naturally occurring or medically induced immunodeficiencies. This suggests that there may be factors in the agricultural environment that introduce immune system deficiencies. Farmers are exposed to a variety of substances that could operate through this mechanism, including pesticides, engine exhausts, solvents, dusts, and zoonotic microbes. Studies to further characterize the cancer risk among farmers, their dependents, and farm laborers, and to identify the exposures that may be involved would not only be useful in providing a safe work environment in agriculture but may furnish considerable insight into the causes for a number of tumors that are rising in incidence in the general population.
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The effects of 60-Hz magnetic field and ambient light exposures on the pineal hormone melatonin were studied among electric utility workers. Personal exposure was measured at 15-second intervals over 3 consecutive 24-hour periods. Exposure metrics based on magnetic field intensity, intermittence, or temporal stability were calculated for periods of work, home, and sleep. A rate-of-change metric (RCM) was used to estimate intermittence, and the standardized RCM (RCMS = RCM/standard deviation) was used to evaluate temporal stability. The effects of magnetic field exposure on total overnight 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (6-OHMS) excretion and creatinine-adjusted nocturnal 6-OHMS (6-OHMS/cr) concentration were analyzed with adjustment for age, month, and light exposure. Magnetic field intensity, intermittence, or cumulative exposure had little influence on nocturnal 6-OHMS excretion. Residential RCMS magnetic field exposures were associated with lower nocturnal 6-OHMS/cr concentrations. In multivariate statistical analyses, the interaction term for geometric mean and RCMS magnetic field exposures at home was associated with lower nocturnal 6-OHMS/cr and overnight 6-OHMS levels. Modest reductions in the mean 6-OHMS levels occurred after RCMS exposures during work. The greatest reductions occurred when RCMS exposures both at work and at home were combined; therefore the effects of temporally stable magnetic fields may be integrated over a large portion of the day. Results from this study provide evidence that temporally stable magnetic field exposures are associated with reduced nocturnal 6-OHMS excretion in humans.
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To test the hypothesis that exposure to electromagnetic fields from high voltage power lines increases the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma in adults aged 16 and above. Nested case-control study. The study population comprised subjects aged 16 and above who had lived in a residence situated in a broad corridor around a high voltage power line in 1980, or one of the years from 1986 to 1996. The cases were incident cases that were diagnosed in 1980-96 and reported to the Cancer Registry of Norway. Two controls were matched to each case by year of birth, sex, municipality, and first year entering the cohort. Time weighted average exposure to residential magnetic fields generated by the power lines was calculated for the exposure follow up from 1 January 1967 until diagnosis by means of a computer program, in which distance from residency to the line, line configuration, and current load were taken into account. Exposure was analysed using cut off points at 0.05 and 0.2 microtesla ( microT). Exposure to magnetic fields at work was classified by an expert panel who assessed magnetic field exposure by combining branch and occupation into one of three levels: <4 hours, 4-24 hours, and >24 hours per week above background (0.1 micro T). The categories were cumulated over the occupationally active years for the exposure follow up from 1 January 1955 until diagnosis, and cut off points at 18 and 31 category-years were evaluated. Analysis of the two upper residential magnetic field categories showed an odds ratio of 2.01 (95% CI 1.09 to 3.69) and 2.68 (95% CI 1.43 to 5.04) for women, and an odds ratio of 1.70 (95% CI 0.96 to 3.01) and 1.37 (95% CI 0.77 to 2.44) for men, respectively. Occupational exposure showed no significant association with cutaneous malignant melanoma, and analysis of both residential and occupational exposure simultaneously, showed no additional effect. The present study provides some support for an association between exposure to calculated residential magnetic fields and cutaneous malignant melanoma, but because of the lack of a biological hypothesis and the known strong association between solar radiation and melanoma, no firm conclusions can be drawn and further studies would be of interest.
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The power level used by the mobile phone is one of the most important factors determining the intensity of the radiofrequency exposure during a call. Mobile phone calls made in areas where base stations are densely situated (normally urban areas) should theoretically on average use lower output power levels than mobile phone calls made in areas with larger distances between base stations (rural areas). To analyse the distribution of power levels from mobile phones in four geographical areas with different population densities. The output power for all mobile phone calls managed by the GSM operator Telia Mobile was recorded during one week in four defined areas (rural, small urban, suburban, and city area) in Sweden. The recording included output power for the 900 MHz and the 1800 MHz frequency band. In the rural area, the highest power level was used about 50% of the time, while the lowest power was used only 3% of the time. The corresponding numbers for the city area were approximately 25% and 22%. The output power distribution in all defined urban areas was similar. In rural areas where base stations are sparse, the output power level used by mobile phones are on average considerably higher than in more densely populated areas. A quantitative assessment of individual exposure to radiofrequency fields is important for epidemiological studies of possible health effects for many reasons. Degree of urbanisation may be an important parameter to consider in the assessment of radiofrequency exposure from mobile phone use.
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Cutaneous melanoma has the lowest survival rate of all forms of skin cancer. There has been little research investigating the link between arsenic and cutaneous melanoma, although arsenic has been associated with increased risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer. The authors performed a case-control study examining the association between cutaneous melanoma and environmental arsenic exposure among Iowans aged 40 years or older. Participants included 368 cutaneous melanoma cases and 373 colorectal cancer controls diagnosed in 1999 or 2000, frequency matched on gender and age. Participants completed a mailed survey and submitted toenail clippings for analysis of arsenic content by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The authors found an increased risk of melanoma for participants with elevated toenail arsenic concentrations (odds ratio = 2.1, 95 percent confidence interval: 1.4, 3.3; p-trend = 0.001) and effect modification by prior skin cancer diagnosis (p-interaction = 0.03). The arsenic-melanoma findings in this study are not known to have been previously reported in observational epidemiologic studies involving incident cutaneous melanoma. Therefore, the findings warrant confirmation.
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The use of cellular and cordless telephones and the risk of brain tumours is of concern since the brain is a high exposure area. We present the results of a pooled analysis of two case-control studies on benign brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-2003 including answers from 1,254 (88%) cases and 2,162 (89%) controls aged 20-80 years. For acoustic neuroma, the use of analogue cellular phones gave an odds ratio (OR) of 2.9 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 2.0-4.3; for digital cellular phones, OR=1.5; 95% CI=1.1-2.1; and for cordless telephones, OR=1.5, 95% CI=1.04-2.0. The highest OR was found for analogue phones with a latency period of >15 years; OR=3.8, 95% CI=1.4-10. Regarding meningioma, the results were as follows: for analogue phones, OR=1.3, 95% CI=0.99-1.7; for digital phones, OR=1.1, 95% CI=0.9-1.3; and for cordless phones, OR=1.1, 95% CI=0.9-1.4. In the multivariate analysis, a significantly increased risk of acoustic neuroma was found with the use of analogue phones.
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To study the use of cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for malignant brain tumours. Two case-control studies on malignant brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-2003 included answers from 905 (90%) cases and 2,162 (89%) controls aged 20-80 years. We present pooled analysis of the results in the two studies. Cumulative lifetime use for >2,000 h yielded for analogue cellular phones odds ratio (OR)=5.9, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.5-14, digital cellular phones OR=3.7, 95% CI=1.7-7.7, and for cordless phones OR=2.3, 95% CI=1.5-3.6. Ipsilateral exposure increased the risk for malignant brain tumours; analogue OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.5-2.9, digital OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.4-2.4, and cordless OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.3-2.2. For high-grade astrocytoma using >10 year latency period analogue phones yielded OR=2.7, 95% CI=1.8-4.2, digital phones OR=3.8, 95% CI=1.8-8.1, and cordless phones OR=2.2, 95% CI=1.3-3.9. In the multivariate analysis all phone types increased the risk. Regarding digital phones OR=3.7, 95% CI=1.5-9.1 and cordless phones OR=2.1, 95% CI=0.97-4.6 were calculated for malignant brain tumours for subjects with first use use <20 years of age, higher than in older persons. Increased risk was obtained for both cellular and cordless phones, highest in the group with >10 years latency period.
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Recent years have seen a rapid increase in the use of mobile phones and other sources of microwave radiation, raising concerns about possible adverse health effects. As children have longer expected lifetime exposures to microwaves from these devices than adults, who started to use them later in life, they are a group of special interest. We performed a population-based study to assess ownership and use of mobile phones and cordless phones among children aged 7-14 years. A questionnaire comprising 24 questions was sent to 2000 persons selected from the Swedish population registry using a stratified sampling scheme. The response rate was 71.2%. Overall, 79.1% of the respondents reported mobile phone access, and 26.7% of them talked for 2 minutes or more per day. Of those who reported mobile phone access, only 5.9% reported use of hands-free equipment. Use of cordless phones was reported by 83.8% of the respondents and 38.5% of them talked for 5 minutes or more per day. Girls generally reported more frequent use than boys. This study showed that most children had access to and used mobile and cordless phones early in life and that there was a rapid increase in use with age. It also showed very low use of hands-free equipment among children with mobile phone access, and finally that girls talked significantly more minutes per day using mobile and cordless phones than boys did.
Article
To assess the association between the incidence of cutaneous melanoma; intermittent, occupational and total sun exposure; and history of sunburn at different ages, we conducted a systematic review using results of all published case-control studies which have assessed incident melanoma, sun exposure and sunburn. Twenty-nine studies contributed data on sun exposure and 21 on sunburn. Overall, there was a significant positive association (odds ratio [OR] = 1.71) for intermittent exposure, a significantly reduced risk for heavy occupational exposure (OR = 0.86) and a small, marginally significant excess risk for total exposure (OR = 1.18). There was a significantly increased risk with sunburn at all ages or in adult life (OR = 1.91) and similarly elevated relative risks for sunburn in adolescence (OR = 1.73) and in childhood (OR = 1.95). There was significant heterogeneity with all of these estimates except that of all ages or adult sunburn. These results show the specificity of the positive association between melanoma risk and intermittent sun exposure, in contrast to a reduced risk with high levels of occupational exposure. The association with sunburn also is likely to reflect intermittent exposure; the results do not suggest any strong relationship to age at sunburn. These associations are similar to those reported for basal cell skin cancer but different from those reported for squamous cell cancer. The mechanisms by which intermittent exposure increases risk, while other patterns of exposure do not, remain to be elucidated. Int. J. Cancer 73:198–203, 1997. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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Epidemiology of rare cutaneous malignancies in the general population is poorly documented. This descriptive study aimed to estimate the incidence and trends of all skin malignancies between 1989 and 2005. Data on skin tumors were extracted from the Netherlands Cancer registry (except for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) data—only available from Comprehensive Cancer Centre South) and categorized according to the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, third edition, codes. Age-standardized incidence rates (European standardized population rate, ESR) per 100,000 person-years were calculated per year and for the period between 2001 and 2005. Estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) were estimated by Poisson regression models. A total of 356,620 skin tumors were diagnosed between 1989 and 2005. Excluding BCC, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and melanoma, the remaining skin tumors constituted about 2% of all skin malignancies. The incidence of melanoma showed the steepest increase (EAPC, 4.0%), and ESR was close to that observed for SCC (EAPC, 2.3%) between 2001 and 2005 (17.1 versus 19.6). Hematolymphoid tumors (ESR ¼ 0.74) were mainly cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (60.8%). No significant increases in incidence were observed for lymphomas, and appendageal, fibromatous, and myomatous carcinomas during 1989–2005. In addition to keratinocytic cancers and melanoma, there is a wide variety of skin tumors that constitute o2% of all skin malignancies. The incidence of UV-related skin tumors increased significantly and more steeply than did those of other skin malignancies.
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The siting of cellular phone base stations and other cellular infrastructure such as roof-mounted antenna arrays, especially in residential neighborhoods, is a contentious subject in land-use regulation. Local resistance from nearby residents and landowners is often based on fears of adverse health effects despite reassurances from telecommunications service providers that international exposure standards will be followed. Both anecdotal reports and some epidemiology studies have found headaches, skin rashes, sleep disturbances, depression, decreased libido, increased rates of suicide, concentration problems, dizziness, memory changes, increased risk of cancer, tremors, and other neurophysiological effects in populations near base stations. The objective of this paper is to review the existing studies of people living or working near cellular infrastructure and other pertinent studies that could apply to long-term, low-level radiofrequency radiation (RFR) exposures. While specific epidemiological research in this area is sparse and contradictory, and such exposures are difficult to quantify given the increasing background levels of RFR from myriad personal consumer products, some research does exist to warrant caution in infrastructure siting. Further epidemiology research that takes total ambient RFR exposures into consideration is warranted. Symptoms reported today may be classic microwave sickness, first described in 1978. Nonionizing electromagnetic fields are among the fastest growing forms of environmental pollution. Some extrapolations can be made from research other than epidemiology regarding biological effects from exposures at levels far below current exposure guidelines.
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Although the first English-language report of melanoma in 1820 contained a description of a melanoma-prone family, it was 1983 before formal genetic analysis suggested an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance for both melanoma and the then newly described melanoma precursor, dysplastic nevi (DN). Subsequent genetic studies have assumed this model to be correct, although when viewed in aggregate, the data are inconsistent.The first proposed melanoma gene (CMM1) was mapped to chromosome 1p36. This gene assignment has not been confirmed. A second melanoma gene, designated CMM2, has been mapped to chromosome 9p21. This gene assignment has been confirmed, and the cell cycle regulator CDKN2A has been proposed as the candidate gene. Germline mutations in this gene have been identified in about 20% of melanoma-prone families that have been studied to date. Pancreatic cancer occurs excessively in melanoma families with germline mutations in CDKN2A.Germline mutations in the cyclin-dependent kinase gene CDK4 (chromosome 12q14) have been described in three melanoma families. This finding represents a third melanoma gene but one that accounts for only a tiny fraction of all hereditary melanoma. Recently, a familial melanoma-astrocytoma syndrome has been reported. Large germline deletions of 9p21 occur in these families, with the p19 gene implicated in its pathogenesis. At present, clinical predictive genetic testing for mutations in the CDKN2A gene is available commercially, but its use has been limited by uncertainty as to how test results would affect the management of melanoma-prone family members. Currently, management recommendations include monthly skin self-examination, clinical skin examination once or twice yearly, a low threshold for simple excision of changing pigmented lesions, moderation of sun exposure, and appropriate use of sunscreens.A heritable determinant for total nevus number has been suggested by twin studies. Other data suggest the presence of a major gene responsible for “total nevus density” in melanoma-prone families. Approximately 55% of the mole phenotype in multiplex melanoma families was explained by this proposed gene. An autosomal dominant mode of inheritance has been proposed for DN, and data exist to suggest that DN may be a pleiotropic manifestation of the 1p36 familial melanoma gene. However, there clearly are melanoma-prone families that do not express the dysplastic nevus trait, and some of the families linked to CDKN2A also present with dysplastic nevi. Several studies have shown a surprisingly high prevalence of DN on the skin of family members of probands with DN. In light of the extensive evidence documenting that persons with DN (both sporadic and familial) have an increased prospective risk of melanoma, these family studies suggest that relatives of persons with DN should be examined for both DN and melanoma.Genetic determinants play a major role in the pathogenesis of normal nevi, DN, and melanoma. Identifying the molecular basis of these genetic events promises to enhance melanoma risk-reduction strategies and, ultimately, reduce melanoma-associated mortality. Cancer 1999;86:2464–77. © 1999 American Cancer Society.
Article
The dramatic increase in use of cellular telephones has generated concern about possible negative effects of radiofrequency signals delivered to the brain. However, whether acute cell phone exposure affects the human brain is unclear. To evaluate if acute cell phone exposure affects brain glucose metabolism, a marker of brain activity. Randomized crossover study conducted between January 1 and December 31, 2009, at a single US laboratory among 47 healthy participants recruited from the community. Cell phones were placed on the left and right ears and positron emission tomography with ((18)F)fluorodeoxyglucose injection was used to measure brain glucose metabolism twice, once with the right cell phone activated (sound muted) for 50 minutes ("on" condition) and once with both cell phones deactivated ("off" condition). Statistical parametric mapping was used to compare metabolism between on and off conditions using paired t tests, and Pearson linear correlations were used to verify the association of metabolism and estimated amplitude of radiofrequency-modulated electromagnetic waves emitted by the cell phone. Clusters with at least 1000 voxels (volume >8 cm(3)) and P < .05 (corrected for multiple comparisons) were considered significant. Brain glucose metabolism computed as absolute metabolism (μmol/100 g per minute) and as normalized metabolism (region/whole brain). Whole-brain metabolism did not differ between on and off conditions. In contrast, metabolism in the region closest to the antenna (orbitofrontal cortex and temporal pole) was significantly higher for on than off conditions (35.7 vs 33.3 μmol/100 g per minute; mean difference, 2.4 [95% confidence interval, 0.67-4.2]; P = .004). The increases were significantly correlated with the estimated electromagnetic field amplitudes both for absolute metabolism (R = 0.95, P < .001) and normalized metabolism (R = 0.89; P < .001). In healthy participants and compared with no exposure, 50-minute cell phone exposure was associated with increased brain glucose metabolism in the region closest to the antenna. This finding is of unknown clinical significance.
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Approximately 5-10 % of all cutaneous melanomas occur in families with hereditary melanoma predisposition. Worldwide, approximately 20-40% of kindreds with familial elanoma harbor germline mutations in the CDKN2A gene, located on chromosome 9p21, which encodes two different proteins, p16INK4 and p14ARF, both involved in regulation of cell cycle progression and induction of senescence. In different populations several recurring CDKN2A founder mutations have been described. The risk of melanoma in CDKN2A mutations carriers varies between populations and is higher in regions with high sun exposure and high incidence of melanoma in the general population. Some CDKN2A mutations have been associated not only with melanoma but also with increased risk of other malignancies--most notably pancreatic carcinoma. A much smaller number of families have germline mutations in the CDK4 gene on chromosome 12q14, encoding a cyclin dependent kinase which normally interacts with p16INK4A. The management of families with hereditary melanoma is discussed.
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One of the most significant risk factors for melanoma is a positive family history of the disease. It is estimated that approximately 10 percent of melanoma cases report a first-or second-degree relative with melanoma. We reported the experience of the Dermato-Oncologic Unit of Brescia, Italy.
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#### Summary points The incidence of melanoma has risen over the past 30 years in most white populations.1 2 However, in some parts of the world incidence rates are stable or falling. Although large scale primary prevention programmes such as public health education campaigns aimed at reducing exposure to sun may lead to reduced incidence, such programmes have not yet been proved effective. However, melanoma is highly amenable to secondary prevention through early detection. Being able to recognise a melanoma early is an important skill for primary healthcare practitioners. In this first article of a two part series on melanoma, we examine the evidence on the genetic epidemiology of melanoma and outline the complex interactions between incidence, mortality, and survival trends; we also discuss the evidence for prevention. Although melanoma remains a relatively rare tumour, many European countries show an annual increase in incidence above 2%; in some northern European countries, however, no significant increase has been observed.1 Between 1992 and 2005, the annual increase in incidence rates of melanoma in the United States was 2.3% for all races and 2.8% in white populations.3 Queensland in Australia had an increase in incidence of 1.4% for males and 0.7% for females during 1982 to 2001.4 Most recent incidence data show that in some …
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Studies of environmental electromagnetic (EM) field interactions in tissues have contributed to a new understanding of both normal growth and the biology of cancer in cell growth. From cancer research comes a floodtide of new knowledge about the disruption of communication by cancer-promoting chemicals with an onset of unregulated growth. Bioelectromagnetic research reveals clear evidence of joint actions at cell membranes of chemical cancer promoters and environmental electromagnetic fields. The union of these two disciplines has resulted in the first major new approach to tumor formation in 75 years, directing attention to dysfunctions in inward and outward streams of signals at cell membranes, rather than to damage DNA in cell nuclei, and to synergic actions of chemical pollutants and environmental electromagnetic fields. We are witnesses and, in great measure, participants in one of the great revolutions in the history of biology. In little more than a century, we have moved from organs, to tissues, to cells, and finally to the molecules that are the elegant fabric of living tissues. Today, we stand at a new frontier. It may be more difficult to comprehend, but it is far more significant; for it is at the atomic level, rather than the molecular, that physical, rather than chemical, processes appear to shape the flow of signals that are at the essence of living matter. To pursue these problems in the environment and in the laboratory, our needs for further research with appropriate budgets are great.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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The object of this study was to assess the relative risks of cancer for a particular branch of industry by using the newly created cancer environment registry. The registry was created by a record linkage of the 1960 census to the Swedish Cancer Registry 1961-73. A cohort study was undertaken of all subjects classified in the census as working in the electronics or electrical manufacturing industry. The risks were calculated in relation to the general working population. The results showed a slightly higher total incidence of cancer (all sites) in this branch of industry than in the general working population, for men as well as for women. This was especially so for tumour sites connected with the pharynx and the respiratory system. The study also indicates that the new registry has a potential as a screening instrument.
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Epidemiological and experimental studies concerning extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure and malignant diseases published up to 1 July 1994 were evaluated to assess the possible carcinogenicity of electromagnetic fields and the scientific basis for environmental and occupational standard setting. We concluded that there are possible associations between (i) an increased risk of leukaemia in children and the existence of, or distance to, power lines in the vicinity of their residence, (ii) an increased risk of chronic lymphatic leukaemia and occupational exposure to low frequency electromagnetic fields and (iii) an increased risk of breast cancer, malignant melanoma of the skin, nervous system tumours, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, acute lymphatic leukaemia or acute myeloid leukaemia and certain occupations. There is no scientific basis for occupational or environmental standard setting for low frequency electric or magnetic fields.
Article
In the mid- to late-1980s white populations in Australia, New Zealand and Scotland showed a sharp increase in melanoma incidence above preceding long-term trends, in some cases as much as doubling in as little as 2 years. Most of this increase was in thin melanomas, (< 1.50 mm thick), and males were more affected than females. Thicker melanomas also generally increased in incidence, particularly in males aged 65 years or older. Examination of Australian Medicare and pathology laboratory data indicated that excision of skin lesions and laboratory diagnosis of pigmented lesions also rose sharply in this period, suggesting that advancement of the time of diagnosis was a likely factor in the increase in melanoma incidence. However the maintenance of new higher incidence levels and the increase in incidence of thicker lesions suggests that advancement of diagnosis cannot explain all of the increase. A real increase in incidence and increasing diagnosis of a preexisting, non-metastasizing form of thin melanoma may also have contributed.
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In order to explore the potential oncostatic properties of the pineal hormone, melatonin, we have investigated its binding characteristics and functional effects in a human malignant melanoma (M-6) cell line. Binding studies in M-6 membranes showed the coexistence of 2-[125I]iodomelatonin binding sites with picomolar and nanomolar affinities. Guanine nucleotides caused conversion of all high-affinity sites to a low-affinity state without a change in binding capacity. Melatonin induced a marked concentration-dependent reduction in forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation in intact M-6 cells, indicating that it binds to a functional receptor in this cell line. The in vitro proliferation of M-6 cells was significantly inhibited by melatonin and its analogues 6-chloromelatonin, and 2-iodomelatonin, at concentrations ranging from 10(-9) to 10(-4) M, as demonstrated by cell counts and measurements of DNA content. These findings indicate that M-6 cells express functional receptors for melatonin which may be involved in mediating the antiproliferative effects of this hormone.
Article
To assess the association between the incidence of cutaneous melanoma; intermittent, occupational and total sun exposure; and history of sunburn at different ages, we conducted a systematic review using results of all published case-control studies which have assessed incident melanoma, sun exposure and sunburn. Twenty-nine studies contributed data on sun exposure and 21 on sunburn. Overall, there was a significant positive association (odds ratio [OR] = 1.71) for intermittent exposure, a significantly reduced risk for heavy occupational exposure (OR = 0.86) and a small, marginally significant excess risk for total exposure (OR = 1.18). There was a significantly increased risk with sunburn at all ages or in adult life (OR = 1.91) and similarly elevated relative risks for sunburn in adolescence (OR = 1.73) and in childhood (OR = 1.95). There was significant heterogeneity with all of these estimates except that of all ages or adult sunburn. These results show the specificity of the positive association between melanoma risk and intermittent sun exposure, in contrast to a reduced risk with high levels of occupational exposure. The association with sunburn also is likely to reflect intermittent exposure; the results do not suggest any strong relationship to age at sunburn. These associations are similar to those reported for basal cell skin cancer but different from those reported for squamous cell cancer. The mechanisms by which intermittent exposure increases risk, while other patterns of exposure do not, remain to be elucidated.
Article
We examined the incidence of primary invasive melanoma in the municipality of Reggio Emilia, northern Italy, in the period from 1986 to 1997. We identified 169 cases, five of which were intraocular. After adjustment for confounders, the risk of having a thick melanoma (Breslow > or = 1 mm) did not decrease over time, except in older females. The age-standardized incidence of cutaneous melanoma during the entire study period was 7.57 in males and 11 in females; from 1986-1991 to 1992-1997, it rose from 5.04 to 10.04 cases/100,000 person-years in males and from 8.96 to 13.09 cases/100,000 person-years in females. In males, the increase in incidence was almost entirely confined to subjects aged 30 or more, suggesting a possible cohort effect. We noted rising age-standardized incidences over time both in males with thin tumours (Breslow < 1 mm) (from 2.05 to 4.38 cases/100,000 person-years) and thick tumours (from 2.73 to 5.51 cases/100,000 person-years), while in females the increase was limited to thin melanomas (from 3.14 to 6.93 cases/100,000 person-years), mainly due to an increase in the older age groups (50 69 years and > or =70 years). The increase in thick melanomas among males and the expected cohort effects suggests antecedent exposure to environmental risk factors.
Article
The use of cellular telephones has increased dramatically during the 1990's in the world. In the 1980's the analogue NMT system was used whereas the digital GSM system was introduced in early 1990's and is now the preferred system. Case reports of brain tumours in users initiated this case-control study on brain tumours and use of cellular telephones. Also other exposures were assessed. All cases, both males and females, with histopathologically verified brain tumour living in Uppsala-Orebro region (1994-96) and Stockholm region (1995-96) aged 20-80 at the time of diagnosis and alive at start of the study were included, 233 in total. Two controls to each case were selected from the Swedish Population Register matched for sex, age and study region. Exposure was assessed by questionnaires supplemented over the phone. The analyses were based on answers from 209 (90%) cases and 425 (91%) controls. Use of cellular telephone gave odds ratio (OR) = 0.98 with 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0. 69-1.41. For the digital GSM system OR = 0.97, CI = 0.61-1.56 and for the analogue NMT system OR = 0.94, CI = 0.62-1.44 were calculated. Dose-response analysis and using different tumour induction periods gave similar results. Non-significantly increased risk was found for tumour in the temporal or occipital lobe on the same side as a cellular phone had been used, right side OR = 2.45, CI = 0.78-7.76, left side OR = 2.40, CI = 0.52-10.9 Increased risk was found only for use of the NMT system. For GSM use the observation time is still too short for definite conclusions. An increased risk for brain tumour in the anatomical area close to the use of a cellular telephone should be especially studied in the future.
Article
Based on 1,596,959 men and 806,278 women, site-specific cancer incidence during 1971 through 1984 was analyzed in relation to occupational magnetic field exposure. The objective was to explore potential associations for cancer diseases beyond those extensively studied before (leukemia and brain tumors). Exposure was assessed from Census information on occupations that were linked to a job exposure matrix based on measurements. In a basic analysis, three levels of exposure were used. In addition, subjects with a more definite low exposure were compared with an aggregate of occupations with more definite exposures. Observed associations were weak and there were no evident exposure-response relationships. For all cancer, an approximate 10% increase in risk was seen in the medium and high exposure groups. Several types of cancer were associated with exposure among men, including cancer of the colon, biliary passages and liver, larynx and lung, testis, kidney, urinary organs, malignant melanoma, non-melanoma skin cancer, astrocytoma III-IV. For women, associations were seen for cancer of the lung, breast, corpus uteri, malignant melanoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In the analysis of occupations with a more definite exposure, the most notable finding for men was an increased risk of testicular cancer in young workers, and for women a clear association emerged for cancer of the corpus uteri. The outcome suggests an interaction with the endocrine/immune system.
Article
Although the first English-language report of melanoma in 1820 contained a description of a melanoma-prone family, it was 1983 before formal genetic analysis suggested an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance for both melanoma and the then newly described melanoma precursor, dysplastic nevi (DN). Subsequent genetic studies have assumed this model to be correct, although when viewed in aggregate, the data are inconsistent. The first proposed melanoma gene (CMM1) was mapped to chromosome 1p36. This gene assignment has not been confirmed. A second melanoma gene, designated CMM2, has been mapped to chromosome 9p21. This gene assignment has been confirmed, and the cell cycle regulator CDKN2A has been proposed as the candidate gene. Germline mutations in this gene have been identified in about 20% of melanoma-prone families that have been studied to date. Pancreatic cancer occurs excessively in melanoma families with germline mutations in CDKN2A. Germline mutations in the cyclin-dependent kinase gene CDK4 (chromosome 12q14) have been described in three melanoma families. This finding represents a third melanoma gene but one that accounts for only a tiny fraction of all hereditary melanoma. Recently, a familial melanoma-astrocytoma syndrome has been reported. Large germline deletions of 9p21 occur in these families, with the p19 gene implicated in its pathogenesis. At present, clinical predictive genetic testing for mutations in the CDKN2A gene is available commercially, but its use has been limited by uncertainty as to how test results would affect the management of melanoma-prone family members. Currently, management recommendations include monthly skin self-examination, clinical skin examination once or twice yearly, a low threshold for simple excision of changing pigmented lesions, moderation of sun exposure, and appropriate use of sunscreens. A heritable determinant for total nevus number has been suggested by twin studies. Other data suggest the presence of a major gene responsible for "total nevus density" in melanoma-prone families. Approximately 55% of the mole phenotype in multiplex melanoma families was explained by this proposed gene. An autosomal dominant mode of inheritance has been proposed for DN, and data exist to suggest that DN may be a pleiotropic manifestation of the 1p36 familial melanoma gene. However, there clearly are melanoma-prone families that do not express the dysplastic nevus trait, and some of the families linked to CDKN2A also present with dysplastic nevi. Several studies have shown a surprisingly high prevalence of DN on the skin of family members of probands with DN. In light of the extensive evidence documenting that persons with DN (both sporadic and familial) have an increased prospective risk of melanoma, these family studies suggest that relatives of persons with DN should be examined for both DN and melanoma. Genetic determinants play a major role in the pathogenesis of normal nevi, DN, and melanoma. Identifying the molecular basis of these genetic events promises to enhance melanoma risk-reduction strategies and, ultimately, reduce melanoma-associated mortality.
Article
Previous work has demonstrated that melatonin inhibits growth of cultured human uveal melanoma cells. The goal of this study was to determine the expression of mRNA encoding the melatonin receptor subtypes and the effect of specific melatonin receptor agonists on cell growth of uveal melanoma cells and melanocytes. RNA expression of the human melatonin Mel1a and Mel1b receptor subtypes was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of RNA isolated from two melanoma cell lines and from one cell line of normal melanocytes. PCR-amplified cDNA encoding the Mel1b melatonin receptor subtype, but not the Mel1a subtype, was detected in reverse-transcribed RNA obtained from both normal uveal melanocytes and melanoma cell lines. Uveal melanoma cells and melanocytes were cultured for 24 hr, then melatonin or one of its membrane receptor agonists, 6-chloromelatonin (Mel1a-1b) or S-20098 (Mel1b) or its putative nuclear agonist, CGP-52608 (Mel2), was added to the medium. After 5 days, the cells were detached, counted, and compared to untreated controls. Melatonin and its membrane receptor agonists (Mel1a-1b and Mel1b), but not its putative nuclear receptor agonist (Mel2), inhibited the growth of uveal melanoma cells, but not normal melanocytes, at very low concentrations. In uveal melanoma cells, the expression of RNA encoding the Mel1b receptor suggests that the growth inhibiting effect of melatonin on uveal melanoma cells is related to activation of the melatonin Mel1b membrane receptor. Furthermore, the expression of RNA encoding melatonin receptors in normal uveal melanocytes suggests that melatonin may play a role in the function of these cells.
Article
Recent data indicate that the estrogen receptor (ER) blocker tamoxifen (TAM) can induce cell death in malignant melanoma cells. However, as shown in the present study and several other studies melanoma cells usually do not express classical ERs. In the present study we investigated whether the cytotoxic effect of TAM on melanoma cells could depend on interference with the expression or function of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), a plasma membrane receptor important for cell survival in this tumor cell type. Several melanoma cell lines were included in the analysis. Administration of TAM at a concentration of 15 microm or more resulted in cell death of the melanoma cells within 48 h. TAM treatment was correlated to a slight to moderate inhibition of IGF-1 binding to IGF-1R. Since it has been reported that TAM can increase the release of IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) we then investigated whether this mechanism could underly the decreased IGF-1 binding. However, we could demonstrate that the amount of released IGFBPs were unchanged or decreased in TAM-treated cells. Whereas TAM did not have any strong effect on IGF-1 binding and the expression of IGF-1R at the cell surface, it was was found to efficently block tyrosine phosphorylation of IGF-1R beta-subunit. Taken together, our data suggest that TAM-induced cytotoxicity of malignant melanoma cells can be due to inactivation of IGF-1R.
Article
There are few epidemiologic studies dealing with electromagnetic radiation and uveal melanoma. The majority of these studies are exploratory and are based on job and industry titles only. We conducted a hospital-based and population-based case-control study of uveal melanoma and occupational exposures to different sources of electromagnetic radiation, including radiofrequency radiation. We then pooled these results. We interviewed a total of 118 female and male cases with uveal melanoma and 475 controls matching on sex, age, and study regions. Exposure to radiofrequency-transmitting devices was rated as (a) no radiofrequency radiation exposure, (b) possible exposure to mobile phones, or (c) probable/certain exposure to mobile phones. Exposures were rated independently by two of the authors who did not know case or control status. We used conditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). We found an elevated risk for exposure to radiofrequency-transmitting devices (exposure to radio sets, OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.4-6.3; probable/certain exposure to mobile phones, OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.2-14.5). Other sources of electromagnetic radiation such as high-voltage lines, electrical machines, complex electrical environments, visual display terminals, or radar units were not associated with uveal melanoma. This is the first study describing an association between radiofrequency radiation exposure and uveal melanoma. Several methodologic limitations prevent our results from providing clear evidence on the hypothesized association.
Article
The relationship between cellular telephone use and excretion of the melatonin metabolite 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (6-OHMS) was evaluated in two populations of male electric utility workers (Study 1, n=149; Study 2, n=77). Participants collected urine samples and recorded cellular telephone use over 3 consecutive workdays. Personal 60-Hz magnetic field (MF) and ambient light exposures were characterized on the same days using EMDEX II meters. A repeated measures analysis was used to assess the effects of cellular telephone use, alone and combined with MF exposures, after adjustment for age, participation month and light exposure. No change in 6-OHMS excretion was observed among those with daily cellular telephone use >25 min in Study 1 (5 worker-days). Study 2 workers with >25 min cellular telephone use per day (13 worker-days) had lower creatinine-adjusted mean nocturnal 6-OHMS concentrations (p=0.05) and overnight 6-OHMS excretion (p=0.03) compared with those without cellular telephone use. There was also a linear trend of decreasing mean nocturnal 6-OHMS/creatinine concentrations (p=0.02) and overnight 6-OHMS excretion (p=0.08) across categories of increasing cellular telephone use. A combined effect of cellular telephone use and occupational 60-Hz MF exposure in reducing 6-OHMS excretion was also observed in Study 2. Exposure-related reductions in 6-OHMS excretion were observed in Study 2, where daily cellular telephone use of >25 min was more prevalent. Prolonged use of cellular telephones may lead to reduced melatonin production, and elevated 60-Hz MF exposures may potentiate the effect.
Article
The widespread use of the mobile phone has initiated many studies on the possible adverse effects of a high frequency electromagnetic field (EMF), which is used in mobile phones. A low frequency EMF is reported to suppress melatonin synthesis. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects on melatonin synthesis in rats after short term exposure to a 1439 MHz time division multiple access (TDMA) EMF. The average specific absorption ratio (SAR) of the brain was 7.5 W/kg, and the average SARs of the whole body were 1.9 and 2.0 W/kg for male and female rats, respectively. A total of 208 male and female rats were investigated. After acclimatization to a 12 h light-dark (LD) cycle, serum and pineal melatonin levels together with pineal serotonin level under a dark condition (less than 1 lux) were examined by radioimmunoassay. No significant differences in melatonin and serotonin levels were observed between the exposure, sham, and cage control groups. These results suggest that short term exposure to a 1439 MHz TDMA EMF, which is about four times stronger than that emitted by mobile phones, does not alter melatonin and serotonin synthesis in rats. Further investigations on the effects of long term exposure are warranted.
Article
To test whether exposure to the emissions from a digital mobile phone handset prior to sleep alters the secretion of melatonin. In a double-blind cross-over design, 55 adult volunteers were both actively exposed or sham-exposed (in random order on successive Sunday nights) to mobile phone emissions for 30 min (0.25 W average power). Urine collection occurred immediately prior to retiring to bed and on rising the next morning. Melatonin output was estimated from principal metabolite concentrations (6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) via radioimmunoassay), urine volumes and creatinine concentrations. Total melatonin metabolite output (concentration x urine volume) was unchanged between the two exposure conditions (active 14.1+/-1.1 microg; sham 14.6+/-1.3 microg). The pre- and post-bedtime outputs considered separately were also not significantly different, although the pre-bedtime value was less for active versus sham exposure. When melatonin metabolite output was estimated from the ratio of aMT6s to creatinine concentrations, the pre-bedtime value was significantly less (p = 0.037) for active compared to sham. Examination of individual responses is suggestive of a small group of 'responders'. Total nighttime melatonin output is unchanged by mobile phone handset emissions, but there could be an effect on melatonin onset time.
Article
The rapid worldwide increase in mobile phone use in the last decade has generated considerable interest in possible carcinogenic effects of radio frequency (RF). Because exposure to RF from phones is localized, if a risk exists it is likely to be greatest for tumours in regions with greatest energy absorption. The objective of the current paper was to characterize the spatial distribution of RF energy in the brain, using results of measurements made in two laboratories on 110 phones used in Europe or Japan. Most (97-99% depending on frequency) appears to be absorbed in the brain hemisphere on the side where the phone is used, mainly (50-60%) in the temporal lobe. The average relative SAR is highest in the temporal lobe (6-15%, depending on frequency, of the spatial peak SAR in the most exposed region of the brain) and the cerebellum (2-10%) and decreases very rapidly with increasing depth, particularly at higher frequencies. The SAR distribution appears to be fairly similar across phone models, between older and newer phones and between phones with different antenna types and positions. Analyses of risk by location of tumour are therefore important for the interpretation of results of studies of brain tumours in relation to mobile phone use.
Distribution of RF energy emitted by mobile phones in anatomical structures of the brain
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