Abstract 4623: Capsaicin represses transcriptional activity of β-catenin in human colorectal cancer cells

Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-4542, USA.
The Journal of nutritional biochemistry (Impact Factor: 3.79). 07/2011; 23(6):646-55. DOI: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2011.03.009
Source: PubMed


Capsaicin is a pungent ingredient in chili red peppers and has been linked to suppression of growth in various cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism(s) by which capsaicin induces growth arrest and apoptosis of cancer cells is not completely understood. In the present study, we investigated whether capsaicin alters β-catenin-dependent signaling in human colorectal cancer cells in vitro. Exposure of SW480, LoVo and HCT-116 cells to capsaicin suppressed cell proliferation. Transient transfection with a β-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF)-responsive reporter indicated that capsaicin suppressed the transcriptional activity of β-catenin/TCF. Capsaicin treatment resulted in a decrease of intracellular β-catenin levels and a reduction of transcripts from the β-catenin gene (CTNNB1). These results were confirmed by a reduced luciferase reporter activity driven by promoter-reporter construct containing the promoter region of the Catnb gene. In addition, capsaicin destabilized β-catenin through enhancement of proteosomal-dependent degradation. Western blot and immunoprecipitation studies indicated that capsaicin treatment suppressed TCF-4 expression and disrupted the interaction of TCF-4 and β-catenin. This study identifies a role for the β-catenin/TCF-dependent pathway that potentially contributes to the anticancer activity of capsaicin in human colorectal cancer cells.

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    • "High-concentration capsaicin (≥200 μM for SW480 and CT-26 cell lines; ≥25 μM for HCT116 cell line) showed antiproliferative activity in CRC cells in a dose-dependent manner (Yang et al. 2013). In another study, an inhibition of cell growth and transcriptional activity was observed at 100 μM (Lee et al. 2012) (Table 8.1). "
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    ABSTRACT: Capsaicin, one of the major pungent ingredients found in red peppers, has been recently demonstrated to induce apoptosis in many types of malignant cell lines including colon adenocarcinoma, pancreatic cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, prostate cancer, breast cancer, and many others. The mechanism whereby capsaicin induces apoptosis in cancer cells is not completely elucidated but involves intracellular calcium increase, reactive oxygen species generation, disruption of mitochondrial membrane transition potential, and activation of transcription factors such as NFkappaB and STATS. Recently, a role for the AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) and autophagy pathways in capsaicin-triggered cell death has been proposed. In addition, capsaicin shows antitumor activity in vivo by reducing the growth of many tumors induced in mice. In this chapter, we report the last advances performed in the antitumor activity of capsaicin and review the main signaling pathways involved.
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    • "Capsaicin induced apoptosis, oxidative stress, PARP cleavage, down-regulation tNOX in SNU-1 cells at !100 mM; TMC-1 cells much less sensitive to capsaicin Lee et al. 2011 Human SW480, LoVo and HCT-116 colorectat !50 mM suppressed cell proliferation and b-catenin/T-cell "
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    ABSTRACT: Human exposure to capsaicin, the most abundant pungent chili pepper component, is ubiquitous. Evaluation of capsaicin's carcinogenic potential has produced variable results in in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity and carcinogenicity assays. The capsaicin tested in older studies was often from pepper plant extracts and included other capsaicinoids and diverse impurities. Recent studies utilizing high-purity capsaicin and standardized protocols provide evidence that the genotoxic and carcinogenic potential of capsaicin is quite low and that the purity of capsaicin is important. Several small epidemiological studies suggest a link between capsaicin consumption and stomach or gall bladder cancer, but contamination of capsaicin-containing foods with known carcinogens renders their interpretation problematic. The postulated ability of capsaicin metabolites to damage DNA and promote carcinogenesis remains unsupported. Anticancer activities of capsaicin have been widely reported, as it inhibits the activity of carcinogens and induces apoptosis in numerous cancer cell lines in vitro and explanted into rodents. Diverse mechanisms have been postulated for capsaicin's anticancer properties. One hypothesis is that inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes-particularly CYP2E1-retards carcinogen activation but is contradicted by the low potency of capsaicin for CYP inhibition. The potential for dietary capsaicin to act as a chemopreventative is now widely postulated.
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer chemoprevention is employed to block or reverse the progression of malignancies. To date, several thousands of agents have been found to possess chemopreventative activity, one of which is capsaicin, a component of chili peppers that exhibits antigrowth activity against various cancer cell lines. However, the role of capsaicin in tumorigenesis remains controversial because both cancer prevention and promotion have been proposed. Here, we made the unexpected discovery that treatment with low concentrations of capsaicin up-regulates tNOX (tumor-associated NADH oxidase) expression in HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells in association with enhanced cell proliferation and migration, as evidenced by down-regulation of epithelial markers and up-regulation of mesenchymal markers. Importantly, tNOX-knockdown in HCT116 cells by RNA interference reversed capsaicin-induced cell proliferation and migration in vitro and decreased tumor growth in vivo. Collectively, these findings provide a basis for explaining the tumor-promoting effect of capsaicin and might imply that caution should be taken when using capsaicin as a chemopreventive agent.
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