Article

Obesity and metabolic syndrome: Potential benefit from specific nutritional components

Dpto. de Ciencias de Alimentación, Fisiología y Toxicología, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Navarra), Spain.
Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD (Impact Factor: 3.32). 07/2011; 21 Suppl 2(Suppl 2):B1-15. DOI: 10.1016/j.numecd.2011.05.001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) manifestations is rapidly increasing worldwide, and is becoming an important health problem. Actually, MetS includes a combination of clinical complications such as obesity (central adiposity), insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hypertension. All these alterations predispose individuals to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease inducing earlier mortality rates among people. In general terms, it is difficult for patients to follow a standard long-term diet/exercise regime that would improve or alleviate MetS symptoms. Thus, the investigation of food components that may deal with the MetS features is an important field for ameliorate and facilitate MetS dietary-based therapies. Currently antioxidants are of great interest due to the described association between obesity, cardiovascular alterations and oxidative stress. On the other hand, high MUFA and PUFA diets are being also considered due to their potential benefits on hypertension, insulin resistance and triglyceride levels. Mineral composition of the diet is also relevant since high potassium intake may improve hypertension and high calcium consumption may promote lipid oxidation. Thus, although nutritional supplements are at the peak of dietetic therapies, the consumption of some specific foods (legumes, fatty fish, vegetables and fruits, etc) with bioactive components within an energy-restricted diet is a promising approach to manage MetS manifestations. Therefore, the present review focuses on some of the most important food components currently investigated to improve and make easier the nutritional MetS treatment.

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    • "As highlighted above, an adequate intake of magnesium, calcium or potassium has a favorable effect on metabolic regulation and/or blood pressure (Whelton, 1997;Geleijnse, 2005;Karppanen, 2005;Teegarden, 2006;Feldeisen, 2007;Olatunji, 2007;van Meijl, 2008;Cho, 2009;Tremblay, 2009;Chaudhary, 2010;Abete, 2011;Rice, 2011). However, their association, as occurs in the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH diet), which includes, among others, magnesium, calcium and potassiumrich foods, seems more effective, particularly in blood pressure control (Vaskonen, 2003;Al-Solaiman, 2010). "

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    • "The physiological properties of fatty acids largely depend on the chain length and degree of unsaturation. In general, compared with saturated fatty acid (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) improve protection against MetS and cardiovascular disease risk factors[3,4]. Although fish oil is a common source of long-chain n- 3 PUFA including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), some fishes such as saury, pollock, and salmon also have considerable levels of long-chain MUFA (LCMUFA) with aliphatic tails longer than 18 carbons (i.e., C20:1 and C22:1 isomers combined)[5,6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Pacific saury is a common dietary component in East Asia. Saury oil contains considerable levels of n-3 unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids (LCMUFA) with aliphatic tails longer than 18 carbons. In our previous study, consumption of saury oil for 4 to 6 wk improved insulin sensitivity and the plasma lipid profile in mice. However, the long-term effects of saury oil on metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors remain to be demonstrated. In the current study, we examined the long-term effects of saury oil on mice fed a high-fat diet, and compared the effect of n-3 PUFA EPA and LCMUFA on MetS risk factor in diet-induced obese mice. Methods and Results In Experiment 1, male C57BL/6 J mice were fed either a 32 % lard diet (control) or a diet containing 22 % lard plus 10 % saury oil (saury oil group) for 18 weeks. Although no differences were found in body weight and energy expenditure between the control and saury oil groups, the saury oil diet decreased plasma insulin, non–HDL cholesterol, hepatic steatosis, and adipocyte size, and altered levels of mRNA transcribed from genes involved in insulin signaling and inflammation in adipose tissue. Organ and plasma fatty acid profile analysis revealed that consumption of saury oil increased n-3 PUFA and LCMUFA (especially n-11 LCMUFA) levels in multiple organs, and decreased the fatty acid desaturation index (C16:1/C16:0; C18:1/C18:0) in liver and adipose tissue. In Experiment 2, male C57BL/6 J mice were fed a 32 % lard diet (control), a diet containing 28 % lard plus 4 % EPA (EPA group), or a diet containing 20 % lard plus 12 % LCMUFA concentrate (LCMUFA group) for 8 weeks. EPA or LCMUFA intake increased organ levels of EPA and LCMUFA, respectively. Consumption of EPA reduced plasma lipid levels and hepatic lipid deposition, and decreased the fatty acid desaturation index in liver and adipose tissue. Consumption of LCMUFA decreased plasma non–HDL cholesterol, improved hyperinsulinemia, and decreased the fatty acid desaturation index in adipose tissue. EPA accumulated mainly in liver, and LCMUFA (especially n-11 LCMUFA) accumulated mainly in white adipose tissue, suggesting their possible individual biological effects for improving MetS. Our results suggest that saury oil-mediated improvement of metabolic syndrome in diet-induced obese mice may possibly be due to a combined effect of n-3 PUFA and LCMUFA.
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    • "There is evidence that MetS has become more widespread over the last decade, probably influenced by increases in obesity prevalence [3]. Weight status, together with physical activity and diet, has been reported to be among the main environmental determinants of the MetS [4]. However, there is no universal approach to stop, at least in part, the rise of this condition burden. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Polish arm of the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) cohort study. A cross-sectional survey including 8821 adults was conducted in Krakow, Poland. Food intake was evaluated through a validated food frequency questionnaire and adherence to the dietary pattern was assessed using a score specifically developed for non-Mediterranean countries (MedTypeDiet score). Linear and logistic regression models were performed to estimate beta and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), respectively. Significant associations between the MedTypeDiet score and waist circumference (β=-0.307±0.239cm), systolic blood pressure (β=-0.440±0.428mmHg), and triglycerides (β=-0.021±0.016mmol/L) were observed. After multivariable adjustment, individuals in the highest quartile of the score were less likely to have MetS, central obesity, high triglycerides, and hypertension. Increase of one standard deviation of the score was associated with 7% less odds of having MetS (OR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.97). When analyzing the relation of single components of the MedTypeDiet score, wine, dairy products, and the total unsaturated:saturated fatty acids ratio were associated with MetS. Adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet may decrease the risk of MetS also among non-Mediterranean populations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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