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The value of urban open space: Meta-analyses of contingent valuation and hedonic pricing results

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Abstract

Urban open space provides a number of valuable services to urban populations, including recreational opportunities, aesthetic enjoyment, environmental functions, and may also be associated with existence values. In separate meta-analyses of the contingent valuation (CV) and hedonic pricing (HP) literature we examine which physical, socio-economic, and study characteristics determine the value of open space. The dependent variable in the CV meta-regression is defined as the value of open space per hectare per year in 2003 US$, and in the HP model as the percentage change in house price for a 10 m decrease in distance to open space. Using a multi-level modelling approach we find in both the CV and HP analyses that there is a positive and significant relationship between the value of urban open space and population density, indicating that scarcity and crowdedness matter, and that the value of open space does not vary significantly with income. Further, urban parks are more highly valued than other types of urban open space (forests, agricultural and undeveloped land) and methodological differences in study design have a large influence on estimated values from both CV and HP. We also find important regional differences in preferences for urban open space, which suggests that the potential for transferring estimated values between regions is likely to be limited.

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... The many benefits of NBS are being increasingly monetized (Bockarjova et al., 2020a;Brander et al., 2006;Brander and Koetse, 2011;Van Oijstaeijen et al., 2020). Monetary estimates can convey information and deliver stronger arguments for the business case of NBS, as a lack of economic arguments is seen as a barrier for their implementation (Aerts, 2018;Van Oijstaeijen et al., 2020). ...
... Firstly, the existing studies are not applicable for most urban planning contexts. We are aware of only three studies that attempt to transfer values of urban nature (Brander and Koetse, 2011;Bockarjova et al., 2020aBockarjova et al., , 2020b. Value estimates in Brander and Koetse (2011) and Bockarjova et al. (2020a) are biased towards large NBS with average areas of 9918 ha and 472 ha, respectively. ...
... We are aware of only three studies that attempt to transfer values of urban nature (Brander and Koetse, 2011;Bockarjova et al., 2020aBockarjova et al., , 2020b. Value estimates in Brander and Koetse (2011) and Bockarjova et al. (2020a) are biased towards large NBS with average areas of 9918 ha and 472 ha, respectively. As discussed by the authors, the study results have limited applicability for, and likely overestimate values of smaller NBS (<50 ha). ...
Article
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Nature-based solutions may actively reduce hydro-meteorological risks in urban areas as a part of climate change adaptation. However, the main reason for the increasing uptake of this type of solution is their many benefits for the local inhabitants, including recreational value. Previous studies on recreational value focus on studies of existing nature sites that are often much larger than what is considered as new NBS for flood adaptation studies in urban areas. We thus prioritized studies with smaller areas and nature types suitable for urban flood adaptation and divided them into four common nature types for urban flood adaptation: sustainable urban drainage systems, city parks, nature areas and rivers. We identified 23 primary valuation studies, including both stated and revealed preference studies, and derived two value transfer functions based on meta-regression analysis on existing areas. We investigated trends between values and variables and found that for the purpose of planning of new NBS the size of NBS and population density were determining factors of recreational value. For existing NBS the maximum travelling distance may be included as well. We find that existing state-of-the-art studies overestimate the recreational with more than a factor of 4 for NBS sizes below 5 ha. Our results are valid in a European context for nature-based solutions below 250 ha and can be applied across different NBS types and sizes.
... Although the full range of urban greenspace services (e.g. space for relaxation) cannot be valued in monetary terms, preference can be revealed through the market via, for example, bird seed sales (Clucas, Rabotyagov and Marzluff, 2015) or higher house prices near to urban greenspaces (Brander and Koetse, 2011;Tu, Abildtrup and Garcia, 2016). Non-market values can also be estimated through stated preference modelling (Brander and Koetse, 2011;Clucas, Rabotyagov and Marzluff, 2015;Mäntymaa et al., 2021). ...
... space for relaxation) cannot be valued in monetary terms, preference can be revealed through the market via, for example, bird seed sales (Clucas, Rabotyagov and Marzluff, 2015) or higher house prices near to urban greenspaces (Brander and Koetse, 2011;Tu, Abildtrup and Garcia, 2016). Non-market values can also be estimated through stated preference modelling (Brander and Koetse, 2011;Clucas, Rabotyagov and Marzluff, 2015;Mäntymaa et al., 2021). In Scotland, urban greenspaces represent the most frequently visited areas for outdoor recreation, and account for 41% of time spent outdoors (Office for National Statistics, 2021). ...
... Stated preference studies have been widely used to value urban greenspaces, and a number of meta-analyses of urban greenspace stated preference studies have been carried out over the last 10 years (Brander and Koetse, 2011;Perino et al., 2014;Bockarjova, Botzen and Koetse, 2020;Diluiso, Guastella and Pareglio, 2021). Across studies, a positive preference for urban greenspace has been identified, with value varying with GDP per capita (Bockarjova, Botzen and Koetse, 2020), and population density (Brander and Koetse, 2011;Bockarjova, Botzen and Koetse, 2020). ...
Article
Urban greenspaces are multifunctional spaces, providing services to people and biodiversity. With space in urban areas being limited creation and maintenance of urban greenspaces relies on understanding the preferences of urban residents for their characteristics. Such preferences are expected to vary with current availability, and the availability of alternatives to greenspaces such as gardens or gyms. We carried out a nationwide discrete choice experiment with Scottish urban residents to estimate values associated with greenspace attributes of: recreational features; plants and natural features; trees; accessibility; time to walk from home and size, to test the hypotheses that: (i) people are willing to pay to maintain greenspace, (ii) people have willingness to pay for greenspaces with multiple functions, including features for direct use (e.g. play equipment) and biodiversity (e.g. wildflowers), (iii) willingness to pay for individual greenspace will vary according to socioeconomic characteristics and (iv) vary with the amount of greenspace or substitute facilities available. We find a positive willingness to pay to maintain greenspace in general, and higher willingness to pay for larger greenspaces closer to home, which are multifunctional and contain both direct use features (e.g. children’s play park) and biodiversity features. Although we find significant heterogeneity in willingness to pay for maintaining greenspace, this is not well explained by either socioeconomic characteristics or the availability of substitute facilities. Our results have relevance for urban natural capital accounting, and demonstrate to urban planners the importance of the design and maintenance of multi-functional greenspaces for urban populations and would benefit from future research that further explores heterogeneity, including perceptions of greenspace access and substitutes, and greenspace quality.
... The multidimensional benefits of access to nature for urbanized human populations are the topic of numerous studies. For instance, nature provides urban residents with positive physical and mental health outcomes (Keniger et al., 2013;Maller et al., 2009;Sandifer et al., 2015), desirability as indicated by real estate values (Brander and Koetse, 2011;Harnik and Welle, 2009), and economic vitality (Harnik and Welle, 2009;McGranahan et al., 2011), pointing to the value of proximity and access to nature as so critical to human wellbeing that its provision becomes a pressing question of environmental and social equity (Weigand et al., 2019). The rapid expansion of research into the importance of access to nature as an element of urban planning and design reflects a growing recognition of nature-society relationships, and invites continued examination of the roles of a variety of unbuilt landscapes in supporting urban life. ...
... Booming, urbanizing economies like those in the western U.S. in particular, where vibrant, growing cities are surrounded by vast areas of public, minimallydeveloped land, invite a closer look at the phenomenon of urban-wildland synergies (Stoker et al., 2021). These western, wildland-proximate cities arise within a broader context of regional differences in preferences for open space (Brander and Koetse, 2011), and against the backdrop of varying degrees of access to nature-based resources (e.g., transportation system, time, and monetary constraints), particularly for people of color and lower socioeconomic standing (Brander and Koetse, 2011;Byrne et al., 2009;Wang et al., 2015). The growth of such cities proposes a nontraditional model of the relationship between cities and their surrounding landscape. ...
... Booming, urbanizing economies like those in the western U.S. in particular, where vibrant, growing cities are surrounded by vast areas of public, minimallydeveloped land, invite a closer look at the phenomenon of urban-wildland synergies (Stoker et al., 2021). These western, wildland-proximate cities arise within a broader context of regional differences in preferences for open space (Brander and Koetse, 2011), and against the backdrop of varying degrees of access to nature-based resources (e.g., transportation system, time, and monetary constraints), particularly for people of color and lower socioeconomic standing (Brander and Koetse, 2011;Byrne et al., 2009;Wang et al., 2015). The growth of such cities proposes a nontraditional model of the relationship between cities and their surrounding landscape. ...
Article
As human populations become concentrated in larger, more intensely urbanized areas connected through globalization, the relationships of cities to their surrounding landscapes are open to social, ecological, and economic reinterpretation. In particular, the value of access to nature in the form of nearby, undeveloped wildland to urban populations implies a relatively novel type of synergistic city-region relationship. We develop a robust and replicable metric – the Urban Wildland Juxtaposition (UWJ) – that quantifies critical dimensions of the juxtaposition of the urbanicity of cities with the quantity of nearby unbuilt wildlands, based on the spatial proximity and relative intensities of these two contrasting system types. Using a distance-decay gravity model, this analysis provides documentation on the calculation of the UWJ and its component metrics, urbanicity (U) and wildland (W) and then presents U, W, and UWJ metrics for 36 urbanized areas representing all regions of the U.S., providing the basis for comparisons and analysis. We explore the potential of the metric by testing correlations with “creative class” employment and public health measures. The UWJ has implications and potential applications for demographic, economic, social, and quality-of-life trends across the U.S. and internationally.
... Hedonic pricing models, which estimate house prices using quantitative data about the house characteristics, location, and the supply versus demand, can be used to improve model-based appraisals. The literature has shown that for many cities, e.g., London [4], Rotterdam [5], Leipzig [6], and Singapore [7], the house prices can be estimated using these types of models. However, many of these models focus on a single city within a country. ...
... Correspondingly, house prices reflect macro-economical changes in the wishes and values of society. As such, house prices play a versatile role in quantifying the price of intangible goods such as clean air [4], the presence of green space [14], and accessible infrastructure. Hedonic price models use different types of regression models to estimate the price and weight of each characteristic. ...
... In contrast, intrinsic characteristics are the biggest differentiating factors for house prices [4,29,30]. As such, they are also by far the most used variables for hedonic pricing models [16]. ...
Article
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With the rapidly increasing house prices in the Netherlands, there is a growing need for more localised value predictions for mortgage collaterals within the financial sector. Many existing studies focus on modelling house prices for an individual city; however, these models are often not interesting for mortgage lenders with assets spread out all over the country. That is why, with the current abundance of national geospatial datasets, this paper implements and compares three hedonic pricing models (linear regression, geographically weighted regression, and extreme gradient boosting—XGBoost) to model real estate appraisals values for five large municipalities in different parts of the Netherlands. The appraisal values used to train the model are provided by Stater N.V., which is the largest mortgage service provider in the Netherlands. Out of the three implemented models, the XGBoost model has the highest accuracy. XGBoost can explain 83% of the variance with an RMSE of €65,312, an MAE of €43,625, and an MAPE of 6.35% across the five municipalities. The two most important variables in the model are the total living area and taxation value, which were taken from publicly available datasets. Furthermore, a comparison is made between indexation and XGBoost, which shows that the XGBoost model is able to more accurately predict the appraisal values of different types of houses. The remaining unexplained variance is most probably caused by the lack of good indicators for the condition of the house. Overall, this paper highlights the benefits of open geospatial datasets to build a national real estate appraisal model.
... Research indicates there may be additional benefits from parks for the surrounding neighborhood, such as increasing property values. Open green space increases property values (Brander & Koetse, 2011) and makes the neighborhood more desirable for other investment activities (Chrysochoou et al., 2012). Research has repeatedly found that living near a park is associated with higher property values in urban neighborhoods (Anderson & West, 2006;Brander & Koetse, 2011;Poudyal, Hodges, Tonn, & Cho, 2009 increase in home value with increasing proximity to a neighborhood park; however, beyond a certain park size in acres, there was a drop in the home value. ...
... Open green space increases property values (Brander & Koetse, 2011) and makes the neighborhood more desirable for other investment activities (Chrysochoou et al., 2012). Research has repeatedly found that living near a park is associated with higher property values in urban neighborhoods (Anderson & West, 2006;Brander & Koetse, 2011;Poudyal, Hodges, Tonn, & Cho, 2009 increase in home value with increasing proximity to a neighborhood park; however, beyond a certain park size in acres, there was a drop in the home value. The authors believed that while living near a park is important, that increased traffic or noisewhich is common as the park size increasesmay be a disamenity for residents (Anderson & West, 2006). ...
... Research documents that open green space increases property values (Anderson & West, 2006;Brander & Koetse, 2011;Poudyal, Hodges, Tonn, et al., 2009) and makes the neighborhood more desirable for other investment activities (Chrysochoou et al., 2012). At the same time, some neighborhoods find the maintenance costs of parks financially burdensome (Eisinger, 2014) and find ways to reduce this financial burden. ...
Thesis
Population-level engagement in adequate leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) can improve mental and physical health and potentially save billions in health care costs. Despite these potentially positive outcomes, inadequate LTPA engagement is prevalent in the United States with urban residents’ living in poverty when compared to residents not living in poverty. The joint effects of the built and social environments, as they relate to LTPA, is a growing area of research and advocacy. Related to this, multiple urban neighborhoods across the United States are redeveloping parks and anticipating various health promotive co-benefits for neighborhoods. However, assessment of post redevelopment impacts on characteristics such as crime, physical disorder, and property values are infrequent and a current research gap. This dissertation uses spatial and quantitative statistical methods to address the question of, “Is park redevelopment associated with changes in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), blight crime, and property values, in neighborhoods with at least one redeveloped park?” Specifically, this work studies Detroit, Michigan, United States of America which recently released a redevelopment plan to improve 163 of its 308 parks with 36 done in the first phase (2016 – 2017). Using the 500 Cities: Local Data for Better Health dataset, this dissertation will assess differences in LTPA prevalence in census tracts that had parks redeveloped 2006 – 2015 (n= 99) compared to tracts without redeveloped parks (n= 62) (Paper I). The following two papers compare census tracts (n= 31) with at least one park completed in Phase 1 to matched census tracts without a redeveloped park, to assess changes to physical disorder (i.e., blight) and crime (Paper II), and property values (Paper III). There were several key findings across these studies. The neighborhood percentage of LTPA was not associated with park redevelopment. While the crime rate per 1,000-population is increasing in the City of Detroit, neighborhoods with at least one redeveloped park had non-significant changes in rates of reported crime following park redevelopment compared to neighborhoods without redeveloped parks. This same research study found that neighborhoods with at least one redeveloped park had non-significant changes in violent crime rates per 1,000-population compared to neighborhoods without any redeveloped park. The final question of this study found that total blight fines per parcel were significantly higher in neighborhoods with at least one redeveloped park; however, the confounding of total park acres in the census tract made the association insignificant in the full repeated measures model. Finally, valid arm’s length (VAL) sales price did not change following park redevelopment. However, the effect of park redevelopment on VAL differed based on additional greenspace (i.e., greenway) where there was a higher VAL sales price in neighborhoods with redeveloped parks and additional greenspace. In addition, neighborhoods with at least one redeveloped park and more than five acres of total park space reported a lower VAL sales price compared to neighborhoods with more than five acres of total park space and no redeveloped parks. These findings more broadly provide urban neighborhoods nationwide with methods to measure health-related changes in their neighborhoods following park redevelopment and respond to questions from Detroit residents and decision-makers. Further, decision-makers should be cautious before making up-front assertions in publicly available published plans that changes will occur following park redevelopment without first testing the associations.
... Today, green space and green infrastructure expansions are rather effective tools for economic development, tourism attraction, and neighborhood revitalization, especially so when new businesses open up in the vicinity of a new green amenity [64]. The desirability of a neighborhood for real estate investors and residents is often enhanced when it becomes greener, which eventually contributes to higher property values [65]. Research on real estate indeed reveals that urban green infrastructure positively influences home prices. ...
... Today, green space and green infrastructure expansions are rather effective tools economic development, tourism attraction, and neighborhood revitalization, especially when new businesses open up in the vicinity of a new green amenity [64]. The desirabil of a neighborhood for real estate investors and residents is often enhanced when it comes greener, which eventually contributes to higher property values [65]. Research real estate indeed reveals that urban green infrastructure positively influences ho prices. ...
Article
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Balancing economic growth with environmental protection is vital for the sustainable development of cities and regions. However, urban greening has rarely been considered in extensive studies. This study incorporates urban greening into a coupling coordination degree (CCD) model, in order to evaluate its coordination with economic performance. A total of 286 cities in China between 2005 and 2019 were selected as specific study subjects. Meanwhile, clustering method was used to classify different clusters based on CCD values, the Gini coefficient analysis was applied to discover the CCD values inequality characteristics and the exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) method was employed to study the CCD values spatial aggregation features. The results indicate that the CCD values presented significant spatial heterogeneity. Spatially, the CCD values were divided into eight clusters, with those in the eastern region generally being higher than in the central and western regions. Temporally, the CCD in all cities showed an increasing trend, but more than 60% of cities were still in the uncoordinated or low-level coordination stage. In addition, inequality and spatial aggregation characteristics were observed in CCD values, both of which presented decreasing trends. Greening has a stronger influence on the linked and coordinated growth of the two systems; therefore, we propose policy recommendations for pursuing the development of environmentally friendly cities from different aspects. In summary, this research allows for a better understanding of economic and environmental relationships, thus contributing to the objective of creating sustainable cities and communities.
... Buildings of architectural value have been recognised as land-based public goods in both urban planning, urban economics, and environmental psychology (Ahlfeldt & Holman, 2018;Brander & Koetse, 2011;Stamps & Nasar, 1997). Studies confirm a demand for well-designed buildings and heritage buildings. ...
... An open-ended question was asked to residents who were not willing to pay, to enquire further about the reasons behind their decision. This question helped reveal genuine zero (WTP = 0) and protest responses comprehensively (Brander & Koetse, 2011). In line with other literature (Chen & Hua, 2015), 32% of respondents said they could not afford to pay due to budget constraints and a notable 38% of respondents said they "did not trust developers" and that there was "no point in paying as the building would be built anyway." ...
Article
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Through an urban renewal process driven by a well-resourced Lebanese diaspora and foreign investment, Beirut has undergone conspicuous morphological densification, characterised by parcel aggregation and exploitation of building height. Planning agencies have contributed to these transformations, deliberately involved in the production of illegality, and contributing to unplanned urban development. Although recent literature has substantially furthered our understanding of deregulated planning in Beirut, little is known of the preferences of residents with regards to the urban development process. This article sheds light on how morphological densification affects the complex values attached by residents to their urban environments using a novel data set and mixed-methods approach. It explores how dramatic urban restructuring affects resident values of architectural amenities and neighbourhood belonging. Findings show that although living in areas with different rates of building change does not affect preferences for architectural amenities, it affects resident socio-political activism towards the preservation of their built environment. Residents living in areas with high building-change rates had almost 50% lower odds of being willing to stop new construction near their location of residence because of their lack of confidence in the planning system. Neighbourhood belonging is not significantly affected by construction rates, but substantially increases both with the number of years lived in a neighbourhood and in locations with better building conditions, confirming a role for the built environment.
... Further, some respondents may not be sensitive to the quantity and quality of changes (e.g., landscape changes). As such, the willingness to pay is likely inaccurate (Brander and Koetse, 2011). ...
... In summary, as a surveybased method, the contingent valuation has spe cific characteristics, like investigating nonuse values, but it requires complex survey designs, and the associated questions are based on a hypothetical situ ation, rather than on observed economic choices (Brander and Koetse, 2011). ...
Thesis
This thesis focuses on the development of spatial econometric/statistical models that are used for analyzing the Corsican real estate market.Concerning technical contributions, I address the issue of spatial and temporal autocorrelation in the residual of classical linear regression that may yield biased estimates. Early empirical studies using “spaceless” tools such as OLS probably yield biased estimates. With the acceptance of spatial econometrics, regional scientists can better handle the autocorrelation in data. However, the temporal dimension remains unclear due to its complex settings. To tackle both spatial and temporal autocorrelation, I suggest applying Bayesian hierarchical spatiotemporal models.Regarding the contribution in terms of regional economics, the developed ad-hoc Bayesian spatiotemporal hierarchical models have been used to assess the Corsican housing market. In particular, how locations affect housing is the key issue in this thesis. The topics analyzed are complex because they deal with issues ranging from predicting Corsican apartment sales prices, investigating second home rates to assessing the impact of sea views. Furthermore, the economic underpinnings of these topics include the hedonic price method, the adjacent effects and the ripple effects.Finally, I identify “hot spots” and “cold spots” in terms of apartment prices and second home rates, and I also indicate that both the sea (Mediterranean Sea) view and the coast accessibility affect apartment prices. These findings should provide valuable information for planners and policymakers.
... Another motivation of this study is associated with the hierarchical structure of housing market and possible variance of public preferences/ demands for natural amenities that are closely related to socio-cultural contexts. Empirical evidence suggests that homebuyers' willingness-topays for various urban green/blue spaces are higher in neighbourhoods with higher income and population density (e.g., Anderson and West, 2006;Brander and Koetse, 2011;Bockarjova et al., 2020). Indeed, there usually exist limited natural spaces in urban areas with high population density, such a scarcity of open spaces would push their hedonic value to high levels (Crompton, 2005;Jim and Chen, 2010;Bark et al., 2011;Kang, 2019). ...
... Even though some scholars argued that high population density might depress housing prices due to cognate compactness, traffic noise, and lack of natural amenities (Dekkers and van der Straaten, 2009;Lijesen et al., 2010), population density have been found to be a driver of high housing prices in many empirical studies (Chang and Kim, 2013;Glaesener and Caruso, 2015). On the one hand, populous areas tend to have high housing demand and relatively scarce supply of land resource for residential development (Treg, 2010;Brander and Koetse, 2011;Xiao, Chen, & et al., 2017;Koomen et al., 2018), creating a mismatch between demand and supply, which will obviously push up land price and housing price (Glaesener and Caruso, 2015;Wen et al., in press). On the other hand, high population density in urbanized areas might be associated with diverse amenities endowed by better accessibility to and functionability of public facilities and infrastructures, such as extensive coverage of public transport network, proximity to workplaces, availability of hospitals and shopping malls (Maddison, 2000;Wang et al., 2020). ...
Article
Integrated urban blue-green spaces (UBGS) represent a new global strategic initiative in the construction of ecologically multifunctional and socially inclusive cities. A common challenge is to integrate social preferences and values into UBGS planning and management. Using a 3-D spatial multilevel autoregressive model, this study attempts to differentiate and decompose the impacts of four UBGS attributes (including river water quality, detectable black-odorous problem, riparian greening, and provision of recreational facilities) on apartment prices in Guangzhou (China), so as to elicit homebuyers' preferences and associate their preferences with higher hierarchical level (district) socioeconomic characteristics. Our modelling results reveal that homebuyers are insensitive to a relatively good water quality (Grade IV) of UBGS, but strongly dislike UBGS with black-odorous phenomenon. Both riparian greening and recreational facilities could command premiums, showing home-buyers' significant preferences. At the aggregated level, district average income level plays a moderating role: homebuyers' positive preferences (for riparian greening) and negative preference (for black-odorous river) become weakened when district income level increases. And district population density plays an enhancing role: homebuyers' positive preferences (for riparian greening and recreational facilities) and negative preference (for black-odorous UBGS) become stronger when population density increases. These findings help optimizing UBGS design and establishing UBGS restoration priorities differently in divergent urban contexts, so as to improve environmental welfare and social equity.
... These benefits are notably expressed in terms of cultural services related to stress reduction (Grahn & Stigsdotter, 2003) and opportunities provided for the practice of various forms of physical activity (Sever & Verbič, 2018;Takano et al., 2002). The new-found power of attraction of these urban natural spaces is accompanied furthermore by changes in the dynamics of residential localisation and of the property market related to these areas (Brander & Koetse, 2011;Decoupigny, 2007;Van Herzele & Wiedemann, 2003). Having become de facto stakeholders in the territorial offer of the metropolises (Arnould et al., 2011), the urban natural spaces have tended to be subjected to topdown integration in the processes of urban planning (Girault, 2017). ...
... In this regard, the analysis showed the existence of a strong statistical link between the expression of a reason for taking up residence in the territory associated with the presence of Sainte-Victoire and the fact of possessing a house with a garden. Echoing the international literature on the urban natural spaces (Brander & Koetse, 2011;Van Herzele & Wiedemann, 2003), also including the case of metropolitan mountains (Kim et al., 2017), the positive impact related to the proximity of an outstanding landscape environment on the residential dynamic and property prices is also perceptible in the case of Sainte-Victoire (Pinson, 2006). The question would then be to know whether this dynamic also generates forms of 'clubisation' (Charmes, 2011) or socio-environmental inequality (Van Herzele et al., 2005), dependent on disposing of the means to acquire property in this territory (Pinson & Thomann, 2002). ...
Article
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Metropolisation leads to the physical, functional, and symbolic integration of urban natural areas. In this context, can metropolitan mountains be considered vast public parks in their own right, adapting to new scales of functionality within their territory? To tackle this question, we carried out a questionnaire-based survey among local residents and users of Sainte-Victoire mountain in the Aix-Marseille-Provence Metropolis, France. Its results highlight the existence of proximity-based perceptions and practices towards Sainte-Victoire. In this respect, the mountain possesses certain characteristics that are associated with intra-urban green spaces. However, it differs from intra-urban green spaces in that its users categorise their patterns of frequentation as exceptional and episodic, and that access to and specific uses of it strongly depend on owning a car. This article therefore calls for an environmental management strategy that better coordinates emblematic urban natural spaces, such as Sainte-Victoire, with other metropolitan green spaces.
... It has also been preferred in analyzing the change in real estate value through the land rent change (Bowes, 2001;Fletcher et al., 2000). With the hedonic method (Brander and Koetse, 2011;Czembrowski and Kronenberg, 2016), the effects of social, environmental and urban factors on real estate values have determined (Andersson et al., 2010;Netusil et al., 2014). It has also possible to highlight the importance of proximity to public services and to determine the impact of environmental factors such as parks (Lutzenhiser and Netusil, 2001;Limsombunc et al., 2004). ...
Article
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Due to the industrialization in the cities, land needs have appeared in the increasing urban population. These needs have created houses with the accumulate of collective living spaces in the city. It is necessary to determine the supply-demand relationship and value of these real estates with economic importance for smart urban management systems and decision support systems in the market. The value of real estate varies according to the country in which it is located, but in general, it is affected by many factors such as spatial attributes, demographic factors, building factors, economic conditions. Depending on these factors, values and purchase-sale densities of housing also change.In this study, for prediction of housing purchase-sale density, hedonic modeling was realized with 15 features from urban change factors. Urban change factors that affect the purchase/sale of housing such as land use, demographic factors, population density and structural factors have been examined through Geographic Information System (GIS). The hedonic regression method was used for predicting the density of housing purchase/sale. As a result of the modeling, it was found as R2 = 0,85.
... Haase et al. (2017) suggest that greening cities, installing new parks and using the space along the streets for diverse greenery, for example, contributes to an increase in well-being and enhances the attractiveness of open spaces in cities. Some studies (Heckert and Mennis, 2012;Saphores and Li, 2012;Brander and Koetse, 2011;Conway et al., 2010;Nicholls and Crompton, 2005), however, have analysed real estate market price trends, finding that proximity to green areas increases house prices, whereas others (De la Barrera et al., 2016a) show how unequal socio-spatial distribution is reflected in different quantities, sizes, quality and structure of green areas. Poor areas often have less vegetation, compared to more well-off ones, often rich in private gardens and shaded green areas which provide a vast range of ecosystem services (De la Barrera et al., 2016b). ...
Technical Report
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This report presents the results of the work carried out at ETC/WMGE on Green economy transition: Macroeconomic analytical framework in 2020 and 2021. The main aim was to provide the arguments for adopting a macro-level perspective to the green economy transition and to the European Green Deal.
... Within the fields of housing and environmental economics, for instance, variations in housing and rental prices are frequently used to value neighbourhood and environmental characteristics (e.g. Brander & Koetse, 2011;Chay & Greenstone, 2005;Reynaud & Lanzanova, 2017). However, in the context of rent controls and house price regulations, one may expect this estimated valuation to underestimate the true value individuals attach to these characteristics. ...
Article
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We link the dearth of empirical support for the theory of compensating wage differentials (CWD) to minimum wages and other labour market regulations. As these labour market regulations matter less for informal jobs, we hypothesise that CWD for adverse working conditions are more likely to be observed in these jobs relative to formal jobs. This is tested based on teenage employment data. The results are in line with our hypothesis. While informal jobs pay, on average, lower wages than formal jobs, a substantially higher premium for physically demanding and hazardous working conditions is found in informal jobs. This finding is robust against several sensitivity checks with respect to the identification method and measurement of the independent variables. Our results are also consistent with minimum wages being the key underlying mechanism for this difference in wage setting between formal and informal teenage jobs.
... According to Brander, & Koetse, (2011), urban green open space is an area of land or water that either remains in its natural characteristics or that can be used for some purposes such as a public park, green or recreational areas. Urban open space is free from the build-up of residential, commercial, or industrial uses, it can be owned by public or private. ...
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The rapid growth of urban areas along with inappropriate management and planning of land-cover/use risks the green open spaces to be reduced or damaged, which is an important factor that impacts urban surface flooding. With the rapid development and land cover changes in Duhok city many urban disaster challenges raised, such as urban surface floods. The relationship between green open spaces and surface flood is important to understand, as the green open spaces provide an ease of flow, infiltration, and evapotranspiration to the stormwater. Therefore, this study explore and investigate the impact of urban green open spaces on generating urban surface floods in the city of Duhok by using available data which range from 1990 to 2016. Different methods were used to capture data such as online resources of digital maps as for typography, imagery, and land-cover. In addition, different documents and maps were obtained from governmental directorates such as Duhok city greenery maps and its neighborhoods, and also with direct observation of the city and several flood events and face-to-face interviewing with those people who were affected by the 16th-17th of March 2020 flood events in Duhok city mainly in three different neighborhoods of Serhildan, Baroshke, and Diyari. By computer software programs such as ArcGIS and Microsoft Office, the obtained maps and data were analyzed to find out the process of urbanization and its impact on urban green areas and to analyze that according to find out the rates of flood events in term of frequency and runoff in Duhok city. The outcomes of this study without hesitation prove that with the poor planning of land and infrastructure in Duhok city within the period of 1990-2016 a huge impact was done to city land-cover as the open green areas are reduced from 40% in 1990 to 14.5% in 2016 which increased the run-off rates from 4 million cubic meters in 1990 to 14 million cubic meters in 2016. It was also found out that about 82.2% of houses in the mentioned neighborhoods were affected by the surface floods in the past ten years with different degrees of impact, and about 77.8% of these who got affected did not receive any warning by the local authorities prior to an expected flood event. This study recommends a comprehensive integrated plan including land-use and land-cover management, water resources management, and urban development to be made for the city of Duhok that addresses any natural disaster and its management mechanisms and also to issue some regulations in light of past several years flooding events in the city. It also recommends the use of the rainwater-harvesting system to be used for medium and large buildings in the city so it can store the storm-water and to be used for different uses as for gardens irrigation.
... Regarding the concept of urban green space, different regions have their own interpretation of its definition and scope. Compared with urban green space, western countries use the concept of urban open space more in land use planning [1][2][3]. Urban open space is an open space area reserved for parks and other "green spaces", which includes water and other natural environments in addition to vegetation [4]. In China, in order to standardize the management process of urban greening, the government has issued the "Urban Green Space Classification Standard", which divides urban green space into two parts, including green space within urban construction land and square land and regional green space outside urban construction land [5]. ...
Article
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Urban green space is generally considered a significant component of the urban ecological environment system, which serves to improve the quality of the urban environment and provides various guarantees for the sustainable development of the city. Remote sensing provides an effective method for real-time mapping and monitoring of urban green space changes in a large area. However, with the continuous improvement of the spatial resolution of remote sensing images, traditional classification methods cannot accurately obtain the spectral and spatial information of urban green spaces. Due to complex urban background and numerous shadows, there are mixed classifications for the extraction of cultivated land, grassland and other ground features, implying that limitations exist in traditional methods. At present, deep learning methods have shown great potential to tackle this challenge. In this research, we proposed a novel model called Concatenated Residual Attention UNet (CRAUNet), which combines the residual structure and channel attention mechanism, and applied it to the data source composed of GaoFen-1 remote sensing images in the Shenzhen City. Firstly, the improved residual structure is used to make it retain more feature information of the original image during the feature extraction process, then the Convolutional Block Channel Attention (CBCA) module is applied to enhance the extraction of deep convolution features by strengthening the effective green space features and suppressing invalid features through the interdependence of modeling channels.-Finally, the high-resolution feature map is restored through upsampling operation by the decoder. The experimental results show that compared with other methods, CRAUNet achieves the best performance. Especially, our method is less susceptible to the noise and preserves more complete segmented edge details. The pixel accuracy (PA) and mean intersection over union (MIoU) of our approach have reached 97.34% and 94.77%, which shows great applicability in regional large-scale mapping.
... Accessibility is an important physical factor of a public park that describes it in terms of being reachable by walking within a radius of approximately 0.4 to 0.8 km (¼-½ miles). The above-mentioned distance is the suitable range that promotes the use of public parks via nonmotorized transport journeys to parks such as walking and biking [10,51,52]. Therefore, the distance restriction in walking for each public park in this study was limited by a radius of 400 m in accordance with the goal of the reachable potential of parks by walking as formulated in the Green Bangkok 2030 plan. ...
Article
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Public parks are public spaces that support community activities and enhance the environmental quality of a city. Depending on the local urban context in terms of socioeconomic conditions and location, the physical characteristics and particular uses of each public park may vary from each other. Accordingly, urban public parks and their uses reflect the characteristics of communities and neighborhoods where the public parks are located. The aim of this study is to apply analytical approaches using a multi-dimensional clustering method to classify multivariate characteristics of public parks into typologies that combine a set of criteria related to internal park attributes and external physical environments around parks in an urban context of Bangkok Metropolitan Area, Thailand. An analysis of a multi-dimensional data set from 30 public parks resulted in six identified clusters of characteristics of urban park areas. The study demonstrates how the context-specific typology can assist local urban planners, policymakers, and government authorities when considering management strategies for public parks in Bangkok areas.
... The Legon Botanical Gardens, apart from filtering the air and regulating surface temperature, also provides habitat for biodiversity and generates income (economic incentive) from the dozens of visitors who visit the place as recreationists. Brander and Koetse (2011) reveals that green spaces are public goods and economic goods from a financial perspective. The value of most properties with proximities to greens relatively has a higher price than properties further away from them. ...
Article
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As Accra, Ghana's capital city, expands at an unprecedented rate, the fragmentation and loss of natural and semi-natural ecosystems may be the greatest challenge to achieving sustainable development. This study investigates the impact of Accra's growth and expansion on its natural green spaces, availability, and ecosystem services delivery. The study uses remotely sensed imageries (Landsat 1991-2018) for land use change analysis, the i-Tree Canopy model to quantify and value of urban ecosystems and stakeholder interviews to explore perceptions on green space value. Results showed that the overwhelming number of stakeholders understand and are aware of the beneficial values of urban green spaces but highlight poor planning, coupled with land tenure challenges, as a threat to the conservation of green spaces. Land use and land cover change analysis shows that the urban built environment has expanded from 55.1% to 83.79% at the expense of the natural environment, including green spaces, which have declined from 41% to 15% over 27 years. Existing areas of green spaces, including the Achimota forest, the University of Ghana campus and street trees on major roads, were valued at US$37,610,980 for carbon sequestration and storage, US$1,478,173 for air pollution regulation and US$458 for avoided runoff. A rapid assessment of the availability, accessibility and management of urban green spaces in the Accra metropolis can be an essential step towards identifying and mapping their consumptive and non-consumptive use-value and introducing appropriate interventions necessary for enhancing the city's resilience in an era of climate change.
... CVM use can be controversial if applied in non-use value and it has been criticized for some weaknesses and biases that include, for instance, the failure of respondents to incorporate their personal budgets in valuation decisions, embedding effect, and overestimation of values (diamond & Hausman 1994, Hausman 2012. Nonetheless, it is considered an effective method for estimating ES and it is a widely used for estimating non-marketed values given its wide applicability, flexibility and strong operability (Brander & koetse 2011, Mutandwa et al. 2019, Bostan et al. 2020, Chu et al. 2020, Malinauskaite et al. 2020. ...
... The effect of income has a positive coefficient as expected but is only statistically significant (at a 10% level) for the WTP to enter the park with larger income levels corresponding to larger WTP to enter the park (as in, e.g., Paola et al., 2018). This lack of connection between income and the WTP is unusual in the literature but has been found, for example, in Tyrväinen and Väänänen (1998) and is referred to in the meta-analysis performed by Brander and Koetse (2011). The fact that the number of visits positively affects the WTP for entrance and for activities indicates there is no strategic bias, but there could be hypothetical bias. ...
Article
Urban parks have been increasingly important for people living in urban areas. There has been a growing need to be in contact with nature and to have a safe space to exercise and do recreational activities with family. These parks have proven to have positive health effects both physical and mentally. Furthermore, they contribute to better air quality and less pollution in cities. In addition to these recreational benefits, several parks have historic and cultural relevance. In this study, we examine the total economic value of an urban park with historic relevance, Quinta do Castelo, in Santa Maria da Feira, Portugal. We applied the contingent valuation method using a questionnaire to obtain three values: the willingness to pay (WTP) for park entrance, readiness to engage in guided and well-being activities, and the willingness to donate (WTD) an annual value with the aim of preserving the park. The average WTP (per visit) is 0.66€ to enter the park, 3.13€ for guided activities, and 2.53€ for well-being activities. These values reflect the use value of the park. The average WTD (per donor) is 6.73€/year, which translates into a relevant non-use value. Total Economic Values (TEVs) achieve considerable values that range from an estimated 1.2 million euros for guided visits, 1.3 million euros for the entrance value, 1.4 million euros for well-being activities, and 1.1 million euros for the annual donation to preserve the park. Hence, our study highlights the importance of maintaining Quinta do Castelo Park, and of considering not only use value, but also non-use value when estimating total economic value of urban parks with historical relevance.
... Failure to evaluate urban and suburban green may lead to reckless use or misuse and certainly failure to fulfill the social and ecological functions described by many researchers in this area for urban green [6,[23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35] and for suburban green [36][37][38][39][40][41][42]. ...
Article
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Peri-urban and urban green are considered among the basic priorities of the local govern-ment's regional policy agenda, in line with the principles of spatial planning. This agenda is promoted at both the national and European levels through a variety of technical and institutional measures. Green spaces in urban and suburban areas are directly linked to the quality of life of urban residents and their environment. In this context, the purpose of this study is to investigate and identify the characteristics and factors that influence the residents of a small Greek city in terms of the value they attach to urban and suburban green spaces. These factors are identified through the residents' willingness to pay (WTP) using the contingent valuation method (CVM). In general, the analysis aims to document the value of environmental economic methods as a tool in the management of natural heritage. According to the research, income and knowledge of environmental issues (global and local) as well as the benefits of green spaces (urban and suburban) are the key factors that drive residents to place a higher value on them. Future work may explore whether or how the COVID-19 pandemic affected city residents' willingness to pay for green spaces.
... Across Europe, enhancing floodwater retention areas of rivers is a solution that can reduce economic damage and the exposure of the population to flooding by up to 70 % while enhancing ecosystem quality, with a cost-benefit ratio superior to that of built infrastructure for flood mitigation(Feyen et al., 2020). The development of green areas in cities has been shown to increase the economic value of surrounding areas, as measured by the increase in the price of houses close to nature(Brander and Koetse, 2011;Bockarjova et al., 2020). The benefits of NbS such as (constructed) wetlands, retention ponds or raingardens can reduce water treatment costs associated with excessive runoff water entering the sewage treatment systems(Raymond et al., 2017a). ...
... A range of non-market valuation methods has been used to capture natural recreational areas' economic value (De Groot et al., 2012;Hanauer and Reid, 2017). Typically, the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) and the Hedonic Price Method (HPM) have been used to estimate the value of urban and peri-urban green space (Brander and Koetse, 2011;Gómez-Baggethun and Barton, 2013). The Travel Cost Method (TCM) has mostly been applied to value recreational green space benefits in rural areas (Bertram and Larondelle, 2017). ...
Article
Peri-urban forests provide a range of important benefits to urban dwellers, such as, for example, nature-based recreation. This cultural ecosystem service is of significant importance in the developing world: It helps to increase urban resilience and stress recovery, which, in turn, can help mitigate many urban-life-related psychological and physical health issues, and socio-cultural problems caused by rapid urbanization and population growth. However, in developing countries such as, for example, Morocco, the heavy use of peri-urban forests for recreation and the limited management funds that do not keep up with the growing need for development and conservation result in anthropogenic pressures that lead to the degradation of these valuable natural sites. Non-market valuation of peri-urban forest recreation can help inform decision-making, conceive more effective management of these natural areas and increase funding for their conservation. This study estimates the recreational benefits of Val d’Ifrane, a broad peri-urban forest within Ifrane National Park in Morocco, to its domestic visitors, thereby filling a research gap in the non-market valuation of nature-based recreation in developing countries in general, and the geographic region of Morocco specifically. The study uses the individual single site Travel Cost Method with a correction for zero-truncation and endogenous stratification to estimate the recreational use-value of Val d’Ifrane. Results suggest an annual recreational value of 159.59 million DH (€ 14.71 million) or an average of 1,063.94 DH (€ 98.08) per visit per year (confidence intervals of 12.78 million DH (€ 1.17 million) to 306.40 million DH (€ 28.24 million) per annum, or 85.21 DH (€ 7.86) to 2,042.68 DH (€ 188.30) per visit per year). Robustness of the results is tested with regard to the operationalization of the travel cost and the opportunity cost of time, as well as the consideration of multi-site and multi-destination trips. The total annual recreational value is found to be 35 times higher than the cost for the last management and investment carried out by local environmental authorities in more than ten years. This information can assist decision-makers in their deliberations on funding for Val d’Ifrane restoration and development to maintain its recreational value while minimizing the negative impacts on natural capital and preserving the site for future generations.
... Urban development cannot be separated from the river and lake ecosystem. As an urban open space, UWSC project has ecoeconomic effects, such as improving water quality, providing recreational places, and increasing the value of real estate (Anderson and West 2006;Brander and Koetse 2011). It can provide good resources and ecological environment for urban development. ...
Article
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As one of the large ecological infrastructures, the urban water system connectivity (UWSC) project is an important part of urban ecosystem construction. It is helpful for the scientific planning and construction of the project to systematically evaluate the effects. However, due to the complex and various effects of UWSC project, there is no complete effect system and quantitative method. Against this backdrop, the composition and mechanism of positive and negative effects of ecological economics of UWSC project were deeply analyzed to improve the composition system of eco-economic effects in this study. At the same time, the emergy theory was used to put forward the quantification method of eco-economic effect system. Taking the UWSC project in Xuchang as an example, its ecological, social, and economic effects were evaluated. The result showed that the average eco-economic effect of the project is 49.97 million dollars/year. Economic effect and ecological effect are significant, accounting for 82.49% and 15.89% of total effect, respectively. This study can provide reference for comprehensive and unified assessment of eco-economic effects of UWSC project.
... Indeed, residents are often willing to pay more for living closer to UGS (e.g., [15]), and effects of UGS on housing prices have been extensively studied in hedonic pricing studies. These studies reveal statistically significant positive effects of various UGS characteristics on selling or renting prices (review by [16][17][18]) as well as urban land prices [19]. Such market effects of UGS may force low-income residents to move away to areas with lower environmental quality, a process discussed as eco-gentrification [5,20,21]. ...
Article
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The relationship between urban green spaces (UGS) and residential development is complex: UGS have positive and negative immediate impacts on residents' well-being, residential location choice, housing, and land markets. Property owners and real estate agents might consider how prospective clients perceive UGS and act accordingly, while urban planners influence UGS location and management as well as aim at steering the built environment. Typically, studies focus on one of these perspectives at a time. Here, we provide a synopsis of results from studies, taking different perspectives for a single case study: Leipzig, Germany. We summarise and discuss the findings of eight studies on UGS and residential development. In detail, these studies focus on spatial pattern analysis, hedonic pricing analysis, mixed-methods studies on experts' perspectives, surveys, and choice experiments exploring residents' perceptions of UGS. We reflect on the feasibility of deriving a synthesis out of these independent studies and to what extent context matters. We conclude that both triangulating of data and methods, as well as long-term and context-sensitive studies, are needed to explain the interlinkages between UGS and residential development and their context dependency.
... The hedonic pricing method has been widely applied in park valuation studies, where park location and size are found to be key factors influencing property sales prices (Brander and Koetse, 2011;Crompton, 2001;Yoo and Wagner, 2016). Proximity relates to ease of access (Leslie et al., 2010;Sander and Haight, 2012;Willis and Crabtree, 2011) and scenic views (Crompton and Nicholls, 2019;Luttik, 2000;Weigher and Zerbst, 1973), while park size can contribute both to the park's aesthetic quality and recreation potential (Hatton Macdonald et al., 2010;Mahmoudi et al., 2012;Poudyal et al., 2009;Wood et al., 2017). ...
Article
Climate change is forcing cities to reassess their water management practices, particularly for water-intensive applications like park irrigation. If water scarcity requires governments to deviate from current park management norms and allocate less water towards parks, it is essential that park managers design spaces that maintain community wellbeing. We apply the hedonic pricing method and use detailed park management information to assess the value of parks in a region where local climatic conditions require extensive irrigation to keep turf green, and where climate change is further constraining water supplies. Here we show that the impacts of irrigation on the value of parks differ depending on the dwelling types of the nearby housing populations that they serve. In most cases, the convention that parks have to be irrigated to deliver ecosystem services to the public is supported. However, we find that non-irrigated park areas are also valued positively by nearby apartment dwellers. Accelerating rates of urbanization and shifts towards high-density living may support the development of more diverse park options that are less water-intensive. Increased visibility of these alternative park forms, which could include more areas of native vegetation that do not require irrigation, may subsequently influence public expectations for landscape design.
... However, as exemplified by a great number of studies, the distribution of UGS in different cities is far from equitable (Mears et al., 2019;Rigolon, 2016;Wolch et al., 2014), which is also partly due to economic reasons. Those who can afford it are likely to pay more to live close to UGS (Brander and Koetse, 2011;Heckert and Mennis, 2012;Łaszkiewicz et al., 2019). Greener areas tend to be inhabited by socioeconomically less vulnerable groups (those with a higher socioeconomic status) (Wolch et al., 2014). ...
Article
With this paper, we enrich the environmental justice debate by investigating differences in the provision of parks in Lodz, Poland, at three levels: availability, accessibility, and attractiveness. A park is ‘available’ when it exists within a suitable distance from where we live; it is ‘accessible’ when we feel that we are welcome there, and we can freely reach and safely use this park; it is ‘attractive’ when we willingly want to use it and spend time there. Our research hypothesis is that the most vulnerable groups of inhabitants concentrate around parks whose provision is affected by the largest number of barriers at each of the three levels, while the least vulnerable benefit from the vicinity of parks that are the least affected. Apart from the statistical analysis – the correlation between the indicators that represent the three levels of park provision and those that represent the most and least economically vulnerable using Pearson’s coefficient – we scrutinize three case study parks. The results confirm that there are inequalities at the level of attractiveness for the most vulnerable groups; meanwhile, no statistically significant results were recorded for the least vulnerable groups. The differences would probably be more explicit had socioeconomic segregation been higher in Lodz. The results may also be influenced by the unique postsocialist and postindustrial legacy of our city. The ongoing revitalization of the city center and the increased activity of developers may exclude the most vulnerable inhabitants and deepen segregation.
... This ties into the second hypothesis: where population density is low, immaterial FES tend to make a smaller contribution. Previous studies have found a positive relationship between population density and consumption of immaterial FES [38,55]. We also found that high population density in the vicinity of a cell increases recreational value ( Table 4). ...
Article
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Nordic catchments provide a variety of ecosystem services, from harvestable goods to mitigation of climate change and recreational possibilities. Flows of supplied ecosystem services depend on a broad range of factors, including climate, hydrology, land management and human population density. The aims of this study were: 1) to quantify the total economic value (TEV) of consumed ecosystem services across Nordic catchments, 2) to explain variation in ecosystem service value using socio-geographic and natural factors as explanatory variables in multiple linear regression, and 3) to determine which societal groups benefit from these ecosystem services. Furthermore, we tested the scientific rigour of our framework based on the concept of final ecosystem services (FES). We used a spatially explicit, integrative framework for ecosystem services quantification to compile data on final ecosystem services provision from six catchments across Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Our estimates showed a broad variation in TEV and in the proportion contributed by separate services, with the highest TEV of €7,199 ± 4,561 ha ⁻¹ y ⁻¹ (mean ± standard deviation) in the Norwegian Orrevassdraget catchment, and the lowest TEV of €183 ± 517 ha ⁻¹ y ⁻¹ in the Finnish Simojoki catchment. The value of material services was dependent on both geographic factors and land management practices, while the value of immaterial services was strongly dependent on population density and the availability of water. Using spatial data on land use, forest productivity and population density in a GIS analysis showed where hotspots of ecosystem services supply are located, and where specific stakeholder groups benefit most. We show that our framework is applicable to a broad variety of data sources and across countries, making international comparative analyses possible.
... The existence of GOS is an essential factor for the sustainability of ecological and social conditions in the urban environment. GOS in the urban landscape can be in urban forests, green fields, urban parks, agricultural land, riverbanks, and undeveloped land [1]. Urban forests dominated by many types of trees can reduce pollutants more than urban forests with low vegetation dominance [2]. ...
Article
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Green open space (GOS) is an area whose use is open and dominated by vegetation. GOS in the urban landscape is needed to beautify and increase the comfort of the city. Because it is dominated by vegetation, GOS can also function to absorb CO 2 gas in urban air. GOS also plays a role in mitigating climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions. This study aims to determine the economic value of GOS in mitigating climate change in Stabat City, Langkat Regency. The method used is using the Contingent valuation method (CVM). The results showed that the economic value of GOS in mitigating climate change in Stabat City was Rp.809,099,537.04/year.
... Urban waterfronts represent publicly or privately-owned landscapes that are part of a city and in contact with a water body such as an ocean, lake, river, or estuary [3][4][5][6]. These areas provide many benefits and ecosystem services such as natural scenery; ecological benefits such as wildlife habitat and urban heat reduction; recreational opportunities such as hiking and boating; and produce economic benefits related to higher real estate values and increased tax revenues [7][8][9][10]. Waterfronts are therefore important to coastal communities and their visitors, and future land-use planning decisions should balance their preservation and development in ways that enhance cultural, environmental, and economic values of open spaces and adjacent areas. ...
Article
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Open spaces, including waterfront areas, are critical to coastal communities and provide many benefits, including recreation opportunities, economic development, ecological benefits, and other ecosystem services. However, it is not clear how values of waterfront ecosystem services vary across geographical areas which prevents development and adoption of site-specific natural resource conservation plans and suitable long-term land management strategies. This study estimated the monetary value of distance to different waterfront types in coastal counties of Mississippi and Alabama (U.S.) using a geographically weighted regression (GWR) approach as an extension to a traditional hedonic pricing method (HPM). In addition, the study utilized publicly available data from the U.S. Census Bureau instead of certified rolls of county property assessors and Multiple Listing Service (MLS) data which can be costly and difficult to obtain. Residents valued most waterfront types which was reflected in greater assessed prices for houses in proximity to these waterfronts. However, the value of ecosystem services associated with waterfronts differed geospatially. The marginal implicit prices ranged from −$6343 to $6773 per km depending on a waterfront type. These estimates will be useful to city developers, land-use planners, and other stakeholders to make more informed and balanced decisions related to natural resource preservation associated with coastal areas, land-use planning, and zoning. In addition, information from this study can be used in developing healthy living environments where local economy can benefit from increased property tax revenues associated with waterfronts and their ecosystem services.
Article
Recreational opportunities and amenities are important human-use services generated by urban open spaces. However, empirical evidences on the magnitude of monetary values of these services are hardly available, in fact anecdotal if any, in developing countries. In this research, using contingent valuation methods (CVM), we estimated the recreational value of developing urban park in Kampala city. Our CVM scenario involved development of Nakivubo wetland from its current degraded state into urban park to provide new outdoor recreation alternative. We applied Bayesian approaches with informative prior to a single-bounded-CVM survey response respectively to obtain more precise willingness to pay (WTP) estimate. Results from our preferred model showed that average WTP was estimated to be USH14184.538 ($4.728) per household as an entry fee. This estimate was similar to WTP estimates obtained from alternative models in the sense that the later lie within 95% confidence intervals of the former. Our results generally confirm that there is statistically significant welfare benefit to be derived from urban parks, lending supports to commonly held view that provision of urban open spaces in cities of developing countries offers significant welfare benefit to the city residents.
Article
We analyze how two different ecosystem services: forest-based amenity values and carbon storage benefits, affect spatial targeting for conservation investment for protected area acquisition using selected forest clusters in Knox County, Tennessee in the United States. We determine return-on-investment (ROI) for these two different forest-based ecosystem services by estimating amenity values and carbon storage amounts using hedonic price model and dynamic Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), respectively, and corresponding acquisition costs at the forest cluster level. Our findings of the optimal protected area acquisition in the form of forest clusters serve as an empirically informed knowledge base to help both the conservation and planning agencies in prioritizing acquisition of potential protected areas depending on their preferences. By using carbon and amenity ROIs in spatial targeting of forest clusters within the multi-objective optimization set up, we not only addressed the spatial heterogeneity in the carbon storage benefits and amenity values but also the spatial heterogeneity in cluster acquisition costs. We also found that selection decisions were dictated by the weakly negative correlation (−0.16) between the carbon and amenity ROIs instead of weakly positive correlation (0.14) between carbon storage benefits and amenity values. Since the spatial distribution of carbon and amenity ROIs were weakly negatively correlated, there were apparent conflicts between the objectives of maximizing forest carbon storage and amenity value. This resulted in concave frontiers with tradeoffs between the objectives implying variation in spatial distribution of the selected forest clusters letting the conservation and planning agencies decide combination of strategies which best fit their preferences.
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Many scholars offer alternatives to Global North theories on urban governance, access to socio-economic opportunities, and informality in the Global South. Yet, these alternative arguments have scarcely been applied to urban greenspace planning. Oftentimes, residents are characterized negatively as the cause of greenspace decline in African cities due to encroachment and/or vandalism. This paper offers an alternative perspective using data on 400 residents from Ghana's Kumasi Metropolis. It argues that while residents place a low emphasis on urban greenspaces, this is indicative of their prioritization and survival strategies of meeting their needs. To simply characterize residents negatively, therefore, ignores the underlying context and reasons for urban greenspace decline and the contestations between residents' priorities and urban greenspaces in African cities. This paper suggests an appreciation of local context to integrate residents' needs and survival strategies into urban greenspace planning in African cities and the Global South in general.
Article
Contingent valuation is used to examine the influence of environmental engagement and beliefs on willingness to pay (WTP) for urban forest preservation. We survey surrounding residents of two urban forest sites in Puerto Rico with distinct environmental experiences and beliefs about ecosystem services. We find that WTP for preserving the urban forest where the surrounding residents are involved in forest management is $118/year. On the other hand, WTP for preserving a larger urban forest where surrounding residents are not engaged in management is $81/year. In addition to the respondents' characteristics and environmental engagement, WTP also depends on the beliefs about urban forest ecosystem services.
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Acquisition of public land is critical for wildlife conservation and can impact local tax bases and property values. Those impacts reflect the capitalized value of benefits (e.g., recreational opportunities) and costs (e.g., nuisance wildlife) of living near protected areas. We employed the hedonic price framework to determine how proximity and adjacency to public hunting land in North Carolina were capitalized into housing prices. We modeled sale price as the composite value of structural, neighborhood, and environmental characteristics. Proximity to public hunting land had positive effects on sale price in some locations, whereas adjacency had negative effects in some locations. These relationships were dependent on the sociocultural context of the public hunting land, including proximity to other forms of public land. This research may help facilitate negotiations among stakeholders impacted by protected areas, including land dedicated to wildlife-based recreation.
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This study examines the relationship between educational awareness and natural disasters through the lens of flood mitigation and also attempts to understand the perceptional and socio-demographical impacts in flood-prone areas. Recorded as one of the most catastrophic storms in the U.S., Hurricane Harvey caused massive damages to the environment and negatively affected public health and well-being. Having sustained three flood events since opening, including Hurricane Harvey, Buffalo Bayou Park in Houston, Texas, became the case study for this research as its role relative to educational awareness and natural disasters became the focus. The study performed a questionnaire-based survey with park users. Findings showed that concerns existed with respect to park use, socio-demographics, and accessibility. The findings also showed, however, that the park design contributed to flood mitigation strategies through establishment of educational awareness of natural disasters. This awareness was confirmed by park users being knowledgeable of some flood protection strategies, including planting native and local plants and curving the bayous naturally. Also, park users noted their preference for receiving disaster-related educational news via social media and partnerships/non-profit organizations. Finally, none of the socio-demographic features showed a difference for the logistic regression model as a significant predictor while attending educational events and residing within twenty minutes of the park significantly increased flood-mitigation awareness. This study highlights several efficient strategies that can complement the role of urban parks relative to how people experience and perceive educational activities concerning natural disasters.
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Sponge City (SC) projects aim to replicate natural water cycles within urban settings, providing sustainable solutions to urban water management. However, there is a lack of understanding on the relative importance and performance of the significant factors that contribute to the success of SC projects. To address this, we conducted a survey of urban water experts from the two distinctive cultures of Australia and China, to generate insights on ‘what makes a successful Sponge City project?’. We also explored the relationships between success factors using importance performance analysis and structural equation modelling. Our findings demonstrate that whilst professionals think that the water management objectives have been dealt with in a satisfactory way, they also find that economic, socio-cultural and design factors are addressed in an insufficient or fragmented way. Our research highlights both similarities and differences in the importance and performance of SC factors in two countries. In China greater attention to economic factors is required, while in Australia policy and governance factors require greater focus. Both China and Australia would benefit from further research on undervalued socio-cultural factors. Most importantly we find that SC projects require greater integration of substantive and procedural factors to address urban water challenges.
Chapter
The communities’ interest in urban forestry is growing, recently also in order to face the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. Although the multiple benefits (ecosystem services) that forestry provides in cities are recognized by the international community, the issue of economic evaluation of each service in the context of urban renewal processes is still little debated.
Article
This paper discusses the challenges inherent in the valuation of the social benefits of urban regeneration projects. The transformation of cities involves public and private investments, whose returns should include calculation of social benefits. Since traditional financial methodologies do not allow to capture the large and complex set of benefits, typically accruing to citizens in terms of quality of life, the application of non-market valuation methods such as Contingent Valuation (CV) and Hedonic Pricing (HP) offers an innovative opportunity. Here we analyse inhabitants' and city users' responses to the regeneration project of the Navigli canal network in Milan to understand how urban communities value such transformations. The Municipality of Milan proposed the project to restore the canal network in 2018 to enhance recreational amenities, improve environmental quality, and reduce negative externalities. While the political benefit from restoring the canals is clear, public and private benefits from the scheme need to be assessed to ensure the scheme's long-term sustainability. This paper presents an assessment (CV) of the socio-economic benefits associated to the reopening of the first section of the Navigli canal network, based on analysis of the views of 583 residents and city users, and compares these results with those of a HP method application developed by Boscacci et al. (2017). The paper explores whether the joint use of CV and HP could overcome their mutual weaknesses, providing a coherent methodology for assessing efficiency and effectiveness of policies and projects.
Preprint
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As one of the large ecological infrastructures, urban water system connectivity project is an important part of urban ecosystem construction. It has a variety of effects, such as conserving biodiversity, enriching urban landscape and increasing land value. It is helpful for the scientific planning and construction of the project to systematically evaluate the effects. However, due to the complex and various effects of urban water system connectivity project, there is no complete effect system and quantitative method. In this paper, the composition and mechanism of positive and negative effects of ecological economics of urban water system connectivity project were deeply analyzed to improve the composition system of eco-economic effects. At the same time, the emergy theory was used to put forward the quantification method of eco-economic effect system. Taking the urban water system connectivity project in Xuchang as an example, it’s ecological, social and economic effects were evaluated. The result showed that the average eco-economic effect of the project is 57.8 million dollars/year. Economic effect and ecological effect are significant, accounting for 88.83% and 9.77% of total effect, respectively. The former is mainly due to land value increment, and the latter is principally owing to biodiversity conservation. It showed that the water system connectivity project in Xuchang can promote the economic development of the surrounding areas and create a good ecological environment, which will bring huge eco-economic effect to the region.
Article
Open green spaces have significant contributions to the city, urban residents and ecosystem. However, these contributions could not be fully reflected on the urban space due to rapid urbanization. Furthermore, studies on this reflection have focused only on a specific function of open green spaces without a holistic approach. Also, there is no common framework for the definition, classification and standardization of open green spaces or a comprehensive analysis of these domains. The present study aimed to propose a guideline that included five criteria to serve as a baseline to plan open green space systems. In the study, open green spaces and the city were considered as a subsystem of the landscape. Thus, open green space objectives and strategies were proposed based on the landscape functions, urban character and urbanization level (urban density). Furthermore, the study reconsidered the definition and classification of open green spaces and recommended standards. These standards were categorized in two groups based on recreational standards and natural disasters. Thus, the open green spaces were analyzed based on qualitative, quantitative, connectivity and location selection criteria with a holistic approach and a multi-dimensional framework was developed based on ecological, recreational and disaster criteria.
Article
This study takes Changsha, an emerging mega-city in China, as a sample to analyze the influence of natural amenity (NA) on housing prices during different periods. We divided the NA into four categories according to their characteristics: Green Space (GS), Wetland Park (WP), XiangRiver Scenic Belt (XR), and green ratio within a community. The housing transaction data is used to calculate the accessibility of a settlement to nearest NA via the distance. The capitalization effect of NA is investigated through a geographic weighted regression (GWR), combined with the hedonic theory. Results show that ①the impact and scope of NA on housing prices gradually expanded during years. ②As the key nature landscape of Changsha, the impact coefficient of XR has risen from 2.34% in 2012 to 5.32% in 2020. WP has a remarkable increase for affecting housing prices, rising from 1.24 to 3.65%. Effect of GS keeps in line during years, at 2.34–3.72%. And green ratio’s impact increase from 3.61 to 4.55%. ③The higher capitalization effect of NA undergoes a spatial expansion from the central area to urban fringe over time, which also implies the capitalization of NA is becoming more pronounced. ④Residential communities impacted by NA have a propensity to separate over time. This study provides a different perspective in defining the importance of natural amenities in urban habitat of modern China.
Technical Report
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Veřejně dostupná technická zpráva detailně popisuje inovovaný metodický postup. Zatímco inovovaná metodika oceňování dřevin AOPK ČR ve verzi k roku 2021 obsahuje především aktualizovaný postup ocenění, který je pro zachování přehlednosti textu pro uživatele komentován pouze stručně, komplexní podklady k metodice a inovaci metodického postupu pro rok 2021 jsou shrnuty ve veřejně dostupné Technické zprávě k Metodice oceňování dřevin rostoucích mimo les (verze 2021), která metodiku AOPK ČR (verze 2021) v tomto směru doplňuje. Technická zpráva je určena pro pokročilejší uživatele i širší odbornou veřejnost v oborech ochrany přírody, územního plánování, ekosystémových služeb, ekonomických nástrojů či environmentálního vzdělávání. Obsahuje informace nezbytné pro možné budoucí aktualizace metodiky. Text technické zprávy není zaměřen úzce pouze na metodiku AOPK ČR, ale zabývá se i tématy, která jsou řešena napříč ochranou životního prostředí, i napříč vědeckými obory a obory z praxe - tato témata tvoří rámec pro samotný metodický postup. ENG: Technical report accompanying the Methodology for non-forest woody plants appraisal including calculation of compensatory measures for felled or damaged woody plants NCA CR (version 2021); The publicly available technical report describes the updated methodological procedure in detail. While the updated methodology NCA CR on tree assessment (version 2021) contains mainly the updated valuation procedure, which is only briefly commented so that the text retains clarity, the comprehensive background to the methodology and the innovation of the methodological procedure for 2021 is summarised in the publicly available Technical Report on the Methodology for Valuation of Woody Plants Growing Outside Forests (version 2021), which complements the AOPK CR methodology (version 2021) in this respect. The Technical Report is intended for more advanced users and for the wider professional public in the fields of nature conservation, spatial planning, ecosystem services, economic instruments and environmental education. It contains information necessary for potential future updates of the methodology. The text of the technical report is not narrowly limited to the methodology itself, but addresses also broader topics relevant across environmental protection, as well as across various scientific and practitioner disciplines - these topics form the framework for the methodology itself.
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Separuh penduduk tinggal di perkotaan dan menjadi penyebab permasalahan lingkungan. Salah satunya adalah alih fungsi lahan hijau menjadi lahan terbangun. Ruang terbuka hijau memiliki fungsi ekologis, ekonomis, dan sosial yang dapat meningkatkan kualitas kehidupan perkotaan. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengkaji kebijakan penggunaan ruang terbuka hijau perkotaan pada pandemi COVID-19 menggunakan metode studi komparasi. Lokasi studi dipilih di Jakarta, Indonesia dan New York, Amerika Serikat karena kedua kota tersebut memiliki jumlah penduduk yang padat dan menjadi pelopor pertama penyebaran COVID-19 di masing-masing Negara. Responden di New York masih menggunakan ruang hijau perkotaan selama pandemi dan menganggapnya lebih penting untuk kesehatan mental dan fisik daripada sebelum pandemi dimulai. Terdapat kekhawatiran para pengunjung ruang hijau perkotaan di New York terkait jarak sosial, aksesibilitas, dan keamanan. Terjadi perubahan perilaku selama pandemi di Jakarta terhadap ruang hijau perkotaan seperti meningkatnya aktivitas pejalan kaki di sepanjang koridor hijau yang menjadi pendorong kebijakan publik dalam menanggapi perilaku dan kebutuhan baru yang muncul dari pandemi. Berdasarkan bukti empiris, perubahan perilaku di Indonesia diduga disebabkan oleh kebutuhan masyarakat untuk berekreasi dan relaksasi terhadap alam untuk mengurangi dampak psikologis yang disebabkan pembatasan sosial. Kebijakan pembukaan ruang terbuka hijau saat pandemi di Jakarta dapat dipertimbangkan dengan mengutamakan protokol kesehatan.
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This paper explores the impact of urban parks on real estate prices making use of a hedonic price approach. Focusing on Brisbane, Australia, as a case study site, we use spatial hedonic models to analyse housing sales data across 15,000 sales transactions to investigate the effects of parks on nearby housing prices, paying attention to park typology and classification. Our findings indicate that recreational and sport parks are differently associated with price variations. The study also examines a specific and significant inner-city park currently undergoing a major redevelopment—namely Victoria Park. Our analysis of the Victoria Park site seeks to quantify the value uplift, that is, the future increase in property prices as a result of the transformation of the current private golf course in this location into a new publicly accessible parkland. This study’s property economics modelling analysis indicates the conversion of Victoria Park from a golf course to public parkland will increase property prices by an average of 3% for properties located within 750 metres of the park. The article concludes with a discussion of value capture opportunities that these findings present as well as challenges of green gentrification for this and similar urban renewal projects and possible policy responses.
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ABS TRACT: A growing body of research shows positive association between parks and physical activity, but very few s tudies have inves tigated the characteris tics of users and how the activities vary according to different user groups. The purpose of this s tudy was to inves tigate the socio-demographic profile of the users, their activities and motivation of visiting the park. Total 400 users of Ramna Park were surveyed in face to face interview at different time periods. The participants were asked to provide information about their socioeconomic profile, frequency and purpose of visit, mobility and activity patterns in the park and level of satisfaction about different facilities. At a random selection of the sample, we found larger proportion of male users than female users with a majority in the age group 40-60 years. The park has a large catchment area which extends beyond the range of walking dis tance and the frequency of visiting the park was found closely associated with the proximity of the users. Besides, no significant association was found between the proximity and duration of s taying in the park. An overwhelming majority of the users come to the park for health purpose mainly for walking, jogging and physical exercise. The findings sugges t that the purpose of visiting the park significantly varies according to the gender and age group of the respondents. The users were also asked about their satisfaction level and problems they usually faced based on their individual perception. Mos t of them raised their concerns for poor toilet facility and was te management.
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The paper presents a variety of meta analysis models of woodland recreation benefit estimates, contrasting conventionally estimated models with those provided by novel, multi-level modeling (MLM) techniques (Goldstein 1995). Our conventional models suggest that studies carried out by certain authors are associated with unusually large residuals within our meta-analysis. However, the MLM approach explicitly incorporates the hierarchical nature of meta-analysis data, with estimates nested within study sites and authors. These residuals are not a significant determinant upon values, suggesting that, at least in this aspect, estimates may be more robust than indicated by less sophisticated models.
Book
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Public preferences for nonmarket services of preserved land in Delaware are measured using two survey techniques. The results of a conjoint experiment, using a sample of 199 Delawareans, suggest that the environmental and agricultural attributes of preserved land are most important to the residents. The conjoint results also suggest that these services are of substantial value to Delawareans; at the margin, at least, agricultural and environmental preserved land provide net benefits to the public. The analytic hierarchy process is used to assess separate survey results from 129 Delawareans. The results provide specific weights on the relative importance of attributes and qualities of preserved land, which in large part replicate and reinforce the results of the conjoint experiment. Overall, Delawareans seem to be most concerned with keeping farming as a way of life, having access to locally grown agricultural commodities, protecting water quality, and preserving rural character.
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The complex real-world interactions between the economy and the environment form both the focus of and main barrier to applied research within the field of environmental economics. However, geographical information systems (GIS) allow economists to tackle such complexity head on by directly incorporating diverse datasets into applied research rather than resorting to simplifying and often unrealistic assumptions. This innovative book applies GIS techniques to spatial cost-benefit analysis of a complex and topical land use change problem--the conversion of agricultural land to multipurpose woodland--looking in detail at issues such as opportunity costs, timber yield, recreation, carbon storage, etc. © Ian J. Bateman, Andrew A. Lovett and Julii S. Brainard 2003 and Cambridge University Press, 2009.
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Previous hedonic studies have shown the positive contribution of forests to neighboring property values. However, they failed to address the differences in the economic contribution resulting from the changes in forest management practices. This study estimates the contribution of forests and forest management to property values around McDonald-Dunn Research Forest near Corvallis, OR. We investigated the economic effects of proximity to the forest, different forest conditions, and management schemes to neighboring property values using a geographic information system. Proximity to the forest has a positive contribution to property values; this relationship is even stronger for houses closer to the forest. Forest attributes also affect property values. The sales price is lower for property from which clear-cut sites are visible at the time of purchase if all other characteristics of the house are identical.
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Amenities influence individual location decisions and affect overall social well being. This comparative study focuses on the potential complementarity of implicit and contingent market approaches to valuing amenities. Lakeshore residents in Chicago were surveyed to collect data to estimate implied housing hedonic values and contingent values for two view-related amenities. The consumers in the housing market and the bidders in the contingent market are the exact same people. Presumably differences in estimates are primarily due to the different approaches. For willingness to pay, contingent values are found to be within a factor of two of implicit values. The difference is consistent with sorting which occurs in the housing market. The results provide further evidence of progress in valuing amenities.
Book
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Meta-analysis is arguably the most important methodological innovation in the social and behavioral sciences in the last 25 years. Developed to offer researchers an informative account of which methods are most useful in integrating research findings across studies, this book will enable the reader to apply, as well as understand, meta-analytic methods. Rather than taking an encyclopedic approach, the authors have focused on carefully developing those techniques that are most applicable to social science research, and have given a general conceptual description of more complex and rarely-used techniques. Fully revised and updated, Methods of Meta-Analysis, Second Edition is the most comprehensive text on meta-analysis available today. New to the Second Edition: * An evaluation of fixed versus random effects models for meta-analysis* New methods for correcting for indirect range restriction in meta-analysis* New developments in corrections for measurement error* A discussion of a new Windows-based program package for applying the meta-analysis methods presented in the book* A presentation of the theories of data underlying different approaches to meta-analysis
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The values of goods and services provided by wetland ecosystems are examined through a meta‐analysis of an expanded database of wetland value estimates and with a focus on human‐made wetlands. This study extends and improves upon previous meta‐analyses of the wetland valuation literature in terms of the number of observations, geographical coverage, wetland class and integrity, and the measurement of the effects of scarcity and anthropogenic pressure. We find that water quality improvement, nonconsumptive recreation, and provision of natural habitat and biodiversity are highly valued services. Substitution effects are observed through the negative correlation between values and abundance of other wetlands. Wetland values are found to increase with anthropogenic pressure. An extended metaregression model with cross effects shows that the valuation of specific services varies with the type of wetland producing them. Humanmade wetlands are highly valued for biodiversity enhancement, water quality improvement, and flood control.
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This paper analyses the link between housing prices and urban green areas endowments using the hedonic technique as methodological approach. Together with the conventional variables used to explain housing prices, three environmental variables are considered: the existence of views of a park or a public garden, the distance from the dwelling to its nearest green area and the size of that open space. The sample is made up of 810 observations gathered from the city of Castellón (Spain). Results show housing size to be the most relevant variable on price. As far as the hedonic variables are concerned, there is an inverse relationship between the selling price of the dwelling and its distance from a green urban area.
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Planners propose multi-use urban greenways to enhance urban form, promote conservation of habitat and biodiversity, provide opportunities for fitness, recreation, and transportation, and promote economic development. This paper presents a taxonomy of the values of greenways and illustrates how two particular types of values can be measured using complementary techniques. Impacts of greenways on property values in Indianapolis, Indiana are measured with geographic information systems (GIS) and hedonic price modeling using residential real estate sales data from 1999. Recreation values are measured for a greenway trail in Indianapolis with the travel cost method using data from a 2000 survey of trail users and counts of trail traffic taken in 1996. We show that some but not all greenways have a positive, significant effect on property values and that the recreation benefits of a trail exceed costs. Limitations of the approaches are reviewed, and the importance of values not amenable to quantification is discussed. The paper concludes with discussion of the implications of our findings. Planners can use the findings to illustrate the benefits of greenways, to address concerns about negative impacts of greenway systems, and to inform and design research studies.
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Parks and open spaces enhance the quality of life in urban areas. Over the last 15 years, the city of Boston has sponsored the most expensive urban infrastructure project in history. This project relocates an elevated highway underground and creates urban parks, increasing the city's green space. The study estimates the economic benefits of proximity to parks in Boston, Massachusetts, based on hedonic pricing methods. Using Boston's land use and assessed property price data, it is determined that proximity to urban open space has positive impacts on property values, while proximity to highways has negative impacts on property prices. Based on this observation, it is expected that the spatial alteration will cause a significant increase in nearby property prices.
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Urban areas can contain public parks, protected forests, unprotected (or undeveloped) forest areas, and trees growing around a house or in the neighborhood surrounding the house. Each type of forest cover provides different amenities to the homeowner and to society at large. In particular, while trees on a parcel of land or in a neighborhood may add value for homeowners, the ecological value of these trees as habitat is far less than large, unbroken parcels of forest. We explore different definitions of forest cover and greenness and assess the relative value of these various types of forest cover to homeowners. Using data from the Research Triangle region of North Carolina, we test the hypothesis that trees on a parcel or in the neighborhood around that parcel are substitutes for living near large blocks of forest. The findings have implications for land-use planning efforts and habitat conservation in particular.
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There is growing interest in the potential for producing generally applicable models for valuing non-market environmental services which do not rely upon expensive and time-consuming survey work, but rather extrapolate results from previous studies. This paper presents a meta-analysis for the use and non-use values generated by wetlands across North America and Europe. The study assesses the socio-economic values attributable to the hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological functions provided by such complex environmental assets. The clustering of multiple values derived from single studies is examined through the application of multilevel modelling methods allowing for the hierarchical structure of such data.
Article
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Urban green spaces have important amenity values that include provision of leisure opportunities and aesthetic enjoyment. However, most of these values lack a market price. Consequently, they are usually ignored or underestimated by urban planning policy-makers, with the result that remnant urban green spaces are being gradually encroached upon by urban sprawl. As a result, quantitative information regarding the implicit, non-market price benefits from urban green space is urgently required. Properties bought and sold on the market are compound commodities that embody amenity values and people are willing to pay to live in the proximity of local amenity environment. Thus hedonic models, which use such properties as proxies, can often be employed to quantify environmental amenities. In China, residential housing reform (in place since 1998) has terminated the traditional residential welfare system, and made it possible to quantify the monetary value of green space amenities based on hedonic pricing models. This study was conducted in Jinan City, and will help address the previous absence of the application of hedonic price models to the valuation of urban green space amenities in mainland China. GIS and landscape metrics were used in determining hedonic price model variables. As expected, the results proved that the hedonic pricing model performed well using this approach, and accordingly it was further improved. Results also confirmed the positive amenity impact of proximate urban green spaces on house prices, and highlighted the preferences of homeowners in Jinan City. Green space amenity variables that were statistically significant at the 5% level included the size–distance index of scenery forest, accessibility to park and plaza green space types, and the percentage of urban green space. In addition, land-use patch richness, the location sector and the education environment also proved to be highly significant variables. The results of the study should provide insights to policy-makers involved in urban planning.
Article
We briefly discuss the problem of valuing time in recreation demand studies, and report on a recent case study which assessed the nonmarket economic value of Centennial Park, Sydney, using both the Travel Cost and Contingent Valuation methods. Modal choice analysis was used to estimate the value of travel time for inclusion in a Travel Cost model. The nonmarket economic value of the park was estimated to be between $23 and $33 million per year, with at least $2.6 million due to nonuse value.'¹ This compared favourably with annual management and maintenance costs of under $6 million.
Article
Municipal urban forestry programs are guided by the values that urbanites place on urban trees and forests. The willingness of users to pay for the use of urban forest areas is suggested as one useful measure of value to guide urban forestry programs. Travel cost models were developed for three urban forest sites in the Chicago area. The models estimated an average willingness to pay of $4.54, $8.68, and $12.71 per visit. Suggestions are made for further use of the travel cost method to estimate changes in the willingness of users to pay for urban forest sites under various management options. This information can provide guidance for urban forest resource management programs that are short of funds.
Article
A literature search provides 83 studies from which 616 comparisons of contingent valuation (CV) to revealed preference (RP) estimates are made. Summary statistics of the CV/RP ratios are provided for the complete dataset, a 5 percent trimmed dataset, and a weighted dataset that gives equal weight to each study rather than each CV/RP comparison. For the complete dataset, the sample mean CV/RP ratio is 0.89 with a 95 percent confidence interval [0.81-0.96] and a median of 0.75. For the trimmed and weighted datasets, these summary statistics are (0.77; [0.74-0.81]; 0.75) and (0.92; [0.81-1.03]; 0.94), respectively. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients between the CV and RP estimates for the three datasets are 0.78, 0.88, and 0.92. (JEL Q21).
Article
With the irreversible loss of agricultural land to development uses in certain areas, there is increased concern that land be preserved for posterity's sake. We estimate the nonmarket value of a ranchland protection program in the Yampa River Valley in Routt County, Colorado, including the Steamboat Springs resort. The case study builds on previous land preservation studies by adding several preference indicators. We find that local residents' willingness to pay is substantial, but insufficient, to justify protecting the existing quantity of valley ranchland in the study area.
Article
Expanding urban areas such as Queensland's Sunshine Coast face growing land use conflicts among urban, agricultural and conservation uses. Private allocation decisions influenced by potential market rents often exclude non-use value of environmental benefits leading to both socially undesirable and economically inefficient outcomes. We present the results of a choice modelling study in the Sunshine Coast to estimate community values for peri-urban land in production and conservation. We examine the implications of the value estimates in the optimal allocation of land for sugarcane on the basis of total economic value from all land uses including the preservation of unique and threatened vegetation. Choice modelling to determine the significance of environmental amenity and production alternatives in the community value of peri-urban land: Sunshine Coast, Australia.
Article
This paper investigates differences in non-market farmland amenity values estimated using distinct methodologies, with a focus on the potential causes and policy implications. The paper compares farmland amenity values generated by a hedonic property value model and a contingent choice model, both estimated from data collected in the Peconic Estuary System of Suffolk County, NY. The analysis demonstrates that a combination of non-market valuation methodologies can provide policy insights not otherwise available to those relying on any single approach, and illustrates types of information that may be obscured by methodologies used in isolation.
Article
There has been a long history of research into the development and estimation of hedonic house price models. There is, however, a discrepancy between the empirical and theoretical approaches to this research. A major issue lies in the integration of the conceptual and theoretical models of local housing markets with the context-insensitive nature of the standard hedonic model specification. This paper explores this inconsistency by using multilevel modelling to move towards a more empirically and conceptually appealing specification of the hedonic house price model. It uses price data from Cardiff to investigate how a multilevel approach can explicitly incorporate the spatial structures of housing market dynamics and the ad hoc nature of the valuation process. The paper concludes that successful empirical analysis depends upon a clear theoretical understanding of the processes under investigation.
Article
In 1989 the Countryside and Forestry Commissions launched a national programme to create Community Forests on the fringes of major towns and cities in England and Wales. The assumption that such forests will be of benefit to the community at large was tested by means of surveys of two existing multi‐purpose woodlands adjacent to major conurbations. Contingent valuation, travel cost and time cost methods of environmental valuation were used to estimate the existing user benefits of the two woodlands for recreation. The study highlights weaknesses in the travel cost approach when applied to recreational facilities located near urban fringe areas which can be accessed on foot. The results of the two surveys are discussed and compared with similar results for more rural woodlands/ forests. The study suggests that on social grounds at least the concept of Community Forests should be pursued with recreation benefits alone exceeding management costs by a factor of three.
Article
Green spaces have important amenity values contributing to the quality of urban life. The deconstruction of green spaces cause negative externalities e.g. the loss of non-priced benefits. In land-use planning, therefore, amenity values should be systematically assessed and measured commensurately, i.e. in monetary terms with material values. This paper discusses the suitability of the contingent valuation method in assessing urban forest benefits, and presents the main results of an empirical study conducted in Joensuu, the capital of North Carelia, Finland. The study was designed to measure the use-values of urban wooded recreation areas, and the residents' willingness to pay for small forest parks contributing to the quality of the housing environment. The results suggest that most visitors were willing to pay for the use of wooded recreation areas. Furthermore, approximately half of the respondents were willing to pay to prevent the conversion of forested parks to another land-use. The results can be used to assess the profitability of the management of urban forests. In addition, the results are useful in assessing the value of green space benefits in different land use options.
Article
In meta-analysis, a weighted average effect size is usually obtained to summarize the global magnitude through a set of primary studies. The optimal weight to obtain the unbiased and minimum variance estimator is the inverse variance of each effect-size estimate. In practice, it is not possible to compute the optimal inverse variance because the population effect size is unknown. Hedges and Olkin and Hunter and Schmidt proposed two alternative estimators of optimal weights. In this article, the bias and relative efficiency of both estimators are assessed via Monte Carlo simulation, defining the standardized mean difference as the effect-size index. The number of studies, sample size, magnitude of population effect size, and discrepancy between two population effect sizes were manipulated. Hedges and Olkin's estimatorwas more efficient, although more biased, than Hunter and Schmidt's estimator. The consequences of applying both alternatives in meta-analyses are discussed.
Article
This article reports the results of an experiment to estimate the value of an urban greenway and to test the validity of contingent valuation (CV), and discusses the implications of the results for greenway planning. The experiment concerned people's willingness to pay (WTP) for greenway projects in a publicly designated greenway in Indianapolis, Indiana, that is mostly in private ownership. In the summer of 1997, a CV survey and an actual solicitation for funds were mailed simultaneously to split samples of greenway property owners, greenway renters, and county residents. The survey and the solicitation asked about WTP for educational, cleanup, and other projects by the White River Greenways Foundation related to management of the Crooked Creek Greenway. The proportion of respondents willing to pay was much higher in response to the survey than the actual solicitation, and hypothetical mean WTP was much greater than the actual contributions. The results suggest that people value greenways, but that greenways mainly in private ownership may have mainly local value. These results provide evidence that CV experiments can help identify sources of support and suggest strategies for planning, but do not provide precise estimates of the value of public goods.
Article
Urban forests have various environmental benefits that contribute to the quality of urban life. These values, however, have been underestimated or have never been reflected in urban development planning in Korea. As a result, a number of forests in urban areas were either partly or wholly destroyed without their public's value being assessed explicitly. The objective of this paper is to estimate the value attached by the public to Kwanggyo Mountain in the Seoul Metropolitan Area of Korea using a contingent valuation survey, aimed at providing policy-makers with useful information to make an informed public decision in urban development planning. The survey was carefully designed and implemented to meet a number of recommendation rules suggested in the literature. The overall results show that the respondents received the hypothetical scenario well and would be willing to pay a significant amount for the proposed programme of conserving the mountain. The total value stated by the public amounted to approximately 3.77 billion Korean won (US$2.9 million) per year. This quantitative information can be used in policy-making process for urban development plans.
Article
This study derives a valuation for Marston Vale Community Forest using contingent valuation methodology and examines the validity of the result. Marston Vale Community Forest in Bedfordshire is part of an initiative launched in July 1989 by the Countryside Commission and the Forestry Commission to create 12 new "Community Forests" close to some of the major conurbations in England and Wales. These forests will offer the potential of much closer and more regular contact with the natural world to people with largely urban lifestyles.Contingent valuation methodology is a technique that aims to place a value on non-marketable goods such as environmental quality through personal interview or postal questionnaires designed to derive expressions of a willingness to pay from individuals. One hundred personal interview questionnaires conducted between 4 km and 6 km from the designated boundary of the Community Forest are analysed. A mean individual willingness to pay £6·00 per year is extrapolated to the population living within 6 km of the Community Forest. A total annual willingness to pay of £768 000 is derived, giving a net present value over a 50-year planning period of £10·6 m. This total represents between £1656 and £2208 per hectare of the area to be planted with trees.Individual expressions of willingness to pay are subjected to statistical tests of construct validity. The results compare well with most British studies but fall well short of those achieved in some American work. Further development of contingent valuation methodology is required in the U.K. and some suggestions are made. In particular, expected levels of use and the definition of the target population need to be subjected to more rigorous tests of validity. However, it is concluded that the technique has the potential to provide valid assessments of the value of future environmental improvements and to enable environmental considerations to be taken into account more effectively in decision making.
Article
This paper examines the ability of the hedonic price method to estimate the premium offered by particular housing attributes or environmental characteristics in an urban setting. Problems of non‐separability in variables within an empirical model, suggest that this methodology is not always suitable for the estimation of specific housing attributes, and an alternative approach to this problem is suggested.
Article
The rationale for conservation and creation of wetlands stems from the recognition of both their ecological and economic values. This paper examines the welfare impacts of goods and services provided by wetlands. We collected 385 estimates of the economic value of 181 natural and man-made wetlands from 167 studies worldwide. The resulting database is less biased towards North America than previous reviews of the literature. The relative importance of characteristics of the valuation study, of the wetland site, and of the socio-economic and geographical context is estimated by means of a meta-regression analysis of wetland values. Provision of amenities, flood control and storm buffering, and water quality improvement are the most highly valued wetland services. The relevance of the socio-economic and geographical context clearly emerges from the analysis and, in particular, the proximity to other wetland sites is negatively correlated with valuations. An analysis of the effect of environmental stress on wetland value shows that the latter increases with stress from human development activities and uses. In addition to the basic meta-regression model, the influence of authorship effects and of the geographic regions is examined by means of a multi-level approach. A second extended meta-regression model including cross-effects shows that the valuations of specific services vary according to the type of wetland producing them.
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Conservation easements allow landowners to collect earnings from their land, while reducing their tax burdens because the land cannot be sold into development. Conservation assures open space amenities for nearby residents, however, the residents bear a ...
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The amenity value to Kentucky residents from horse farm land was estimated using both the contingent valuation method and the hedonic pricing method. The hedonic pricing model included both the housing and labor markets. A value function estimated from dichotomous choice contingent valuation responses showed that the value of a change in the level of the horse farm amenity was sensitive to the size of the change, with no evidence of value that is independent of the size of the change. The two methods generated estimates of the external benefits from horse farm land that were within 20 percent of each other.
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An econometric model that describes public support for farmland preservation programs as a function of local land use patterns and socioeconomic data is developed. Two versions of the model are estimated using data from referenda conducted in Pennsylvania and Rhode Island during 1982 through 1990. Results suggest that support for referenda that purchase development rights is stronger in counties and towns with both rapidly increasing population and where land and house values have increased at higher rates. Environmental factors such as the prevalence of resource-sensitive lands are also significant in describing the public's motivation to preserve farmland.
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This paper contrasts the results of the contingent valuation, hedonic price, and property damages avoided valuation techniques. Each technique was used to estimate the value of flood risk reduction from the construction of a flood control project. Voting behavior in a referendum called specifically for the provision of the project was used to further interpret the results from the three valuation studies. Substantial differences were found between the estimates. In explaining these differences an alternative perspective on the current debate over the validity and accuracy of nonmarket value estimates is offered.
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Communities increasingly face development pressures that can irreversibly alter open space lands. While the monetary costs and benefits of development are typically known, the corresponding values of natural lands are complex and difficult to measure. This paper reviews different concepts of economic value in relation to open space, describes methods for quantifying these values, and presents examples of each from published literature. Open space benefits accruing to citizens as market values or consumers' surplus include market and enhancement values, production values, natural systems value, use and nonuse values, and various intangible values. Economic impacts that open space lands have on local communities and economies include fiscal impacts on municipal budgets, expenditures from open space-related activities, and impacts from employment and tax revenues. These values are not universally present within a given community, nor are they quantitatively additive. However, a comprehensive consideration of the multiple values of open space will better inform community decisions about land conservation and development.
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Recreational opportunities and amenities are important human-use services generated by urban greenspaces. This study explored the use of pattern and behavior of urban greenspaces in Guangzhou city, south China. The monetary value of the non-priced benefits was gauged by the contingent valuation method using willingness-to-pay and open-ended payment card approaches. A questionnaire gleaned data by face-to-face interviews of 340 respondents in the 18–70 age group, dwelling in 34 residential street blocks selected by clustered sampling. Guangzhou residents actively used urban greenspaces, accompanied mainly by family members. Parks were the most popular venues, whereas institutional greenspaces served as surrogate parks. Visitation is mainly induced by accessibility, followed by high green coverage and quality of the ambience. Small and low-quality sites near homes were shunned. Residents of the compact city harbored subdued expectation for privacy and solitude. They are accustomed to paying greenspace entrance fees. Ninety-six point six per cent of respondents were willing to pay to use urban greenspaces, notably more than other cities, and indicating the importance of salubrious outdoor recreation as a leisure pursuit. Conservative estimate of average willingness-to-pay was RMB17.40/person/month (US$1.00 = RMB8.26), higher than actual entrance-fee payment. Willingness-to-pay was significantly associated with income, and its marginal effect verified by an ordered probit model which hinted the treatment of urban greenspaces as superior goods. Aggregate monetary value of urban greenspaces attained RMB547 million per year which outstripped Guangzhou's annual expenditures on urban greenspaces by six times. This study verified the applicability of contingent valuation to urban greenspaces in China with socioeconomic, cultural and political backgrounds that are different from many countries. The results could assist cost-benefit analysis to justify more resources for development and management of urban greenspaces, with implications on incorporating public opinions in a precision planning process in the quest towards sustainable cities.
Article
The contingent valuation method (CVM) uses surveys of expressed preferences to evaluate willingness to pay for (generally) non-market, environmental goods. This approach gives the method theoretical applicability to an extensive range of use and passive-use values associated with such goods. However, recent years have seen the method come under sustained empirical and theoretical attack by critics who claim that the expressed preference statements given by respondents to CVM questions are subject to a variety of biases to the extent that “true” valuations cannot be inferred. This debate was reviewed and assessed in the recent report of the US, NOAA “blue-ribbon” panel which gave cautious approval to the method subject to adherence to a rigorous testing protocol. This paper reports findings from the first UK CVM study to generally conform to those guidelines. The major objective of the research reported on here is the analysis of the effects of altering the method of eliciting willingness to pay (WTP) responses. Three WTP elicitation methods are employed: open-ended questions (where the respondent is free to give any answer); dichotomous choice questions (requiring a yes/no response regarding a set WTP bid level); and iterative bidding questions (where a respondent is free to move up or down from a given WTP starting point). Results indicate that respondents experience significant uncertainty in answering open-ended questions and may exhibit free-riding or strategic overbidding tendencies (although this is less certain). When answering dichotomous choice questions respondents seem to experience much less uncertainty although the suggestion that bid levels affect responses cannot be ruled out, and it is clear that respondents behave somewhat differently to dichotomous choice as opposed to open-ended formats. The iterative bidding approach appears to provide a halfway house with respondents exhibiting certain of the characteristics of both the other formats. We concluded that the level of uncertainty induced by open-ended formats is a major concern, and that further research into the microeconomic motivations of individuals responding to iterative bidding and dichotomous choice CV surveys is high priority. A further aim of the analysis was to test for changes in estimated mean WTP induced by the application of different forms of truncation across all elicitation methods. Recommendations are made on appropriate truncation strategies for each elicitation method.