Enteral stents

Gastrointestinal endoscopy (Impact Factor: 5.37). 07/2011; 74(3):455-64. DOI: 10.1016/j.gie.2011.04.011
Source: PubMed


The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) Technology Committee provides reviews of existing, new, or emerging endoscopic technologies that have an impact on the practice of GI endoscopy. Evidence-based methodology is used, with a MEDLINE literature search to identify pertinent clinical studies on the topic and a MAUDE (U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health) database search to identify the reported complications of a given technology. Both are supplemented by accessing the "related articles" feature of PubMed and by scrutinizing pertinent references cited by the identified studies. Controlled clinical trials are emphasized, but in many cases, data from randomized, controlled trials are lacking. In such cases, large case series, preliminary clinical studies, and expert opinions are used. Technical data are gathered from traditional and Web-based publications, proprietary publications, and informal communications with pertinent vendors. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are drafted by 1 or 2 members of the ASGE Technology Committee, reviewed and edited by the committee as a whole, and approved by the Governing Board of the ASGE. When financial guidance is indicated, the most recent coding data and list prices at the time of publication are provided. For this review, the MEDLINE database was searched through August 2010 for articles related to enteral, esophageal, duodenal, and colonic stents. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are scientific reviews provided solely for educational and informational purposes. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are not rules and should not be construed as establishing a legal standard of care or as encouraging, advocating, requiring, or discouraging any particular treatment or payment for such treatment.

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    ABSTRACT: Endoscopic palliation of malignant biliary obstruction or gastric outlet obstruction can be technically challenging and might require other interventions in some patients. Results from two recent studies suggest that nitinol self-expanding metal stents are safe and effective for both indications and might decrease the need for other interventions in these patients.
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    ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal stents offer a feasible, safe, cost effective, and minimally invasive method for reestablishing luminal patency. Previous clinical reports and systematic reviews have demonstrated the role of enteral stents in both the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. Over the last two decades, the rapid development of deep enteroscopy in concert with the evolution of various stent devices/deployment mechanisms has enabled placement of enteral stents in the mid-gut; hence this has been increasingly reported. The present article focuses on stenting in the mid-gut, a relatively novel term, referring to the small bowel between the ampulla and the ileocecal valve. Mid-gut stenting is technically more difficult than stenting in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, and therefore requires particular expertise, restricting its widespread utility. In total, 86 reported cases involving mid-gut stent deployment, by either endoscopic approaches (80.2%) or percutaneous approaches (19.8%), have been published. Although limited, these results have demonstrated that mid-gut stenting is reliable, effective, and a minimally invasive method for palliating malignant obstruction, as well as sealing leaks and fistulae. This article reviews the current status of mid-gut stenting, including endoscopic technique. The article also speculates about the potential for future advances within this field.
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