Koban I, Holtfreter B, Hübner NO, et al. Antimicrobial efficacy of non‐thermal plasma in comparison to chlorhexidine against dental biofilms on titanium discs in vitro-proof of principle experiment

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Periodontology and Endodontology, Unit of Periodontology, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Greifswald, Germany.
Journal Of Clinical Periodontology (Impact Factor: 4.01). 07/2011; 38(10):956-65. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2011.01740.x
Source: PubMed


Dental biofilms play a major role in the pathogenesis of peri-implant mucositis. Biofilm reduction is a pre-requisite for a successful therapy of peri-implant mucosal lesions. In this study, we evaluated the effect of three different plasma devices on the reduction of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and multispecies human saliva biofilms.
We assessed the efficacy of three different non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma devices against biofilms of S. mutans and saliva multispecies grown on titanium discs in vitro in comparison with a chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) rinse. Efficacy of plasma treatment was determined by the number of colony forming units (CFU) and by scanning electron microscopy. The results were reported as reduction of CFU (CFU(untreated) -CFU(treated) ).
The application of plasma was much more effective than CHX against biofilms. The maximum reduction of CHX was 3.36 for S. mutans biofilm and 1.50 for saliva biofilm, whereas the colony forming units (CFU) reduction of the volume dielectric barrier discharge argon plasma was 5.38 for S. mutans biofilm and 5.67 for saliva biofilm.
Treatment of single- and multispecies dental biofilms on titanium discs with non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma was more efficient than CHX application in vitro. Thus, the development of plasma devices for the treatment of peri-implant mucositis may be fruitful.

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    • "Indeed, CAP have been shown to possess a great potential in biomedical applications [10] [11] [12] [13], thanks to their ability to generate high concentrations of reactive species of oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS), UV radiation, electromagnetic field and charge particles [12,14–16], possibly maintaining a gas temperature below 40 °C, avoiding any thermal damage to biological tissues. In particular , several studies evaluated possible applications of CAP in dentistry [17] [18]: for the enhancement of adhesion between materials and the polymerization of adhesives in dental restoration [19] [20], for the improvement of biocompatibility of implants [21] [22], for cleaning dental instruments and implants [23] [24], as well as for tooth bleaching [25]. Moreover, the feasibility of CAP– assisted decontamination of root canals has recently been proven in vitro and ex vivo [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33], but employing plasma sources with limited potential for translation into real endodontic practice. "
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    ABSTRACT: The investigation of the efficiency of a handheld Plasma Gun (PG) in the decontamination of tooth root canals is here reported. The antibacterial efficacy of the PG was first assessed on Enterococcus faecalis contaminated agar plates to determine optimal operating conditions that were then quantitatively evaluated treating contaminated liquid suspensions. Moreover, two different procedures for the inactivation of bacteria in realistic tooth models, resembling procedures conventionally adopted in endodontic practice, were investigated: (A) irrigation of contaminated tooth models with plasma activated water (indirect treatment) produced using the PG and (B) direct exposure of the contaminated tooth models to the plasma plume produced by the PG (direct treatment). The experiments were performed with the root canal model both in wet (root canal filled with bacteria suspension) and in dry (root canal contaminated and dried) conditions. From the obtained results, the direct treatment under dry conditions turned out to be the most effective, leading to a bacterial load mean reduction of 4.1.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Clinical Plasma Medicine
    • "The technique of the cultivation of biofilms is described in detail elsewhere [23]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment of implants with peri-implantitis is often unsuccessful, because an instrumented implant surface and residual microbial biofilm impedes re-osseointegration. The application of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) could be a simple and effective strategy to overcome the inherent problems of peri-implantitis treatment. CAP is able to destroy and eliminate bacterial biofilms. Additionally, it increases the wettability of titanium, which supports cellular attachment. In this study, the behaviour of osteoblasts on titanium discs was analysed after treatment of bacterial biofilms with CAP, brushing, or a combination of both. A human plaque biofilm was cultured on titanium discs. Treatment with a brush (BR), 1% oxygen/argon CAP (PL), or brushing combined with CAP (BR + PL) was used to eliminate the biofilm. Discs without biofilm (C), autoclaved biofilm (AUTO) and untreated biofilm (BIO) served as controls. Subsequently, human osteoblastic cell growth (MG-63) was observed after 1 and 24 h. Biofilm remnants on BR and PL impaired osteoblastic cell development, whereas the BR + PL provided an increased area of osteoblastic cells. A five-day cell growth was only detectable on BR + PL treated discs. The combination of established brushing and CAP application may be a promising strategy to treat peri-implantitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Biomaterials
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    • "As expected, a better antimicrobial efficacy to these three bacteria was shown in the plasma group at months 1, 2 and 3 (Table 3). The in vivo results seemed to be analogous to the in vitro studies , which that showed the antimicrobial efficacy of non-thermal plasma against dental biofilms on titanium discs (Koban et al. 2011, Rupf et al. 2011). Moreover, the microbial analysis results demonstrate that the non-equilibrium plasma combined with conventional therapy had a more comprehensive and long-lasting effect of sterilization . "
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of nonequilibrium plasma in the treatment of ligature-induced peri-implantitis in beagle dogs. Six beagles received 12 implants installed in the position of the fourth mandibular premolars. Ligature-induced peri-implantitis was initiated at three months post-implantation. When approximately 40% of the supporting bone was lost, the ligatures were removed. The implants were subjected to the muco-periosteal scaling and chlorhexidine irrigation with or without plasma irrigation. Three months later, clinical, radiographic, and microbiological analyses were performed. Block biopsies were prepared for micro-CT and histomorphometric analysis. The primary outcome was the difference in bone healing of peri-implant sites, and the secondary outcomes included changes in clinical parameters (SBI, PD) and bacterial detection. At baseline, no significant differences were observed between the two groups. At 3 months post-treatment, the plasma group showed a significantly higher bone level than the control group (P <0.05), a significantly decreased detection of bacteria (P. gingivalis and T. forsythia) (P <0.05), and a significant improvement in clinical examination (P <0.05). Within the limits of this study, nonequilibrium plasma treatment as an adjunct to the conventional therapy is a feasible approach for the treatment of peri-implantitis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal Of Clinical Periodontology
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