Galluzzi L, Vitale I, Abrams JM, Alnemri ES, Baehrecke EH, Blagosklonny MV et al.. Molecular definitions of cell death subroutines: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2012. Cell Death Differ 19:107-120

INSERM U848, Apoptosis, Cancer and Immunity, Villejuif, France.
Cell death and differentiation (Impact Factor: 8.18). 07/2011; 19(1):107-20. DOI: 10.1038/cdd.2011.96
Source: PubMed


In 2009, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) proposed a set of recommendations for the definition of distinct cell death morphologies and for the appropriate use of cell death-related terminology, including 'apoptosis', 'necrosis' and 'mitotic catastrophe'. In view of the substantial progress in the biochemical and genetic exploration of cell death, time has come to switch from morphological to molecular definitions of cell death modalities. Here we propose a functional classification of cell death subroutines that applies to both in vitro and in vivo settings and includes extrinsic apoptosis, caspase-dependent or -independent intrinsic apoptosis, regulated necrosis, autophagic cell death and mitotic catastrophe. Moreover, we discuss the utility of expressions indicating additional cell death modalities. On the basis of the new, revised NCCD classification, cell death subroutines are defined by a series of precise, measurable biochemical features.

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    • "The signaling pathways leading to RN exhibit a consistent degree of crosstalk with the molecular cascades that control and execute apoptosis [2] [23]. This functional interplay – which often occurs in the context of cell-wide responses to stress [152] – mainly reflects: (1) the existence of shared signal transducers, which can activate either apoptotic or necrotic cell death (e.g., TNFR1, AIF, p53), depending on the specific circumstances [19] [85] [94]; and (2) the existence of negative feedback circuitries whereby one cell death subroutine (most often apoptosis) actively inhibits the other (most frequently necrosis) (Figure 2) [153]. "
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    • "Programmed cell death is an evolutionary conserved pathway which governs the development and tissue homeostasis in multicellular organisms (Fuchs and Steller 2011; Jacobson et al. 1997). The Nomenclature Committee of Cell Death classified 13 types of cell death, but apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy are the most commonly observed types of cell death in animals (Galluzzi et al. 2012). Despite the diversity in the molecular mechanisms of programmed cell death, most of them involve the contribution of key proteins, the caspases (Fuchs and Steller 2011). "
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    • "This aberrant mitosis may lead to apoptosis or necrosis (41). Of note, mitotic catastrophe is not considered a form of cell death, but rather an irreversible trigger for cell death (22). "
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