The co-occurrence of reading disorder (RD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has received increasing attention. This review summarizes the epidemiology, treatment strategies, psychosocial impact, and economic burden associated with the co-occurrence of these conditions. Common genetic and neuropsychological deficits may partially explain the high degree of overlap between RD and ADHD. Children who face the additive problems of both disorders are at greater risk for academic failure, psychosocial consequences, and poor long-term outcomes that persist into adulthood. However, few studies have evaluated interventions targeted to this patient population, underscoring the importance of identifying effective multimodal treatments that address the neuropsychological deficits of RD and ADHD through carefully planned clinical research.
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"Comorbidities are common in children diagnosed with ADHD (Yoshimasu et al., 2012). A total of 30% to 50% can have learning difficulties (August & Garfinkel, 1990; Gillberg et al., 2004), including numeracy difficulties or dyscalculia in 11% (Monuteaux, Faraone, Herzig, Navsaria, & Biederman, 2005), and reading difficulty or dyslexia in 23% to 49% (Pennington, Willcutt, & Rhee, 2005; Sexton et al., 2012; Willcutt & Pennington, 2000; Willcutt, Pennington, Olson, Chhabildas, & Hulslander, 2005). Fine motor difficulties resulting in written language disorders can occur in up to 60% of children with ADHD by 19 years of age compared with 12% in non-ADHD children (Langmaid, Papadopoulos, Johnson, Phillips, & Rinehart, 2014; Rosenblum, Epsztein, & Josman, 2008; Yoshimasu et al., 2011). "
"Finally, it should be pointed out that the occurrence of the two disorders, ADHD and RD, may lead to the exacerbation of one by the other and, thereby, increase the risk of academic failure and social and job maladjustment (Sexton et al., 2012). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objective: To study reading performance of young adults with ADHD and its relation with executive functioning. Method: Thirty young adults with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD and 30 with normal development (ND) were compared on reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. Furthermore, ADHD with reading disabilities (ADHD+RD) and ADHD without reading disabilities (ADHD-RD) subgroups were compared using self-report and informant-report versions of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). Results: Adults with ADHD obtained significantly worse results than the ND adults on reading speed, responses to literal questions, and a cloze test. Although the comparison of the ADHD+RD and ADHD-RD groups did not show significant differences on the BRIEF-A subscales, the ADHD+RD group surpassed the critical percentile (85) on more subscales, with working memory and metacognition especially affected. Conclusion: The findings point out that reading should be assessed in individuals with ADHD as part of their evaluation to design effective early interventions. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX).
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of Attention Disorders