Enterobacter hormaechei and Cronobacter sakazakii are amongst the most important causes of outbreaks of neonatal sepsis associated with powdered milk. In this study, we report for the first time an outbreak of a novel Enterobacter sp. harbouring bla(CTX-M-15) in a neonatal unit in Tanzania. Seventeen Gram-negative enteric isolates from neonatal blood cultures were studied. Antibiotic susceptibility was assessed by disc diffusion testing, and the presence of the bla(CTX-M-15) gene was established by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Identification by biochemical profiling was followed by nucleotide sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), rpoB and hsp60 alleles. Environmental sampling was done and control measures were established. Isolates were initially misidentified based on their fermentation characteristics and agglutination as Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi. All isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics, except for ciprofloxacin and carbapenems, and were found to harbour bla(CTX-M-15) on a 291-kb narrow-range plasmid. PFGE analysis indicated the clonal outbreak of a single strain, infecting 17 neonates with a case fatality rate of 35%. The same strain was isolated from a milk bucket. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rDNA, rpoB and hsp60 sequences permitted no definitive identification, clustering the strains in the Enterobacter cloacae complex with similarities of 92-98.8%. The data describe an outbreak of a novel bla(CTX-M-15)-positive, multiresistant Enterobacter strain in an African neonatal unit that can easily be misidentified taxonomically. These data highlight the need for constant surveillance of bacteria harbouring extended-spectrum β-lactamases as well as improvements in hygiene measures in developing countries.
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) has been found all over the world, and risk factors for acquiring these bacteria involve hospital care and antibiotic treatment. Surveillance studies are present in Europe, North America, and Asia, but there is no summarizing research published on the situation in Africa.
This review aims to describe the prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in hospital and community settings in Africa and the ESBL genes involved.
A non-systematic literature search was performed in PubMed. All articles published between 2008 and 2012 were screened and read in full text. Relevant articles were assessed for quality of evidence and included in the review. Articles were divided into regional areas in Africa and tabulated.
ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in hospitalized patients and in communities varies largely between countries and specimens but is common in Africa. ESBLs (class A and D) and plasmid-encoded AmpC (pAmpC) were regularly found, but carbapenemases were also present.
ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in hospital and community settings in Africa is common. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance needs to be implemented in Africa to tailor interventions targeted at stopping the dissemination of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae.
"In our study, the frequency of ESBL producing E. cloacae was higher in males (63.6%) than females (36.4%). A study carried out at tertiary care hospital, Tanzania reported 41.2% in males and 58.8% in females.16 A research work conducted at University Hospital, northwest Spain revealed 65.8% ESBL producers in males and 34.2% in females.17 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The emergence of ESBL producing Enterobacter cloacae in clinical isolates is posing a serious threat for treating nosocomial infections. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacter cloacae and to compare the phenotypic methods used for the characterization of ESBL producing strains.
Methodology: This cross sectional observational study was conducted during April 2011 to March 2012 at Microbiology department of The Children’s Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Lahore. A total number of 20,257 various clinical samples were analyzed during the study period. Enterobacter cloacae were identified using API 20E system and ESBL detection was carried out using double-disk synergy test (DDST) and CLSI confirmatory test.
Enterobacter cloacae were isolated from 221 samples, out of which 33 (14.93%) were ESBL producers and 188 (85.07%) were non-ESBL producers. The gender distribution of ESBL producing Enterobacter cloacae was 21 (63.6%) in males and 12 (36.4%) in females. Highest frequency (63%) of ESBL producing Enterobacter cloacae was detected in blood samples. Comparison of DDST and CLSI confirmatory test showed that 25 (75.75%) isolates were characterized by DDST and 33 (100%) using CLSI confirmatory test.
Conclusion: The present study shows moderately high frequency of ESBL producing Enterobacter cloacae among children. DDST was found to be less efficient in ESBL detection as compared to CLSI confirmatory test.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Online
"In neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), the spread of ESBL-producing Enterobacter species has been reported very rarely (Kartali et al.; 2002; Moriguchi et al., 2007; Mshana et al. 2011), and to our knowledge, significant nosocomial outbreaks due to the clonal dissemination of CTX-M-15-producing Enterobacter cloacae have not been described in newborns. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Newborns are rarely infected by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing members of the Enterobacteriaceae. In a neonatal intensive care unit, 14 newborns were infected or colonized by CTX-M-15-producing Enterobacter cloacae. All seven infected patients had underlying medical conditions, and five of them were treated successfully with meropenem, whilst one untreated patient died. Paediatric infections caused by multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing Enterobacter cloacae constitute a critical clinical and epidemiological issue.
Preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of Medical Microbiology