Article

The Effect of Goal Setting on Group Performance: A Meta-Analysis

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Abstract

Updating and extending the work of O'Leary-Kelly, Martocchio, and Frink (1994), with this meta-analysis on goal setting and group performance we show that specific difficult goals yield considerably higher group performance compared with nonspecific goals (d = 0.80 ± 0.35, k = 23 effect sizes). Moderately difficult and easy goals were also associated with performance benefits relative to nonspecific goals, but these effects were smaller. The overall effect size for all group goals was d = 0.56 ± 0.19 (k = 49). Unexpectedly, task interdependence, task complexity, and participation did not moderate the effect of group goals. Our inventory of multilevel goals in interdependent groups indicated that the effect of individual goals in groups on group performance was contingent upon the focus of the goal: "Egocentric" individual goals, aimed at maximizing individual performance, yielded a particularly negative group-performance effect (d = -1.75 ± 0.60, k = 6), whereas "groupcentric" goals, aimed at maximizing the individual contribution to the group's performance, showed a positive effect (d = 1.20 ± 1.03, k = 4). These findings demonstrate that group goals have a robust effect on group performance. Individual goals can also promote group performance but should be used with caution in interdependent groups. Future research might explore the role of multilevel goals for group performance in more detail. The striking lack of recent field studies in organizational settings that emerged from our brief review of trends in group goal-setting research should be taken into account when designing future studies in this domain.

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... To thoroughly unpack the intrapersonal processes and mechanisms explained by the micro lens of goal-setting theory (Locke & Latham, 2013), in this study, we specifically focus on individuals as the primary source of analysis. Ample research, however, has shown the parallelism of goalsetting on work performance between individual and team levels (Kleingeld, van Mierlo, & Arends, 2011;Locke & Latham, 2013). Thus, the effects of goal-setting on performance at the individual level can be extrapolated to the team level, especially in collaborative settings like CAHPs, where individuals pursue group-centric goals (Kleingeld et al., 2011). ...
... Ample research, however, has shown the parallelism of goalsetting on work performance between individual and team levels (Kleingeld, van Mierlo, & Arends, 2011;Locke & Latham, 2013). Thus, the effects of goal-setting on performance at the individual level can be extrapolated to the team level, especially in collaborative settings like CAHPs, where individuals pursue group-centric goals (Kleingeld et al., 2011). CAHP projects are essentially highly goal-directed network settings in which individuals representing various GOAL-DIRECTED PERFORMANCE OF CAHPS 6 organizations form cross-functional teams to pursue shared, collective health goals (Johnston & Finegood, 2015). ...
... Dietrich et al. (2012) suggested when individuals perceive their work goals as important, attainable, and progressing, they show more goal striving behaviors and experience less stress at work. The same applies to team/network levels; individual project workers who find the team/network goals clear, challenging and important tend to be more active and committed, contribute with more effort, and perform better in achieving the team/network goals (Kleingeld et al., 2011;Lemaire, 2020). Therefore, we expect that to sustain CAHP project workers' commitment and effort in achieving the project goals, they must recognize the clarity, difficulty and importance of formal project goals. ...
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Background: Community-academic health partnerships (CAHPs) have become increasingly common to bridge the knowledge-to-practice gap in health care. Because working in such partnerships can be excessively challenging, insights into the individual-level enablers of high performance will enable better management of CAHPs. Purpose: Steered by the goal-setting theory, this study examined the relations between goal clarity, goal stress, goal importance, and their interactions on perceived project performance among individuals working in CAHPs' constituting projects. Methodology: Using a convergent mixed-method research design, online survey data were collected from 268 participants working in a variety of CAHP projects in three German-speaking countries. We tested the hypotheses using structural equation modeling, after which thematic analysis was carried out on the 209 open-ended responses. Results: CAHP project performance was positively associated with goal clarity and negatively associated with goal stress. A three-way interaction analysis showed that when goal importance was high, the relationship between goal clarity and project performance remained positive regardless of the level of goal stress. The qualitative data corroborate this finding. Conclusion: In CAHP projects, high goal importance offsets the negative effect of goal stress on project performance, indicating that workers who perceive the project goals as important can manage the stress associated with demanding goals better. Practice implications: To achieve high project performance in CAHPs, organizational and project leaders should (a) set clear project goals, (b) facilitate project workers in dealing with stress resulting from overly demanding goals, and (c) emphasize the importance of the project goals, especially when goal stress is high.
... Goals delineate expectations, define success, unify team members in their mutual ownership of the project, and motivate team members to persistently strive for success [14,17]. Research suggests that goals should be specific and difficult, as these goals increase group performance significantly more than non-specific and easy goals [18]. Goal difficulty is defined as the difference between the desired outcome versus the team's realistically expected outcome [19]. ...
... With "easy" goals, teams expect to readily achieve the desired outcome, whereas "difficult" goals are those where teams expect adversity in achieving the desired outcome. Paradoxically, if goals are too easy, team members put forth little effort and are demotivated [18,19]. In contrast, difficult goals motivate team members to strategize, cooperate, and adapt to adversity as a group [18]. ...
... Paradoxically, if goals are too easy, team members put forth little effort and are demotivated [18,19]. In contrast, difficult goals motivate team members to strategize, cooperate, and adapt to adversity as a group [18]. However, the motivational effect of goal difficulty diminishes if CITs perceive goals as exceedingly difficult, since team members may prematurely capitulate [19]. ...
Article
Radiology practices often employ collaborative interdepartmental teams to address complex projects. These teams benefit from their diversity of viewpoints and the potential for innovative, high-quality solutions. However, collaborative interdepartmental teams also suffer from challenges: interpersonal conflicts, team member mistrust, competing individual priorities, and obstructive turf concerns. When tackling projects, radiologists should consider alternative group models such as single department teams, two-person partnerships, and small workgroups. Each of these group models has strengths and weaknesses relative to collaborative interdepartmental teams and may be more efficient in some scenarios. Finally, when radiologists launch collaborative interdepartmental teams, four key ingredients should be optimized to improve team performance: right goal, right culture, right leadership, and right people.
... Group members can pursue collective goals (e.g., Kramer et al., 2013;Weldon & Weingart, 1993), and humans are well-adapted to acting jointly with others (Sebanz et al., 2006). Accordingly, when it comes to setting goals, the simple distinction between We and I can make a big difference (Kleingeld et al., 2011;Mitchell & Silver, 1990). In one set of studies (van Mierlo & Kleingeld, 2010), Wegoals led to choosing cooperative task strategies but I-goals to more competitive strategies. ...
... In social contexts, it may therefore be important to (a) ensure one's own commitment, and (b) convince others to commit to the same goals. With regard to ensuring one's own commitment, goal setting (i.e., setting specific and challenging goals) is highly effective (Locke & Latham, 1990, 2013 and also well-understood at the team-level (Kleingeld et al., 2011;Kramer et al., 2013). Recent evidence actually indicates that setting SMART goals jointly with a medical expert may be particularly effective in the health domain (Mann et al., 2016). ...
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Mastering global challenges such as the 2020 Coronavirus pandemic requires implementing effective responses at various social levels. Leadership teams (governmental, industrial) need to integrate available information to introduce effective regulation and update their decisions as new information becomes available. Groups (families, peers, teams) need to act persistently, even when these actions oppose members’ individual short-term interests. Moreover, individuals need to stay calm and act diligently, while dealing with emotions of threat and resisting counterproductive social influence. Our research programme on implementation intentions at social levels suggests that collective if-then plans facilitate goal attainment for teams, groups, and individuals in social contexts. We therefore analyse how if-then planning can help master global human challenges such as the 2020 Coronavirus pandemic.
... We provide empirical analysis to verify the inverted-U curvilinear goal-performance relation, supporting previous studies that are mainly based on laboratory experiments (Erez & Zidon, 1984;Motowidlo et al., 1978;Stedry & Kay, 1966) or theoretical analysis (Rablen, 2010;Wu et al., 2008). In addition, most of the previous GST studies focus on individual task performance (Kleingeld et al., 2011), while our study explores the goal-setting effects on government behavior and its implications for political target setting. In this regard, this also supplements the studies of prospect theory with the case of government behavior, which could be a potential direction for expanding the application of prospect theory (Barberis, 2013;Wilson, 2011). ...
... A positive correlation between goal difficulty and task performance is one of the major finds in GST studies (Locke & Latham, 1990). It is suggested that more difficult performance goals could improve task performance via directing attention toward desired end states, mobilizing effort and persistence, and encouraging the task strategies development (Kleingeld et al., 2011;Locke et al., 1981;Locke & Latham, 2002). However, this positive goal-setting effect is challenged when the role of moderators is considered (Locke & Latham, 2002). ...
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This paper investigates the role of the prospect theory preferences in influencing the relationship between performance goals and subsequent performances. We find an inverted-U relationship between the goal of the central government and the performance of local governments in land supply based on China’s land supply data between 2005 and 2013. The higher land supply goals of the central government initially increase and then decrease the land supply by local governments. We further explore the inverted-U relations by considering local governments’ prospect theory preferences theoretically and empirically. Our findings indicate that local governments are goal-dependent and risk-seeking in face of the extraordinarily ambitious goals set by the central government.
... Goal setting theory (GST) usually claims that difficult goals are especially beneficial to those who have a high ability (Latham, 2012). More recently, however, a meta-analysis found robust evidence that it is how specific the goals are that need to be emphasized (Kleingeld et al., 2011). According to self-efficacy theory, it is more about confidence in one's own ability than actual ability, where high self-efficacy leads to higher set goals and increased motivation (Bandura, 2001). ...
... We believe autonomy and cohesiveness are interrelated with motivation to set relevant goals, as both autonomy and cohesion of teams are likely to have positive impacts on motivation and goal setting. Latham, (2012) argued that further research should focus more on motivation in teams, as most experts agree that teamwork has the potential to provide with improved safety and value (Bakker, 2015;Kleingeld et al., 2011). Currently, there is no theoretical framework that links existing theories on motivation, autonomy, and cohesion in the care workplace (Mitchell et al., 2012). ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to examine and construct a theoretical model of key elements that care workers perceive to have an impact on their autonomy, cohesion, and work motivation. Grounded theory was used for data collection and analysis. There were 20 participants from social welfare service, geriatric care, and women’s aid settings (women = 18, men = 2, mean age = 37.6). The analysis resulted in the following categories: (a) Being-a-Cohesive-Team; (b) Agency-Making; (c) Living-Up-to-Expectations; and (d) Developing-Support-and-Feedback. The results identified potential interactions between these factors and suggested how they influenced each other, showing how cohesion, autonomy, and motivation are interdependent and amplified.
... Therefore, higher difficulty implies higher goal difficulty. According to the goalsetting theory (Locke & Latham, 2002), in a certain range, with the increase of goal difficulty, individuals may achieve higher learning performance by increasing attention and adjusting strategies (Kleingeld et al., 2011;Mento et al., 1987). To sum up, higher difficulty will be more beneficial for learning performance due to inducing higher goal difficulty. ...
... The result might be caused by the opposite effects of goal difficulty and comparative feedback valence, which both originated from difficulty. In line with goal-setting theory (Locke & Latham, 2002), learners in the high difficulty group were provided with more difficult goals, thus were supposed to achieve higher performance scores due to the positive effect of goal difficulty on performance (Kleingeld et al., 2011;Mento et al., 1987). Nevertheless, comparative feedback provided by leaderboards made individuals pay attention to self-evaluation (Kluger & DeNisi, 1996). ...
Article
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Background As one of the gamification elements, leaderboard, especially absolute leaderboard, is widely used in educational gamification systems. However, empirical studies on the optimal use condition of the leaderboard and underlying influence mechanisms are deficient. Objectives This study explored which difficulty was more conducive to learning performance in leaderboard context, and when and how it played a role. Methods To address these questions, this study conducted a 2 (dominant goal orientation: learning/performance) × 2 (difficulty: high/low) between‐subjects design. Seventy‐eight dominant learning‐oriented and 78 dominant performance‐oriented participants were recruited and randomly assigned to the high or low difficulty group respectively. Results and Conclusions Participants in the low difficulty group experienced more positive emotions, less negative emotions, and higher learning motivation than those in the high difficulty group, but the effect of difficulty on performance was not significant. Moreover, goal orientation did not moderate the effects of difficulty, dominant learning‐oriented and performance‐oriented learners were equally affected by difficulty. Further mediating analysis showed that negative emotions and learning motivation rather than positive emotions mediated the relationship between difficulty and learning performance. Implications These results confirmed the positive effect of low difficulty in leaderboard context, as well as the mediating roles of emotions and motivation involved in the relationship between difficulty and learning performance. These findings enlighten us that it is necessary to equip leaderboards in educational gamification with achievable difficulty.
... Considering most athletes set individual goals, the relationship between the team and individual goals seems critical for the programs' effectiveness. Specifically, research in work settings showed that certain types of individual goals might hinder team performance in highly interdependent teams due to their focus on maximizing individual performance (Crown & Rosse, 1995;Kleingeld et al., 2011). Crown and Rosse (1995) defined these goals as egocentric individual goals which direct the efforts and attention toward individual outcomes rather than team performance. ...
... These goals promote individual contribution to task performance and provide a clear path for identifying that contribution for interdependent tasks. When implemented with group goals (i.e., multifaceted), the group-centric individual goals enhance team productivity and individual commitment to team goals (Kleingeld et al., 2011). ...
Article
The current study examined the effects of a season-long multifaceted team goal-setting intervention (with emphasis on both individual and team level goal) on perceptions of team cohesion and collective efficacy. Using a non-randomized controlled design with 81 female volleyball players (Mage = 16.57, SD = .25) from six teams, three teams (n = 3) were assigned as intervention condition while the remaining teams (n = 3) represented no-treatment control condition. Teams in the intervention condition participated in a three-stage team goal-setting protocol with an extension of the individual goal-setting phase throughout a season. All participants completed questionnaires measuring perceptions of team cohesion and collective efficacy at three time-points throughout the season (i.e., beginning, midseason, end-season). In addition, participants in the intervention condition completed performance profiles at the beginning and the end of the season. Compared to the control group, the task cohesion perceptions of the intervention group were significantly higher in the midseason, the social cohesion perceptions were significantly higher at the end of the season, and their collective efficacy perceptions were significantly higher both in the midseason and at the end of the season. These results revealed the effectiveness of the multifaceted team goal-setting intervention on team cohesion and collective efficacy. Lay summary: This study extends the team goal-setting literature by conducting a season-long multifaceted team goal-setting intervention in youth volleyball teams. The intervention involved both individual and team goals and aimed to improve coherence between those goals through task interdependence.
... Indeed, this is the central premise of goal hierarchy theories (e.g., Unsworth, CONTACT Helen P. N. Hughes h.hughes@leeds.ac.uk Yeo, & Beck, 2014), and the negative, often unintended consequences of fostering such goal-driven behaviours have been widely documented (Kleingeld, van Mierlo, & Arends, 2011;Ordonez, Schweitzer, Galinsky, & Bazerman, 2009). It is therefore unsurprising that many academics seek to reap these publishing benefits without engaging in challenging organizational research. ...
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Conducting impactful research is a cornerstone of good academic practice. It increases the likelihood that research outcomes are used to generate positive change, e.g., by improving working lives, and delivering improvements in the management, operation, and performance of organizations. This, in turn, makes research relevant, representative, and credible. However, undertaking impactful research is challenging, especially when considered alongside other competing academic pressures and research goals. The purpose of this paper is to consider different approaches to creating impactful research in organizational psychology, and to propose that each approach can help meet different research goals. In particular, we introduce and reflect on the value of building long-term partnerships with organizations to create research impact, and consider lessons that we have learned from doing so. To do this, we conceptualize impact delivery as a socio-technical challenge, and demonstrate this using examples from our collaborations. We conclude with recommendations for those who seek to deliver research impact while grappling with these competing pressures.
... Third, goals motivate people to persist on a task over time and to overcome difficulties in achieving progress [39]. Further, a meta-analysis of multiple studies revealed that more abstract and vague goals have less impact on everyday behavioral choices that determine group performance than more specific goals [40]. Presumably, this is the case because abstract goals make it less clear which activities contribute to the achievement of these goals, how progress can be monitored, or when further persistence is needed [39]. ...
Article
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Offering environmental, social, and governance (ESG) assessment and certification can invite organizations to adapt their activities to accommodate environmental, social, and governance concerns. Prior research points to shortcomings in accurately monitoring and assessing organizational sustainability performance. This contribution aims to highlight the role of ESG indicators as motivating organizations to prioritize sustainability goals. Theory and research elucidate that the definition of specific goals guides the degree of effort organizations invest, the priorities they set, and the persistence they display in pursuing targeted outcomes. The extent to which performance assessments of rating agencies specify and integrate ESG concerns thus impacts the likelihood that organizations will address each of these sustainability targets. The likely impact of ESG indicators was examined by consulting ratings, rankings, and indexes from 130 rating agencies included in the Reporting Exchange Platform. We identified and categorized 237 unique indicators in over 600 corporate ESG indicators. Results reveal that themes covered are less well specified in the governance domain than in the environmental and social domain. Further, different dimensions are emphasized depending on which stakeholder is addressed (investors, consumers, companies). Taken together, we conclude that this makes it more difficult for organizations to adopt a holistic approach to the achievement of sustainability goals.
... Engaging patients in shared decision making is associated with increased likelihood of following through with changes [46]. Also helpful is setting goals for treatment that are specific [47], and to which patients are held accountable [48]. Furthermore, patients need support in planning how they will overcome obstacles, physical, emotional, relational, economic or otherwise, and in planning for how to adjust their goals when obstacles are encountered. ...
Article
Sexual recovery after prostate cancer (PCa) treatment is challenging. When expectations are that erectile response will quickly return to baseline, patients can often struggle when this does not happen. Further difficulty is experienced when patients encounter physical, psychological, and relational barriers to sexual adjustment. Drawing on the psychosocial research literature and on 15 years of clinical experience counseling PCa patients about sexual recovery, this paper outlines considerations for clinical practice. Suggestions include broadening the target for successful outcomes after Pca treatment beyond erectile function to include sexual distress and other sources of sexual concern. Clinicians are urged to consider individual differences such as the larger context of the patient, including their values and preferences, their treatment goals, and their relationship situation and status, in order to promote successful sexual adaptation. When introducing treatment approaches, the role of grief and loss should be assessed, and patients should be supported to foster realistic expectations about the recovery process. Suggestions for how to introduce various sexual strategies to patients are also offered, including ways to support patients in making and sustaining behavioral changes associated with sexual intervention. Clinicians are offered suggestions to promote patients’ sexual flexibility, prevent long periods of sexual inactivity, and help patients to identify various sexual motivators. Consideration of these psychological, relational, and social factors are all likely to help facilitate better sexual outcomes for PCa patients.
... This supported clusters to define their group attributes and use these to develop group goals. Collective goal-setting has been highlighted to serve as a useful strategy which can be effective for group performance, and also supporting collective efficacy and group cohesion (Bray 2004;Kleingeld, van Mierlo, and Arends 2011). The activities within this included supporting students on effective goal-setting principles (e.g. ...
Article
With respect to supporting student well-being and success, the current research developed a peer support scheme, built on the principles of Social Identity Theory (SIT). This was targeted towards first year undergraduate psychology students, in which measures of collective identity, sense of belonging, group efficacy, happiness and resilience were obtained, along with attendance and academic attainment. Following one academic year of being part of our peer support scheme, participants (N = 90) completed a questionnaire and consented to their attendance and attainment data to be used. It was found that students’ collective identity was positively related to their sense of belonging, group efficacy beliefs and happiness. Further, the sense of belonging was a reliable predictor of happiness, but not attendance or academic attainment. Therefore, there is some evidence to suggest that an SIT-driven peer support scheme can support students’ psychosocial well-being, although more is needed to ascertain whether this could be developed further to observe any course-related outcomes. Theoretical contributions to SIT are therefore presented, in which the insights can be applied to Higher Education beyond the UK.
... However, the IIs used in the current research focused on individual outcomes instead of group outcomes. Building on group-level goal setting research (Kleingeld et al., 2011), the pertinent next step would be to investigate whether and how classic IIs focusing on group outcomes can increase conditional cooperation. ...
Article
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Groups need contributions that are personally costly to their members. Such cooperation is only adaptive when others cooperate as well, as unconditional cooperation may incur high costs to the individual. We argue that individuals can use We-if-then plans (collective implementation intentions, cIIs) to regulate their group-directed behavior strategically, helping them to cooperate selectively with group members in the situation planned for. In line with this prediction, a cII to consider group earnings increased cooperative decisions in a prisoners' dilemma game when playing against another group member but not when playing against a stranger (i.e., non-group member). Moreover, cIIs to cooperate in the prisoners' dilemma game did not increase cooperation in a structurally similar investment game that participants had not planned for. We discuss the role of collective planning in solving social dilemmas.
... Goal setting theorists have come at the problem of goals from a motivational perspective and have found that difficult goals or goals defined by the group improved team performance (Kleingeld, van Mierlo, & Arends, 2011;Locke & Latham, 1990). In an organizational team context goal commitment has been defined as a groups desire to truly achieve a goal and has been isolated as the necessary predecessor to effective team performance (Erez & Zidon, 1984). ...
... Goal-setting by individuals or a small group may lead to conflicts, therefore they should be jointly negotiated such that activities are a collaborative enterprise with a clear focus and deliverable outcomes (Locke and Latham 2006). Specific and challenging goals can generate higher task performance among the group members than easy to accomplish or vague goals (Kleingeld et al. 2011). A clear 'roadmap' should outline key milestones to be achieved, timelines and checkpoints for progress updates. ...
Article
Scholarship in Health Professions Education is not just original research, it also includes study of educational processes, and application of new knowledge to practice. The pathways to successful scholarship are not always clear to novice educators. In this article, we describe strategies to establish a Community of Scholars (CoS), where more experienced and senior members guide junior members in scholarship to advance the field. Drawing on Lave and Wenger's concepts of Communities of Practice (CoP), we describe twelve practical tips, which include generation of a shared vision, formation of a global community of scholars, engagement in scholarly initiatives, and development of a professional identity, categorised under three major steps: establish, grow, and sustain the community. The tips embrace inclusivity for diverse cultural contexts which further provide opportunities for Health Professions Educators, interested in forming communities of practice , to work on scholarly outputs and add value to the professional arena.
... Furthermore, most researchers did not make goal setting explicit, which plays an important role in organizational performance and success (Skinner, 2018). Kleingeld, Van Mierlo and Arends (2011) contended that goals help to motivate teams to succeed. Additionally, little information is revealed in literature on costing and resource utilization as both are considered critical constraints to SMEs. ...
Article
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Purpose: This paper develops a ‘light’ total productive maintenance (TPM) model suitable for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). By design, the system is rudimentary, using a relatively small sum of capital investment and resources. The model recommends TPM implementation in three stages, namely plan, improve, and sustain.Design/methodology/approach: The literature review provides the inputs to the model development. Action research is used to demonstrate and verify the effectiveness and practicability of the framework, in an SME manufacturing hydraulic parts in China. Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) and awareness of employees were studied before and after the implementation. Findings: The case study shows a significantly improved production efficiency of the equipment. The framework structuralizes TPM deployment and binding different levels of the organization into the program, from planning, implementation to sustaining the practices. To break the barrier of shop-floor resistance, the leader must drive many activities unassisted, it, therefore, necessitates an open endorsement of authority by the steering committee composed of top management. The Prudent pilot run of TPM helped to accelerate the implementation at critical equipment, in addition to cultivating experience and hence confidence among staff.Research limitations/implications: This study provides a pragmatic reference to other researchers and practitioners to promote a light TPM model in SMEs, without losing the essence of TPM. Being action research with the case study in a specific manufacturing industry, the resultant evidence, therefore, is anecdotal.Originality/value: The model adopts a phased method to implement TPM, without aggravating the financial and human resource burden of the enterprise. It promotes the cultivation of employees’ TPM awareness and active involvement, which can lay a solid foundation for the wide implementation of TPM in SMEs.
... According to goal setting theory, specific goals increase performance (Locke & Latham, 1990, 2013 as the expected outcome is clarified and attention is focused on achieving this outcome (Klein, Whitener & Ilgen, 1990). Although several meta-analyses provide support for this effect (Chidester & Grigsby, 1984;Kleingeld, van Mierlo & Arends, 2011;Mento, Steel & Karren, 1987;Tubbs, 1986;Wood, Mento & Locke, 1987), the relationship of specificity and mental strain is still relatively unknown. To elucidate this relation, specificity of self-set goals and orders need to be differentiated. ...
Article
Journal Psychologie des Alltagshandelns / Psychology of Everyday Activity, Vol. 13 / No. 2, ISSN 1998-9970. Abstract: Management by objectives is widely used and very popular in company practice. However, if performance goals are used as a tool of control from above, negative effects can be a consequence. A cross-sectional field study was conducted to test the hypotheses. The sample consisted of 275 employees of a bank and a public service provider. We measured control the job provides by expert-ratings. The perception of control, vital exhaustion as well as the goal source (imposed versus participatively set) were measured with self-reports. Factorial variance analyses were used to identify main effects and interactions. In jobs that offer a high level of objective control and that have imposed performance goals, employees report a vital exhaustion sum score of m = 18.88, which is twice as high as in jobs that offer a high level of objective control but have participatively set performance goals (m = 9.34). We conclude that participation at setting performance goals can help to adapt the performance goal to individual performance requisites of employees. Through participation at goal setting performance goals do not limit control and avoid vital exhaustion.
... There is little debate about the benefits of using structured and formalized goal realization in organizations. Specific goals provide a clear sense of what needs to be achieved, and they lead to better performance than non-specific goals, even if the specific goals are easy for employees or teams to achieve (Kleingeld et al., 2011). And if companies want to turn top-level, organization-wide objectives into action, this requires that: ...
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Organizations have become increasingly aware that customer value creation is critical to remain relevant and to stay in business. Hence, most organizations have incorporated these elements into their overall mission statement and their organization-wide strategy. Yet many of them struggle to create an organization where employees focus effectively on executing the formulated strategy and on delivering and continuously improving customer value. This article describes how clever and tailored design of goal realization in organizations can foster value creation and embed it in the daily work routines of employees. The key to success is to adopt goal realization in such a way that it creates an environment where employees feel safe, empowered and confident to go after aspirational, value-based goals while creating alignment and connecting employees to the overall goals and objectives of the organization. This is illustrated in a practical manner by presenting the framework as adopted by Google.
... Gezien veel organisatorische besluitvorming in groep gebeurt, is het niet verwonderlijk dat er ook aanbevelingen bestaan, specifiek voor groepsbesluitvorming. Hierbij liggen twee zaken aan de basis: ten eerste is het voordelig voor de prestaties wanneer men als groep een gemeenschappelijk doel voor ogen heeft (Kleingeld, van Mierlo, & Arends, 2011;Kerr & Tindale, 2004). Ten tweede, is het voordelig om de cognities van de individuen op synergetische wijze te combineren (Bazerman & Moore, 2009;Mellers, et al., 2014;Tindale & Winget, 2019;Owen, 2015). ...
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This thesis was built around the question: "What is the possible added value of Argument Mapping (AM) for organizations? In order to find an answer to this question, a two-pronged study was carried out: of the subject AM on the one hand and the decision making process on the other hand. Having discussed these topics separately, the two were brought together in an in-depth analysis. Finally, the added value of AM was also compared with that of other tools and methods to support decision making.
... An early meta-analysis with 49 studies found strong support for the relationship between difficult goals on performance, compared to easy goals, and for the relationship between specific difficult goals and performance, compared to general or no goals (Mento et al., 1987). In a more recent meta-analysis, Epton et al. (2017) examined 141 studies on goal-setting, finding a unique effect of goal-setting on various behavior changes, where difficult goals were significantly different from both easy goals and moderate goals (for more, see Kleingeld et al., 2011;Tubbs, 1986). ...
Article
Setting specific, challenging goals motivates employees to exert greater effort in their jobs. However, goal-setting may have unintended consequences of also motivating unethical behavior. The present study explores these consequences in the context of other features of goal-setting in organizations, how goals are framed and rewarded, to determine the trade- off between performance and ethical behavior. Undergraduate students were incentivized to complete math problems using different outcome frames and incentive structures and were also provided an opportunity to cheat. Findings demonstrate that when goals rewarded with piece-rate incentives are framed as a loss, performance increased, though cheating behavior increased as well.
... According to goal-setting theory (Locke & Latham, 1990, 2002, 2006, goals have a higher probability of motivating task performance when they are perceived as specific, measurable, challenging, accepted, and tied to desired outcomes. A number of meta-analyses have established positive relationships between goal setting and task performance among individuals and groups (Kleingeld, van Mierlo, & Arends, 2011;Mento, Steel, & Karren, 1987;Tubbs, 1986). ...
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Drawing on examples from published research, the authors offer a perspective on the side effects associated with organizational interventions. This perspective is framed in the context of the many hard-won positive impacts that industrial and organizational (I-O) psychologists have had on individuals, groups, organizations, and social institutions over the last century. With a few exceptions, we argue that side effects tend to receive less attention from I-O psychology researchers and practitioners than they deserve. A systematic approach to studying, monitoring, and advertising side effects is needed in order to better understand their causes, consequences, and the contexts in which they are most likely to emerge. The purpose of this piece is to stimulate conversations within the field about the phenomenon of side effects as well as what might be done to improve our science and practice in this domain.
... This approach supports group members to define their group attributes and then use these as a basis for establishing group goals. Previous work demonstrates the effectiveness of collective goal-setting, with meta-analytic research highlighting that group goals have a robust effect on group performance (Kleingeld, van Mierlo, & Arends, 2011). Additionally, other work illustrates how this may relate to other group processes such as collective efficacy and group cohesion. ...
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Peer Mentoring schemes tend to be developed as retention strategies, however, they can also serve other purposes (psychosocial or career‐related). However, evidence of the effectiveness of these presents mixed results and less is known about the horizontal peer support schemes which may help students capitalize on existing peer relationships. We developed an integrated learning communities (ILC) peer support scheme, building on the theoretical principles of social identity theory, which we embedded within our existing teaching framework and designed functional activities. Collective activities were undertaken to promote the processes of social identity with the intention that these may foster social and academic integration experiences. This intervention was undertaken with an entire cohort of first year undergraduate psychology students. We conducted semi‐structured interviews with a self‐selected sample of these students (N = 17). Thematic analysis revealed two main themes, each with two sub‐themes. These were: “Divergent Experiences” with the sub‐themes of “dependent on people” and “types of support”, and “Good idea in principle” with the sub‐themes of “Theory ≠ Practice” and “Dependent on student engagement”. Although identifying with a peer group was not transparent in the interviews, the existence of a peer support scheme was perceived positively by students which might explain the success of the newly developed student‐led Psychology Society. Indeed, this Psychology Society can provide a lasting framework for further amplification of the student voice. We conclude that our embedded ILC was both feasible and potentially valuable, but it is crucial for the peer support approach to have transactional significance.
... Goal orientation researches which were conducted in the sports context disclosed that male athletes' main concern was to perform better by comparing themselves with other athletes in terms of their abilities in the competitive sports environment (Chin, Khoo, & Low, 2012;Kleingeld & Mierlo, 2011). In another study, it was revealed that there is no significant association between goal orientations beliefs and self-appraisals of performance improvement) -When performance is measured by athlete ( Van-Yperen & Duda, 1999). ...
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The purpose of the present research was to study the relationship between goal orientation and performance in team sports players. The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) was used for the assessment of goals. The observed variable of the study was perceived performance and was measured through a likert scale questionnaire, which had been adopted from literature. Subjective performances of the players were considered. Data was collected from Sri Lankan national team players who are engaged in team sports of football, basketball, Elle, volleyball, Hockey, Kabaddi, Netball, Rugby and Throw ball. The study population was 308 national team players and the universal sampling technique was used. Data were analyzed using SPSS and structural equation modeling with AMOS. The study results reveal that there is a significant association between goal orientation and performance of the players while a significant relationship exists between task orientation and performance. A moderate level of association was derived from ego orientation which in turn leads to performance.
... In addition, it is easier for such employees to establish trust and commitment with the organization and effectively supplement the stock of personal character resources. Meanwhile, the occurrence of creative behavior usually indicates that employees need to consume time, energy and other resources to challenge the current situation and break the routine, accompanied by risk, uncertainty and potential failure (Kleingeld et al., 2011). Compared with low wellbeing employees with less resource stock, high resource stock makes high wellbeing employees have less negative feelings such as emotional exhaustion, stress and anxiety caused by resource consumption in the process of innovation (Hobfoll, 2011), be more confident in controlling the overall situation, overcoming the difficulties and obstacles of breaking through the status quo and generating creative behavior, and more likely to engage in creative actions at work and be more willing to devote themselves to the innovation and development of the organization (Chang et al., 2014). ...
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How to effectively stimulate employees’ creative behavior is a hot topic in the field of organizational behavior. Based on conservation of resources theory and substitutes for leadership theory, this paper discusses the impact of high-commitment work systems on employees’ creative behavior and the roles of employees’ wellbeing and CEO inclusive leadership. By constructing a cross-level structural equation model and analyzing the paired data of 86 CEOs, 86 HR managers and 489 employees, the results show that: (1) high-commitment work systems have positive impact on employees’ creative behavior; (2) employee’s wellbeing mediates the process of high-commitment work systems driving employees’ creative behavior; and (3) CEO inclusive leadership negatively moderates the relationship between high-commitment work systems and employees’ wellbeing, and further negatively moderates the indirect effect of high-commitment work systems on employees’ creative behavior through employees’ wellbeing, that is, the lower the level of CEO inclusive leadership is, the stronger the impact of high-commitment work systems on employees’ creative behavior through employees’ wellbeing will be.
... Within this context, three different types of goal-setting have thus far been experimentally or quasi-experimentally tested. These studies were not included in the goal-setting meta-analyses of Mento et al. (1987), Kleingeld et al. (2011), andEpton et al. (2017). Table A.1 in Appendix A offers an overview of all experimental studies examining the effects of goal-setting interventions on academic performance in higher education. ...
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Students often have trouble adjusting to higher education and this affects their performance, retention, and well-being. Scholars have suggested applying reflective goal-setting interventions, and most have found positive effects on academic performance and retention. However, one study found no effect at all, stressing the need for understanding the underlying mechanisms, as they could explain when the intervention works and why. Thus, we assessed these mechanisms through a rigorous effect test, using an experimental design and repeated measures. We measured engagement, self-regulated learning, resilience, grit, wellbeing, academic performance, and retention at three points in a large scale randomized controlled trial involving first-year teacher and business education students (N = 1,134). The treatment group earned significantly more course credits and had lower drop out rates. Contrary to previous findings, these effects were independent of gender or ethnicity. Grit, self-regulated learning, resilience, or engagement did not mediate the effects. This study confirmed reflective goal-setting's small and direct effect on academic performance, but no mediating or moderating effects. Differences in implementation fidelity could explain previous studies' varying effect-sizes.
... Within this context, three different types of goal-setting have thus far been experimentally or quasi-experimentally tested. These studies were not included in the goal-setting meta-analyses of Mento et al. (1987), Kleingeld et al. (2011), andEpton et al. (2017). Table A.1 in Appendix A offers an overview of all experimental studies examining the effects of goal-setting interventions on academic performance in higher education. ...
... Theory and literature review Goal-setting theory (GST) A central element in modern budgeting is the nexus between corporate goals, firm productivity and employee commitment (Pepper and Gore, 2015). Scholars have adopted a range of theories to explore the relationship, but there is a considerable engagement with GST in this research field (see Locke and Latham, 2006;Kleingeld et al., 2011;Curseu et al., 2014;Pepper and Gore, 2015). GST emphasises the robust connection between goals, commitment and performance (Lunenburg, 2011;Pepper and Gore, 2015) and the development of strategies to motivate and guide individuals towards accomplishing goals. ...
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Purpose The capacity to plan, manage and control small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is critical to realising their organisational goals. This paper assesses the effectiveness and perception of budgeting and budgetary control systems among SMEs. Design/methodology/approach Relying on the goal-setting theory (GST) and a methodology that accommodates questionnaires, data were collected from 170 manufacturing SMEs located in Cape Town, South Africa. Findings Research results affirm that the deployment of budgeting benefits from a positive perception of the value of budgeting and budgetary controls by key SME stakeholders. The study also finds that the perception of budgeting mirrors the level of education of SME operators, as educated respondents understand the value of implementing robust budgeting systems. Despite its focus on manufacturing SMEs, this study suggests that the manufacturing budget is the least utilised budgeting system among these organisations. Practical implications The study reinforces the communication power of budgeting and budgetary controls as SMEs and economic agents are not only aware of corporate objectives but are equally incentivised to support the attainment of these objectives. Originality/value Despite the extensive application of GST among scholars, its use in budgeting and budgetary control literature, particularly among SMEs in developing contexts, is limited. In line with GST, this study indicates that when agents establish and implement a plan, they are motivated to pursue and realise the set expectations while consistently evaluating themselves for improvement opportunities.
... Therefore, the current study aims to contribute to theory and practice by empirically testing a short, pragmatic flow at work intervention, which has a track record of positive work outcomes (Epton, Currie, & Armitage, 2017;Kleingeld, van Mierlo, & Arends, 2011), has the potential to be self-initiated, and can be easily applied across a multitude of worksettings without the need for instructors. Additionally, this research aims to expand the nomological network of flow at work through the integration of nudge theory (Thaler & Sunstein, 2008), goal-setting theory (Locke & Latham, 2002), flow theory (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975), and key work outcomes into a concise, replicable model which can assess the differential effects of the current and future interventions on flow and its crucial outcomes. ...
Article
The construct of flow has been associated with a plethora of positive work outcomes such as performance, engagement, and reduced burnout. However, flow is understudied in the domain of work and there is a lack of empirical examinations of flow interventions. Additionally, until recently, the vast majority of research examining flow at work assumes that individuals are passive agents who only experience flow when their working conditions facilitate the state. Therefore, the study tested a ‘SMART’ goal‐setting nudge intervention for individuals, aimed at increasing flow at work and its positive outcomes. Results of a 5‐day experimental experience sampling study with 65 American MTurk workers (who work full‐time besides MTurk) indicate that those in the goal‐setting condition experienced more flow at work and subsequently experienced less daily stress, as well as higher engagement and subjective performance when compared to the control group. Exploratory analyses revealed that flow decreased later in the week within‐day for participants in the control group, whereas flow remained relatively stable within‐day for those in the goal‐setting condition. Moreover, certain categories of goals, such as mastery goals, resource acquisition goals, and understanding goals, were found to be significant predictors of daily flow. Flow at work predicted daily stress, daily performance, and work engagement. Self‐determination strategies (Occupat Health Sci, 1, 2017, 47), such as goal setting, can increase the amount of flow experienced at work and its subsequent positive outcomes. Nudges (Nudge: Improving decisions about health, wealth, and happiness, Yale University Press, 2008) can provide reminders for individuals to engage in behaviors that help them to experience flow and its positive work outcomes. A proposed model was supported as a framework practitioners can use to better understand flow at work along with its antecedents and outcomes.
... Over the years, an enormous amount of research from across many disciplines has investigated goals and attempted to describe their key features, functioning, and effects (e.g., Chidester & Grigsby, 1984;Kleingeld et al., 2011;Mento et al., 1987;Wood et al., 1987). Initial attempts to measure important characteristics or consequences of psychological phenomena in emerging research areas are often somewhat piecemeal. ...
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How motivated a person is to pursue a goal may depend on many different properties of the goal, such as how specific it is, how important it is to the person, and how actionable it is. Rigorously measuring all of the relevant goal characteristics is still very difficult. Existing measures are scattered across multiple research fields. Some goal characteristics are not yet covered, while others have been measured under ambiguous terminology. Other conceptually related characteristics have yet to be adapted to goals. Last but not least, the validity of most measures of goal characteristics has yet to be assessed. The aim of this study is to: a) integrate, refine, and extend previous measures into a more comprehensive battery of self-report measures, the Goal Characteristics Questionnaire (GCQ), and b) investigate its evidence of validity. In two empirical studies, this paper provides evidence for the validity of the measures regarding their internal structure, measurement invariance, and convergence and divergence with other relevant goal-related measures, such as the motivation, affect, and the dimensions of Personal Project Analysis. The results show that our goal characteristic dimensions have incremental validity for explaining important outcomes, such as goal commitment and well-being. It concludes with practical recommendations for using the GCQ in research on goal-setting and goal-pursuit, and a discussion about directions for future studies.
... The motivational appeal of RT could be increased by cooperative goals, which are known to support learning and motivation (Kleingeld et al., 2011;Roseth et al., 2008). Having the specific goal of preparing a play for an audience could improve student cooperation and commitment to the activities of the program, which could improve engagement during the program. ...
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A randomized controlled trial was conducted to study the effectiveness of two readers’ theater (RT) programs in promoting reading skills and motivation of dysfluent readers in Grades 3–4. One program (RT Goal) included a goal of preparing a performance for an audience (n = 50), while another program (RT Practice) did not include such a goal (n = 49). A group of dysfluent readers receiving traditional oral reading intervention (Control group; n = 59) and a group of classroom peers (Mainstream group; n = 159) served as controls. The results indicate that both RT groups and the Control group developed at a higher rate in oral reading speed during the intervention period than the Mainstream group. The RT Goal program was associated with higher engagement ratings and a temporary reduction in reading errors and oral reading anxiety. RT had no effects on silent reading skills or reading self-efficacy.
... Zielsetzungen sind auch in Gruppensettings wichtige Größen im Motivationsprozess. Spezifische und schwierige Zielsetzungen wirken sich dabei am stärksten auf Teamleistungen aus, umso mehr, wenn es sich um komplexe Gruppenaufgaben mit gegenseitiger Abhängigkeit handelt (Kleingeld et al. 2011). Individuelle Zielsetzungen wirken lediglich, wenn sie gemeinsam mit Gruppenzielsetzungen kombiniert werden. ...
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Motivationstraining bezweckt die systematische Optimierung menschlichen Verhaltens via einer Erhöhung der Handlungsfrequenz, Verbesserung der -persistenz, Steigerung der -intensität sowie der Verbesserung der Handlungsqualität. Unter Berücksichtigung der Phasen des Rubikon-Modells geschieht dies durch den Einbezug motivationaler Schemata zur Befriedigung psychologischer Grundbedürfnisse, weiterhin durch Werteklärungen, mentalem Kontrastieren, affektivem Vorerleben, systematischer Zielsetzungsarbeit, Implementierungsintentionen, Veränderung des motivationalen Klimas, attributionalem Feedback/Retraining. Dieser Beitrag ist Teil der Sektion Sportpsychologie, herausgegeben vom Teilherausgeber Dieter Hackfort, innerhalb des Handbuchs Sport und Sportwissenschaft, herausgegeben von Arne Güllich und Michael Krüger.
... The purposes stated quantitatively are more comfortable for individuals to understand so that individual cognitive processes will occur to think about what to do to achieve these goals. Some research supports the explanation that goal specificity affects the achievement of goals (Kleingled and Heleen, 2011;Wallace et al., 2017), psychological empowerment (Jong and Sue, 2020). Latham and Locke (1991) explain goal difficulty as ease of achieving goals, namely easy, medium, and impossible to achieve. ...
Article
This study uses goal-setting theory and reinforcement theory to explain the formation of individual motivation in achieving goals. Testing the effect of goal specificity used the experimental method to test the impact of goal specificity, different goal difficulty on the same quota incentive system as the 2x2x1 experimental design. This study's findings confirm the goal-setting theory shown from the higher achievement of participants' goals when participants are given specific and challenging goals than participant goals in different variations of goal specificity and goal difficulty. This study found that participants have a greater focus on goal specificity in driving goal attainment behavior. The findings of this study confirm the reinforcement theory shown from achieving goals that exceed targets. Positive consequences become arguments for individuals to do the same action
... Realistically set goals have a strong motivational force. Setting targets can decisively influence the performance of the individual and the team (Kleingeld, Mierlo, & Arends, 2011), thus we need to know the goal of the sports activity. Ames and Archer (1988) modelled the orientation of the goals appearing during the implementation of the activities that provided the framework for the AGT (Achievement Goal Theory) created by Ames (1992). ...
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It is widely known that motivation plays a critical role in getting athletes to achieve their full potential. However, little is known with regards to motivation as a function of relative age in junior competitive swimmers. The aim of the present research was to investigate associations between motivation, perceived motivational climate, and relative age among junior competitive swimmers (N = 235; 117 females; Mean age = 11.44, SD = 0.57 years). Although we expected relatively younger athletes to present lower motivation than their older peers, findings showed that swimmers in our study had similar motivation orientation, irrespective of their birth period (i.e., first, second, third, fourth quarter). Findings suggest professionals should aim to build intrinsic motivation regardless of birth period, as the shaping of a stabilized intrinsic motivation at junior age can increase the chances of success for the most talented swimmers.
... Leaders have an important moral role to provide the needed clarity and value of organizational goals, supporting employees by informing them of the changes and the course ahead during the change implementation, and empowering them to identify and resolve any obstacles that they experience in their job during the implementation of change (Stouten et al., 2018). Moreover, leaders can encourage a successful change by developing and clearly communicating shared goals (Kleingeld et al., 2011) and positive beliefs about the reasons for change (Rousseau & Tijoriwala, 1999). Researchers have assessed the associations between transformational leadership and organizational goal clarity and service motivation (Moynihan et al., 2012;, but we contend that servant leadership is better aligned with the special needs of employees during the uncertainties brought on by change because of servant leaders' moral focus on helping others. ...
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Organizations operate in dynamic environments, which not only requires organizations to adjust, but also for employees to adapt quickly to align with new or adjusted organizational goals. Servant leadership has been shown to help employees develop and grow and behave in a moral and fair manner which are important elements for successful change. We aim to provide a further understanding of the associations between servant leadership and organizational outcomes during changing times. Drawing on the theories of social exchange and goal-setting, and the norm of reciprocity, we propose the mediating role of organizational goal clarity in the associations between servant leadership and five organizational outcomes. The hypotheses are tested in four studies: a two-wave time-lagged survey study conducted in a service company going through a merger, and three experimental studies. The results show that servant leadership relates positively to goal clarity and negatively to uncertainty of employees during organizational change. Furthermore, organizational goal clarity positively mediates the associations between servant leadership and employees’ organizational change commitment and service performance (e.g., organizational citizenship behavior, customer service and customer orientation). This investigation provides a theoretical and empirical validation of a mechanism through which servant leaders enhance organizational performance during changing times.
... Theory and literature review Goal-setting theory (GST) A central element in modern budgeting is the nexus between corporate goals, firm productivity and employee commitment (Pepper and Gore, 2015). Scholars have adopted a range of theories to explore the relationship, but there is a considerable engagement with GST in this research field (see Locke and Latham, 2006;Kleingeld et al., 2011;Curseu et al., 2014;Pepper and Gore, 2015). GST emphasises the robust connection between goals, commitment and performance (Lunenburg, 2011;Pepper and Gore, 2015) and the development of strategies to motivate and guide individuals towards accomplishing goals. ...
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Purpose – The capacity to plan, manage and control small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is critical to realising their organisational goals. This paper assesses the effectiveness and perception of budgeting and budgetary control systems among SMEs. Design/methodology/approach – Relying on the goal-setting theory (GST) and a methodology that accommodates questionnaires, data were collected from 170 manufacturing SMEs located in Cape Town, South Africa. Findings – Research results affirm that the deployment of budgeting benefits from a positive perception of the value of budgeting and budgetary controls by key SME stakeholders. The study also finds that the perception of budgeting mirrors the level of education ofSME operators, as educated respondents understand the value of implementing robust budgeting systems. Despite its focus on manufacturing SMEs, this study suggests that the manufacturing budget is the least utilised budgeting system among these organisations. Practical implications – The study reinforces the communication power of budgeting and budgetary controls as SMEs and economic agents are not only aware of corporate objectives but are equally incentivised to support the attainment of these objectives. Originality/value – Despite the extensive application of GST among scholars, its use in budgeting and budgetary control literature, particularly among SMEs in developing contexts, is limited. In line with GST, this study indicates that when agents establish and implement a plan, they are motivated to pursue and realise the set expectations while consistently evaluating themselves for improvement opportunities.
... The complexity of the associated task was coded as low, medium, or high based on a review of the task description in accordance with Wood's (1986) conceptualization of component, coordinative, and dynamic complexity (see also Kleingeld et al. (2011) and Wood et al. (1987)). Because many of the tasks were healthcare tasks and in particular nursing-specific, a registered nurse coded healthcare tasks based on the aforementioned categorization schema using Wood's (1986) description as a guiding framework. ...
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This study expands on Keiser and Arthur's (2021) meta-analysis of the after-action review (AAR), or debrief, by examining six additional task and training characteristics that contribute to or attenuate its effectiveness. The findings based on a bare-bones meta-analysis of results from 83 studies (134 ds [955 teams; 4,684 individuals]) indicate that the effectiveness of the AAR (overall d = 0.92) does indeed vary across the pertinent characteristics. The primary impact of this study pertains to the practical implementation of AARs; notably, the findings indicate that the AAR is particularly effective in task environments that are characterized by a combination of high complexity and ambiguity in terms of offering no intrinsic feedback. The types of tasks-often project and decision-making-that more commonly entail these characteristics are frequently used in industries that do not traditionally use the AAR. The results also suggest that more recent variants of the AAR (i.e., a reaction phase, a canned performance review) do not meaningfully add to its effectiveness. These findings are combined with those from prior meta-analyses to derive 11 empirically-based practical guidelines for the use of AARs. In sum, this study highlights the complexity of the AAR that results from the independent and interdependent influence among various components and characteristics, the examination of the effects of novel and ostensibly distinct variants or approaches to AARs, and the extension of AARs to tasks and contexts in which they are less commonly used.
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Zusammenfassung Dieser Beitrag der Zeitschrift Gruppe. Interaktion. Organisation. (GIO) befasst sich mit ausgewählten Konzepten zur partizipativen Führung, mit denen die Führungsforschung aufwartet. Das Ziel besteht darin, eine kritische Inspektion der den Konzepten zugrundeliegenden Annahmen über die Partizipation im Führungsgeschehen vorzunehmen. Dabei richten wir unseren Fokus zuerst auf die historischen Vorläufer der Führungspartizipation, wie die Überlegungen von Mary Parker Follett, Kurt Lewin, Robert Tannenbaum und Warren H. Schmidt. Anschließend diskutieren wir eine Reihe ausgewählter aktueller Konzepte aus dem Bereich partizipativer Führung in Bezug auf deren analytischen Kerndimensionen und rhetorischen Ansprüche. Die Konzepte durchleuchten wir in Bezug darauf, inwiefern diese auf die humanistisch inspirierte Demokratisierung von Organisationen mittels partizipativer Führung abstellen, oder partizipative Führung als ein weiteres Mittel zur Leistungssteigerung in Organisationen thematisieren, oder womöglich beides. Zum Schluss gehen wir darauf ein, welche dieser vielfältigen konzeptionellen Vorüberlegungen Eingang in die Diskussion zum agilen Management gefunden haben.
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We examine bottom‐line mentality (BLM) at the group level and examine the effect of group BLM on group psychological safety and subsequent group creativity. We draw on goal shielding theory to suggest that groups high in BLM narrowly focus on bottom‐line outcomes, which encourages them to eliminate distracting considerations from their work processes. Because the group's high BLM encapsulates goal shielding, these groups are deficient in fostering psychological safety as an important interpersonal process that facilitates group creativity. We also couple goal shielding theory with arguments related to situational strength to examine group BLM agreement (i.e., the standard deviation of the mean of group BLM) as a first stage moderator. We contend that high BLM agreement (versus low agreement) strengthens the goal shielding effect of group BLM, which is reflected by a stronger detrimental effect on group psychological safety that then reduces group creativity. We found support for our theoretical model using multi‐source, multi‐wave field data from a diverse sample of workgroups and their supervisors. We discuss the theoretical implications of our research and provide practical suggestions for limiting the deleterious consequences of group BLMs in the workplace.
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Zusammenfassung. Es ist ein gutes Zeichen, die zukünftige Ausrichtung der Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie und in diesem Kontext auch die zukünftige Sprache zu diskutieren. In diesem Beitrag liegt der Fokus auf den Entwicklungen der letzten rund vierzig Jahre. Während in den achtziger und neunziger Jahren die deutschsprachige Sportpsychologie kaum englischsprachigen Beiträge erzeugte, hat sich das Bild im neuen Jahrtausend geändert, allerdings auch im Zuge einer allgemeinen Zunahme der Veröffentlichungen und der Zahl der einschlägigen Fachzeitschriften. Vor diesem Hintergrund werden die Chancen und Risiken eines Wechsels auf Englisch als Hauptsprache diskutiert. In der Quintessenz wird eine weiterhin deutschsprachige Zeitschrift empfohlen, die vor allem die Übertragung von Forschungsergebnissen in die Praxis der in verschiedenen Sportfeldern angewandt tägigen Sportpsychologinnen und Sportpsychologen in den Mittelpunkt stellt.
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Purpose The authors proposed that participation in large-scale, structured events designed to match students to employers' internship opportunities could support students' employability by focussing students' career goals, strengthening students' career self-efficacy and growing students' social capital. Design/methodology/approach Interviews were carried out with 49 students both before and after the students took part in the event to assess whether students career goals, self-efficacy or social capital changed after taking part in the events. In the second interview, the authors also asked students what outcomes students gained from the event and how the event process had contributed to these outcomes. Findings Students' descriptions of their outcomes from the event aligned with social capital theory and self-efficacy theory. The students valued the information, connections, skills and experience they developed through taking part in the interviews and connecting with employers and students. The longitudinal analyses revealed that most students career goals did not change, but students' career self-efficacy improved and students could identify more actions for achieving their career goals after taking part in the event. Importantly, these actions were often explicitly connected with information or connections that students gained from the event. Originality/value The interviews illustrate that students can build social capital from short, one-on-one engagement with employers that then enable them to identify ways of furthering students' career goals. The authors' findings suggest that structured, event-based engagement with employers can provide an efficient and equitable means of enhancing students' social capital and career self-efficacy.
Article
Background With an online sample of 8,349 people from 123 countries (74.9% from the U.S., Canada, and India), a new test was used to rank eight motivation-related competencies according to how well they predicted desirable, self-reported outcomes. Each of the competencies was derived from empirical studies showing that such competencies were associated with higher levels of motivation. The competencies were: Maintains Healthy Lifestyle, Makes Commitments, Manages Environment, Manages Rewards, Manages Stress, Manages Thoughts, Monitors Behavior, and Sets Goals. Objective The study was conducted to identify and prioritize competencies that are associated with higher levels of motivation. Methods A “concurrent study design” was used to assess predictive validity, which was suggested by a strong association between test scores and self-reported answers to criterion questions about levels of motivation, life satisfaction, and professional success. Regression analyses were conducted to prioritize the competencies. Demographic analyses were also conducted. Results The findings support the value of motivation training; test scores were higher for people who had received such training and were positively correlated with the number of training hours accrued. Effects were found for education, race and age, but no male/female difference was found. Regression analyses pointed to the importance of two of the eight competencies in particular: Sets Goals and Manages Thoughts. Conclusion The study supports the view that motivation competencies can be measured and trained and that they are predictive of desirable motivational outcomes.
Article
Diagnostic and dialogic organization development present two contrasting change practices that are frequently discussed in tandem. Yet, an increasing body of evidence shows they are co-applied in practice. For those involved in leadership of these practices, co-application means switching their engagement, such as commencing with a diagnostic analysis to determine the goals of change, then switching to dialogic processes to foster the emergence of new ways of working. However, theoretical descriptions of these two practices remain bifurcated and, as such, overlook leadership development approaches that help leaders switch between engagement styles. Addressing this problem, this paper explores a leadership development approach that focusses on mindsets. We propose six mindsets from psychology settings that are relevant for leadership of diagnostic and dialogic practices. A key contribution of this work is a new perspective on leadership development. Extending psychology-derived knowledge on how to activate mindsets provides leaders of change practices with a means to increase awareness of, and take control of, their mindset, helping them to adjust their engagement as change contexts dictate. MAD statement This paper seeks to Make a Difference (MAD) by offering a practical means to develop change leaders. Far too often, change practice literature has studied successful leaders with the aim to identify what they do, while at the same time overlooking the mechanics that develop these same actions and behaviours. The paper addresses this oversight with a focus on mindsets. It puts forward a means for leaders to increase awareness of, and take control of, their activated mindset and, in doing so, align what they do to change leadership contexts.
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Building information modeling (BIM) can theoretically facilitate collaboration among diverse design participants in construction projects, but in practice, its implementation tends to prolong the design period. Existing literature has examined some technical and managerial causes of this problem but still lacks an overall coverage of related factors. This study aims to identify the comprehensive factors affecting the teamwork efficiency in China’s BIM-based collaborative design, and to investigate the critical factors and their interactions. Based on the input-process-output theory, this study initially established a hypothetical model. Potential factors were further identified through the literature review and semi-structured interviews. Questionnaire survey was conducted, and structural equation modeling was used for analysis. The results indicated that the team cooperation atmosphere is the most significant factor, followed by the collaborators’ learning ability, comfort of the working environment, BIM software function, and the characteristics and arrangement of the design task (CADT). Besides, the CADT negatively affects the teamwork efficiency through the human interaction process, while other factors exert positive impacts by affecting both the personal work process and the human interaction process. The findings can help design units to determine the management focus of BIM-based collaborative design and prioritize the allocation of limited resources accordingly to maximize teamwork efficiency.
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Objective: Conflicts have negative impacts on organizational performance and can lead to company mortality. The GVentures Accelerator, from the School of Business Administration of São Paulo (EAESP-FGV) identified that several startups that failed during and after the acceleration process had conflicts among the founding partners. This work aims to understand why some entrepreneurial teams in a pre-seed stage are able to overcome conflicts while others are not Methodology: We conducted a case study of 9 accelerated startups using in-depth interviews with 20 founding partners, and the interviews were followed by the codification and analysis of the cases with support from the manager responsible for the accelerator.Results: The research concludes that operational conflicts that escalate to affective conflicts due to disagreements in the process of giving and receiving feedback and/or mistrust between partners can lead to the dissolution of a company. On the other hand, founding members, even if they experience affective conflicts, are able to overcome the problems using the strategies of taking a step aside, giving in and putting their egos aside. It was also identified that the acceleration process tends to exacerbate the operational conflicts between founding partners.Theoretical/methodological contributions: The research contributes to the literature about founding teams by pointing out that operational conflict does not necessarily lead to the dissolution of the organization or closing the business, but operational conflicts that intensify to affective conflicts due to disagreements in the process of giving and receiving feedback and/or distrust among partners can lead to the dissolution of the organizationRelevance/originality: Founding teams are the backbone of any company. In spite of several articles discussing team conflict little is known about why some entrepreneurial team are able to overcome conflicts while other not. Moreover, also little is known about the role accelerators play in these conflicts.Social/management contribution: The conclusions about the strategies for managing founding team conflicts: taking a step aside, giving in and putting their egos aside; may be very useful for both entrepreneurs and accelerators’ management team in dealing with conflicts among founders.
Chapter
Handlungen im Sport sind intentional, also auf bestimmte Ziele ausgerichtet. Vor einem handlungstheoretischen Hintergrund sind die hierarchisch-sequenzielle Struktur sowie die verschiedenen Funktionen wichtig, die Handlungen haben können. Intentionen werden innerhalb dieser Auffassung mit Zielen und Plänen in Verbindung gebracht, die sich auf Tätigkeiten, Handlungen und Bewegungen beziehen können. Diese Auffassung wird anhand von verschiedenen Studien zu Intention überprüft. Intentionales Verhalten ist der Selbstregulation zugänglich, wozu insbesondere Zielsetzungstraining verwendet wird. Die Auswirkungen des handlungstheoretischen Zugangs auf das Setzen von Zielen werden abschließend diskutiert.
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The effectiveness of internal benchmarking and goal-setting is examined in a field experiment carried out in an elextrical products distribution company. The experiment involves a pre-post experimental design in which 138 branches of the company are assigned randomly to one of four conditions: (a) benchmarking; (b) “small-wins” goal-setting; (c) “big-bang” goal-setting; and (d) control group. The dependent variable is percentage increase in sales performance over a four month period. The findings point to the effectiveness of benchmarking for achieving improved performance and suggest that comparison against partners and knowledge about “best practice” contributes, together with goal-setting and goal-evaluation, to the efficacy of benchmarking.
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Although it is clear that group members' attitudes, beliefs, and abilities are factors that contribute to group success, the interplay among these factors has received little attention. This study examined the impact of group potency, group goal commitment, and group ability on group performance. One hundred forty-three Officer Cadets, working in 51 groups, participated in this study. Consistent with our hypothesis, group potency contributed to the prediction of group performance over and above group ability. In contrast, group goal commitment did not have a strong relation with group performance. On the basis of these results, it seems that "thinking we can" is an important factor in its own right, regardless of the group's ability.
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The length of time which trucks spent at each mill while transporting goods between 58 plant locations of a textile company was reduced with the introduction of a feedback plus reinforcement system. The average truck turnaround time was reduced from a baseline average of 67 minutes to an average of 38.2 minutes. This level was maintained even though the frequency of feedback was reduced substantially. The project demonstrated the use of periodic feedback to improve and maintain improved performance of workers across many locations in a large textile company.
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Previous research has indicated that the majority of errors made in aircraft cockpits are the result of faulty information transfer among members of the flight crew. This study examined the problem by manipulating leadership style and studying its effects on performance and satisfaction under conditions of high and low workload. The participants in this study were Old Dominion graduate and undergraduate psychology students between the ages of 18 to 42. Forty-one dyads reacted to true and false alarms while performing a primary psychomotor task. After the dyads completed the experiment, the researchers administered a survey to collect data about copilots' ratings of worker satisfaction. Statistical analysis revealed that dyads in the participative leadership condition reacted to the alarms significantly more appropriately than those in the autocratic condition did, and that participants in the low workload group reset primary task gauges significantly faster than those in the high workload group. The post experimental survey indicated that, in general, copilots were more satisfied with participative leadership. Also, copilots in the low workload group reported significantly more successful team interaction. The survey and alarm reaction appropriateness results could warrant training pilots to exercise participative leadership in times of task ambiguity.
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This study investigated whether interaction style mediates the effect of sex on group task performance. Specifically, we examined whether women's more socio-emotional style facilitated performance on an optimizing task and whether men's more task-oriented style facilitated performance on a maximizing task. Women and men worked alone or in same-sex triads. Group interactions were coded according to Bales' Interaction Process Analysis. Analyses produced the predicted sex differentiated interaction styles, such that female groups engaged in more positive socio-etnotional behavior and male groups engaged in more active task behavior. Performance analyses were also as predicted. Female groups performed significantly better on the optimizing task, whereas male groups tended to perform better on the maximizing task. However, further analyses revealed that interaction process variables did not appear to mediate the relationship between sex and task performance. The impact of sex differentiated interaction styles on other potential mediators is discussed.
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The effects of four different goal setting conditions on the performance of subjects working on an interdependent task were examined. The results indicated that an individual goal condition performed worst when compared with a no specific goal condition, a group goal condition, and an individual plus group goal condition. Questionnaire items assessed feelings of cooperation, competition, and reported task strategies. Behavioral measures also reflected the strategies used. The analyses suggested that task strategies mediated the relationship between goal setting and performance. More specifically, people in the individual goal condition tended to be more competitive and less cooperative than those in the other three conditions. These results are discussed in light of the current research on the effects of goal setting on task strategy development.
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There are 2 families of statistical procedures in meta-analysis: fixed- and random-effects procedures. They were developed for somewhat different inference goals: making inferences about the effect parameters in the studies that have been observed versus making inferences about the distribution of effect parameters in a population of studies from a random sample of studies. The authors evaluate the performance of confidence intervals and hypothesis tests when each type of statistical procedure is used for each type of inference and confirm that each procedure is best for making the kind of inference for which it was designed. Conditionally random-effects procedures (a hybrid type) are shown to have properties in between those of fixed- and random-effects procedures.
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This study examined the direct and interactive relationships of interdependence (task and reward) and preference for group work on the satisfaction and performance of group members. Hypotheses were tested among a sample of task-performing group members over a four-month period (N’s = 328–432). Consistent with a “community of fate” perspective, hierarchical regressions revealed that interdependence (task and reward) and preference for group work were positively related to group-member satisfaction. Consistent with “supplies-values fit” framework, the interaction of task interdependence and preference for group work was significantly related to group-member performance. Implications for the design of group tasks, the effects of group-member preferences, and the prediction of individual satisfaction and performance in group contexts are discussed.
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In this study of the effect of goal specificity as knowledge of a single correct choice on group performance 28 groups of five persons were assigned to one of two conditions in a problem-solving role play. In one condition group members were told there was only one correct answer among seven choices, and in the other members were told simply to choose what they thought was the best answer. Analysis yielded significantly more correct responses among the groups knowing there was one correct answer, although no difference was found in the amount of time taken to solve the problem.
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In this article I reanalyze a recent review of research on relationships between participation and performance or satisfaction; next I compare the results of this reanalysis with the findings of 10 other reviews. Despite ostensible differences among the initial findings of the 11 reviews, further analysis indicates that they all support the same conclusion: Research suggests that participation can have statistically significant effects on performance and satisfaction, but the average size of these effects is small enough to raise concerns about practical significance.
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The purpose of this study was to examine how the group members perceive the probability of attaining the group goal and the level of group achievement by using feedforward and feedback information. The work of each member was to add one to four to the given random numbers and the total performance was regarded as a measure of group performance. Subjects were fifth grade boys. In one situation of the experiment, members were required set a group goal and afterwards were given information upon group performance, but in the other situation, they had to set a group goal but were not given information upon group performance. As the experimental tasks, a maximizing and an optimizing task were used. The weights of some operators in the block diagram of the system were estimated by input and output data. Results showed that feedforward and feedback information were utilized to perceive the probability of attaining the group goal and the level of group achievement.
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This paper reports a laboratory experiment in which a business game was played by groups of volunteer participants. The game was subject to two treatments, one altering the degree of interdependence between game participants, the other altering how it was played. The game was designed to simulate a decision-making organization, consisting of subunits with minimal or extensive interdependence, with or without defined criteria to achieve organizational control. The hypothesis that the approach to organizational control was dependent upon the degree of subunit interdependence was supported. More specifically, defined criteria were found to be appropriate only when there was minimal interdependence but inappropriate when there was extensive interdependence. Further, the evidence suggested that the viewpoints and orientations of the participants were consistent with those required by the state of organizational interdependence.
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This study examined the effects of goal difficulty, monetary incentives, and efficacy on the strategic risk, tactical implementation, and performance of teams performing a computer simulation. Goal difficulty increased strategic risk, in part through team efficacy. Strategic risk partially mediated goal difficulty's effect on performance. Incentives reduced strategic risk for easy-goal teams and improved tactical implementation. Teams with both difficult goals and incentives achieved the highest performance. Team performance was positively affected by goal difficulty, team efficacy, strategic risk, and tactical implementation.[ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
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Despite the increasing popularity of group pay-for-performance plans, relatively little theory exists regarding the dynamics of these plans. We integrate goal setting, pay plan characteristics, and group factors to explain and predict the effectiveness of what we call "open-goal" group pay plans. We introduce spontaneous goal setting as a process explanation and propose antecedents that affect a group's propensity to set goals, the goal level chosen, and goal commitment. Finally, we discuss implications of our propositions for future research.
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This study is a meta-analysis of the effects of four situational moderators on relationships between participation and five outcomes. Results based on 118 correlation coefficients indicate that, with the influence of percept-percept research procedures controlled, group size, task interdppendence, task complexity, and performance standards exert a few statistically significant moderating effects, and that participation typically has only modest influence on task performance, decision performance, motivation, satisfaction, and acceptance. Combined with evidence from another recent meta-analysis by Miller and Monge, the results suggest that methodological artifacts explain many of the noteworthy positive findings published in research on relationships between participation and its outcomes.
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This article examines the effects of goal setting on team experience while competing in a computerized business simulation. A randomly selected sample of 186 business majors from their required business policy course participated in the study. Cohesiveness, conflict, perceptions of success, and performance in the simulation were examined over a 6-week period that involved 12 quarterly decisions. The findings demonstrated that teams receiving the goal-setting intervention exhibited higher levels of cohesiveness and perceived success, while expressing reduced levels of conflict, than control teams.
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Based on Mitchell and Silver’s (1990) tower-building paradigm, the authors performed two experiments on multilevel quantity goals, strategies, and performance in task-interdependent groups. The study compared four goal types: IG (individual goal), GG (group goal), IG + GG (individual + group goal), and NSG (nonspecific goal). IG yielded low cooperation and performance, whereas, unexpectedly, NSG yielded high cooperation and performance. To explain this finding, we discerned two goal-setting components: Goal referent (performance-level targeted; individual/group) and goal specificity. Mediation analyses suggest that referent triggers a cooperation/competition mechanism, explaining the lower IG performance, whereas specificity triggers a speed/ accuracy mechanism, explaining the higher NSG performance. We conclude that individual goals can interfere with cooperative processes and group performance, and, for time-constrained interdependent tasks requiring speed and accuracy, specific difficult quantity goals may promote risk taking, thereby obstructing goal attainment.
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The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among collective efficacy, group goals, and group performance using an interdependent muscular endurance task in a controlled laboratory setting. Thirty-seven male (n = 14) and female (n = 23) triads performed two trials of maximum muscular endurance, completing measures of collective efficacy and group goals between trials. Results showed a high degree of correlation ( r range = .73 -.92) between collective efficacy, group goals, and group performance. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that collective efficacy predicted significant variance in Trial 2 performance after controlling for performance on Trial 1. Group goals mediated the relationship between collective efficacy and group performance on Trial 2. Implications for theory and group performance in naturalistic settings such as sport teams are discussed.
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Goal setting and competition are two motivation techniques that are thought to have similar effects on goal variables and performance. This study tests the proposition that assigned goals and competition are similar in their effect. The effects of intergroup competition and assigned group goals on a group’s efficacy, goals, productivity, and inefficiency were tested, using 351 undergraduate business students in 117 production work groups, in a 2x2 design. Intergroup competition increased the groups’efficacy, goals, and productivity and decreased inefficiency. Assigned goals increased group productivity. Results do not provide initial support for the proposition that assigned goals and competition have similar effects. Researchers and practitioners should be aware of the potential confounding effects of competition on the goal-setting process and goal-setting interventions.
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Forty preexistent corporate and student performance teams participated in two sessions to explore the effects of structurally competitive individual and group goals on an independent task. Results indicated that on a time-constrained task, the simultaneous administration of dual multilevel goals resulted in lower group performance than groups given either a group goal or no specific goals. Individual performance also was lower when dual multilevel goals were administered than when subjects were given only individual goals. Structurally competitive multilevel goals also stimulated more competitive individual strategy choices than no specific goals or group goals.
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The present study empirically examined the relations among group efficacy, group goals, and group task performance. Groups of three students performed interdependent tasks and responded to efficacy and goal questionnaires. The results across two task trials demonstrated that group efficacy was correlated significantly and highly with group goals and subsequent task performance. Multiple regression analyses revealed that past performance, group efficacy, and group goals contributed jointly to 52% and 43% of the variance in subsequent group performance. The implications of these findings forfuture research, and for increasing group efficacy and group performance in organizations, are discussed.
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Three hundred and fifteen workers from three multinational corporations participated in this study. The results demonstrated that group goals were able to increase task performance for homogeneous collectivist groups as well as for groups composed of both individualists and collectivists. The ability of a group goal to facilitate team performance for both heterogeneous and homogeneous work groups lends support to the intercultural properties of group goals for interdependent task groups.