High Levels of Bisphenol A in Paper Currencies from Several Countries, and Implications for Dermal Exposure

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, New York 12201-0509, USA.
Environmental Science & Technology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 08/2011; 45(16):6761-8. DOI: 10.1021/es200977t
Source: PubMed


The sources of human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) are not well characterized. Little is known about the presence of BPA in paper products, especially in paper currencies, and its implications for human exposure. In this work, paper currencies from 21 countries (N = 156) were analyzed for BPA, which was measured in 19 mm punches taken from three spots on the paper currencies. BPA was found in all paper currencies at concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 82.7 μg/g (mean 4.94; median 1.02) and the concentrations in samples taken from the middle portion of the currencies were higher than those taken from peripheral portions. We also examined the transfer of BPA from thermal receipt paper to currencies by placing currencies in contact with thermal receipt papers for 24 h in a wallet. Concentrations of BPA dramatically increased after 24 h of contact with thermal receipt papers, suggesting that thermal receipt paper is an important source of BPA in paper currencies. The estimated daily intake of BPA through dermal absorption from handling paper currencies was on the order of a few nanograms per day.

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Available from: Kurunthachalam Kannan, Oct 22, 2014
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    • "Human exposure to BPA has been linked to endocrine disorders and obesity [10] [11]. Bisphenols have been frequently found in consumer products such as thermal receipt papers [3], currency bills [3] [12], personal care products [13], foodstuffs, and polycarbonate plastic bottles [5,14–16]. Sources and pathways of human exposure to BPA have been widely studied. "
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    ABSTRACT: As health concerns over bisphenol A (BPA) in consumer products are mounting, this weak estrogen mimicking compound is gradually being replaced with structural analogs, whose environmental occurrence and estrogen risks are not well understood yet. We used high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to determine the concentrations of eight bisphenol analogs in 76 sewage sludge samples collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2006/2007 from 74 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in 35 states. Bisphenols were detected at the following concentration ranges (ng/g dry weight) and detection frequencies: BPA (6.5-4700; 100%); bisphenol S (BPS; <1.79-1480; 84%); bisphenol F (BPF; <1.79-242; 68%); bisphenol AF (BPAF; <1.79-72.2; 46%); bisphenol P (BPP; <1.79-6.42; <5%), bisphenol B (BPB; <1.79-5.60; <5%), and bisphenol Z (BPZ; <1.79--66.7; <5%). Bisphenol AP (BPAP) was not detected in any of the samples (<1.79ng/gdw). Concentrations of BPA in sewage sludge were an order of magnitude higher than those reported in China but similar to those in Germany. The calculated 17β-estradiol equivalents (E2EQ) of bisphenols present in sludge samples were 7.74 (0.26-90.5)pg/gdw, which were three orders of magnitude lower than the estrogenic activity contributed by natural estrogens present in the sludge. The calculated mass loading of bisphenols through the disposal of sludge and wastewater was <0.02% of the total U.S. production. As the usage of BPA is expected to decline further, environmental emissions of BPS, BPF, and BPAF are likely to increase in the future. This study establishes baseline levels and estrogenic activity of diverse bisphenol analogs in sewage sludge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of hazardous materials
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    • "The release of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to drinking water sources, particularly that of bisphenol A (BPA), is a great public health concern [1] [2] [3]. BPA is widely used in the synthesis of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins, metal container linings, textiles , paper products, leathers, storm water, and landfill leachate [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]. Most of the BPA used ends up in aquatic environments via municipal and industrial wastewater effluent discharge [11] [12] [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The removal of bisphenol A (BPA) is important for the provision of safe drinking water, but its removal in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) is challenging. Thus, the present study involved the fabrication and characterization of powdered activated carbons impregnated with iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPACs) with respect to the simultaneous removal of BPA and NOM. The number of Fe ions loaded into the PAC pores was optimized in terms of exposure time. Impregnation with iron oxide reduced the surface area and pore volume, but the pore size was maintained. IONPAC adsorbents had considerably greater sorption capabilities for BPA and NOM compared to native, bare PAC particles. The adsorption capacities of BPA and NOM were in the following sequence: bare PAC < hematite/PAC < magnetite/PAC < ferrihydrite/PAC. The enhanced removal by IONPACs was attributable to the surface coordination between the functional groups in the iron oxides (e.g., hydroxyl groups) and organics (e.g., phenolic/carboxyl groups). Iron oxide impregnation enabled the BPA uptake to be maintained in the presence of NOM, indicating that the hybrid adsorbent provided synergistic adsorption characteristics for BPA and NOM. Although the solution pH had a negligible impact on BPA uptake, the ionic strength showed a significant effect, particularly in the presence of divalent Ca ions.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Hazardous Materials
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    • "Harmful effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals on human and environments has been of great concern over the past couple of decades [1]. Significant amounts of bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disrupting chemical, have been released from the manufacturing process of plastics, epoxy resins, dental material and flame retardants [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]. The level of BPA in wastewater treatment facilities ranges from a few ppb up to several ppm [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract In this study heterogeneous Fenton oxidation using Fe3O4 amended onto multi-walled carbon nanotube (Fe3O4/MWCNT) showed effective degradation of aqueous bisphenol A (BPA). The Fe3O4/MWCNT exhibited an octahedron crystal structure of Fe3O4 (100-150 nm) which was well-dispersed onto the MWCNT with little agglomeration. The Fe3O4/MWCNT catalyst-driven Fenton oxidation achieved high removal of BPA (97% removal in 6 h) at the selected operating conditions (pH of 3, 0.5 g catalyst/L, [H2O2]:[BPA] of 4 (mol/mol), 50oC). The Fenton oxidation of BPA demonstrated similar removal of BPA at 0.5-1 g catalyst/L while showing significant removal of BPA at the initial pH of 3. The [H2O2]:[BPA] of 4 in this study was found to be the cost-effective condition to achieve high removal of BPA at low concentration of H2O2. Besides, the intermediates and oxidation products produced by the Fenton oxidation of BPA at the [H2O2]:[BPA] of 4 did not show any biological toxicity. The [H2O2]:[BPA] ratio of 4 was much lower than that for other heterogeneous Fenton of BPA (54 mol H2O2/mol BPA) and comparable to those for homogeneous Fenton of BPA (2-9 mole H2O2/mol BPA). The Fenton oxidation rate of BPA using the catalyst was enhanced by the factor of 3.5 as the reaction temperature increased from 20oC to 50oC. The five cycles of the Fenton oxidation using the same catalyst resulted in the steady removal of BPA confirming high stability of the Fe3O4/MWCNT catalyst over the multiple Fenton reactions. The scavenging tests of the hydroxyl radicals suggested that the hydroxyl radical-driven oxidation was the major step among the multiple reactions in the heterogeneous Fenton oxidation. The findings from this study suggest that the Fenton oxidation using Fe3O4/MWCNT would highly efficient solution for the removal of bisphenol A from water.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Separation and Purification Technology
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