Article

Childhood Social Withdrawal, Interpersonal Impairment, and Young Adult Depression: A Mediational Model

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, Box 951563, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1563, USA.
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology (Impact Factor: 3.09). 07/2011; 39(8):1227-38. DOI: 10.1007/s10802-011-9537-z
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Building on interpersonal theories of depression, the current study sought to explore whether early childhood social withdrawal serves as a risk factor for depressive symptoms and diagnoses in young adulthood. The researchers hypothesized that social impairment at age 15 would mediate the association between social withdrawal at age 5 and depression by age 20. This mediational model was tested in a community sample of 702 Australian youth followed from mother's pregnancy to youth age 20. Structural equation modeling analyses found support for a model in which childhood social withdrawal predicted adolescent social impairment, which, in turn, predicted depression in young adulthood. Additionally, gender was found to moderate the relationship between adolescent social impairment and depression in early adulthood, with females exhibiting a stronger association between social functioning and depression at the symptom and diagnostic level. This study illuminates one potential pathway from early developing social difficulties to later depressive symptoms and disorders.

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    • "). Thus, these youth may have a greater temperamental vulnerability for anxiety and consequently develop depression due to the difficulties experienced from their social anxiety, which is consistent with prior research on the role of interpersonal dysfunction (Katz et al. 2011; Starr et al. 2014). However, it is also possible that some youth, without a preexisting vulnerability for anxiety, may experience certain interpersonal stressors, which induce dysphoric mood, and subsequently confer risk for social anxiety through the depression-related impairment described above. "
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    ABSTRACT: Social anxiety and depressive symptoms dramatically increase and frequently co-occur during adolescence. Although research indicates that general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment predict symptoms of social anxiety and depression, it remains unclear how these stressors contribute to the sequential development of these internalizing symptoms. Thus, the present study examined the sequential development of social anxiety and depressive symptoms following the occurrence of interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment. Participants included 410 early adolescents (53 % female; 51 % African American; Mean age =12.84 years) who completed measures of social anxiety and depressive symptoms at three time points (Times 1-3), as well as measures of general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment at Time 2. Path analyses revealed that interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment predicted both depressive and social anxiety symptoms concurrently. However, depressive symptoms significantly mediated the pathway from interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment to subsequent levels of social anxiety symptoms. In contrast, social anxiety did not mediate the relationship between these stressors and subsequent depressive symptoms. There was no evidence of sex or racial differences in these mediational pathways. Findings suggest that interpersonal stressors, including the particularly detrimental stressors of peer victimization and familial emotional maltreatment, may predict both depressive and social anxiety symptoms; however, adolescents who have more immediate depressogenic reactions may be at greater risk for later development of symptoms of social anxiety.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
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    • "Teniendo en cuenta las investigaciones previas en torno a esta temática, en este estudio se han propuesto tres objetivos principales: 1) analizar la tasa de sintomatología depresiva en una muestra de escolares de la Comunidad Autónoma del País Vasco, en función del sexo y la edad de los participantes; 2) examinar las relaciones entre la sintomatología depresiva infantil, el rendimiento académico y otras variables conductuales del ámbito clínico y escolar; y 3) obtener un modelo predictivo de la sintomatología depresiva en escolares, que ayude a detectar y a entender mejor esta patología. En base a estos objetivos , se proponen cuatro hipótesis: 1) se espera encontrar una tasa de depresión infantil en la Comunidad Autónoma del País Vasco similar a la encontrada en el estudio efectuado por Torres (1992) sobre depresión en escolares de la provincia de Gipuzkoa; 2) se espera que los niños varones presenten un menor nivel de sintomatología depresiva a medida que avancen en edad; 3) se espera hallar que cuanto más alto puntúen los escolares en sintomatología depresiva, peor será su rendimiento académico (Semrud-Clikeman, 1991; Roeser et al., 2001), su autoestima (Cole, 1990) y su relación con los iguales (Katz et al., 2011); y 4) se espera que la ansiedad (Semrud-Clikeman, 1991) y otra serie de síntomas emocionales como, por ejemplo, el estrés social, puedan predecir la depresión. "
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    ABSTRACT: Coping and participation are important adjustment outcomes of youth with spinal cord injury (SCI). Research addressing how these outcomes are related is limited. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between coping and participation in youth with SCI. Youth ages 7 to 18 years were recruited from 3 hospitals specializing in rehabilitation of youth with SCI. The Kidcope assessed coping strategies, and the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) examined participation patterns. Point biserial and Pearson correlations assessed relationships among variables, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses examined whether coping significantly contributed to participation above and beyond significant demographic and injury-related factors. The sample included 294 participants: 45% female, 65% Caucasian, 67% with paraplegia. Mean age was 13.71 years (SD = 3.46), and mean duration of injury was 5.39 years (SD = 4.49). Results indicated that higher levels of social support and lower levels of self-criticism predicted higher participation in informal activities, lower levels of social withdrawal predicted participation in informal activities with a greater diversity of individuals, lower levels of blaming others predicted higher enjoyment of informal activities, and higher levels of cognitive restructuring predicted participation in formal activities with a greater diversity of individuals and in settings further from home. Results suggest higher levels of social support and cognitive restructuring and lower levels of self-criticism, social withdrawal, and blaming others predicted favorable participation outcomes. Interventions for youth with SCI that encourage higher levels of positive coping strategies and lower levels of negative and avoidant strategies may promote positive participation outcomes.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
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