Endovascular Treatment of Visceral and Renal Artery Aneurysms

Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, Florida 33176, USA.
Journal of vascular and interventional radiology: JVIR (Impact Factor: 2.41). 09/2011; 22(9):1246-53. DOI: 10.1016/j.jvir.2011.05.012
Source: PubMed


To analyze early and midterm results of endovascular treatment of visceral aneurysms regarding technical considerations, technical success rate, aneurysm rupture, and end-organ ischemia.
Endovascular treatment of 41 visceral and renal artery aneurysms (VAAs) in 40 consecutive patients (25 women; mean age, 59.4 y ± 16.2) was retrospectively reviewed. The series included 30 true aneurysms and 11 pseudoaneurysms in renal (n = 17), splenic (n = 13), hepatic (n = 4), celiac (n = 4), gastroduodenal (n = 2), and middle colic (n = 1) arteries. Demographic, clinical, procedural, and follow-up data were analyzed.
Forty-one aneurysms underwent endovascular treatment. Hypertension (73%) and hyperlipidemia (32%) were the most common associated comorbidities. Nineteen patients presented with symptoms of pain (15%) or rupture (32%) in 10 pseudoaneurysms (91%) and nine true aneurysms (30%; P = .0007). The most commonly used technique (93%) was coil embolization with (15%) or without (78%) other endovascular agents. The rate of technical success (cessation of hemorrhage or blood flow into aneurysm sac) was 98%. There was no periprocedural mortality. Mean hospital stays were 1 and 2 days for asymptomatic and symptomatic patients, respectively. Mean clinical follow-up was 44.5 months; mean imaging follow-up was 11.7 months. The only complication was an intraprocedural thromboembolic event in one case (3%). Follow-up imaging evidence of end-organ partial infarct was detected in six patients (21%), with no clinical evidence of organ insufficiency.
Endovascular treatment of VAAs is a safe and highly successful procedure. Associated side effects such as distal embolization and end-organ infarcts were not found to be clinically significant.

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    • "The standard embolization materials are microcoils, and several cases using an Amplatzer vascular plug have been reported (4). Migration is considered to be a major complication in the use of these embolization materials (9). In our case, since there was a risk of reflux to the thoracic or abdominal aorta, the procedure required careful judgment and skilled technique. "
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the case of a 67-year-old woman with an anomalous systemic arterial supply to the basal segment of the lung, which was managed successfully by transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with microcoils. Her chest computed tomography (CT) scan showed diffuse ground-glass opacity in the left lower lobe, no bronchial abnormalities, and blood supply from an anomalous artery originating from the descending thoracic aorta, with drainage to the normal pulmonary vein. We successfully performed TAE under balloon occlusion of the anomalous artery, without complications. TAE is a minimally invasive, safe, and valuable method, and could be used as first-line treatment in such cases.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013
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    ABSTRACT: To review a single-center experience with elective coil embolization of splenic artery aneurysm (SAA) and analyze efficacy of the technique at midterm follow-up. From 2002 through 2011, 50 patients (28 women, 22 men; age range, 24-89 y; mean age, 53.5 y ┬▒ 13.6) underwent transcatheter coil embolization for treatment of SAAs. Pseudoaneurysms and ruptured aneurysms were excluded. A total of 63 SAAs were treated (size, 13-97 mm; mean, 29 mm). Ninety-eight percent of aneurysms were treated with coils alone. Regular follow-up consisted of an office visit and imaging. Patient medical records were reviewed for aneurysm location, procedural approach, and technical and clinical outcomes. Ninety-eight percent of procedures were technically successful at thrombosing the aneurysm at the time of procedure. Repeat intervention was performed in four of 47 patients (9%) because of continued aneurysm perfusion at follow-up. Mean time to repeat intervention was 125 days (range, 42-245 d). All repeat interventions were technically successful. Neither aneurysm growth nor aneurysm rupture was observed in any patient during the follow-up period (mean, 78 weeks; range, 9 d to 7.1 y). There were no major adverse events. Major splenic infarction occurred in three of 33 patients (9%) with no underlying liver disease and normal splenic volume and in seven of 14 patients (50%) with portal hypertension. Percutaneous transcatheter coil embolization is a safe, effective, and minimally invasive treatment for SAAs as evidenced by high rates of technical success and freedom from aneurysm rupture.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · Journal of vascular and interventional radiology: JVIR
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: We aimed to assess the safety, efficacy, and clinical outcomes of splenic artery embolization (SAE). Materials and methods: A total of 50 patients (male:female, 33:17; mean age, 49 years) who underwent 50 SAEs between 1998 and 2011 were retrospectively studied. The procedure indications included aneurysm or pseudoaneurysm (n=15), gastric variceal hemorrhage (n=15), preoperative reduction of surgical blood loss (n=9), or other (n=11). In total, 22 procedures were elective, and 28 procedures were urgent or emergent. The embolic agents included coils (n=50), gelatin sponges (n=15), and particles (n=4). The measured outcomes were the technical success of the procedure, efficacy, side effects, and the 30-day morbidity and mortality rates. Results: All embolizations were technically successful. The procedure efficacy was 90%; five patients (10%) had a recurrent hemorrhage requiring a secondary intervention. Side effects included hydrothorax (n=26, 52%), thrombocytosis (n=16, 32%), thrombocytopenia (n=13, 26%), and postembolization syndrome (n=11, 22%). Splenic infarcts occurred in 13 patients (26%). The overall and procedure-specific 30-day morbidity rates were 38% (19/50) and 14% (splenoportal thrombosis, 3/50; encapsulated bacterial infection, 1/50; splenic abscess, 1/50; femoral hematoma requiring surgery, 1/50; hydrothorax requiring drainage, 1/50). The overall and procedure-specific 30-day mortality rates were 8% (4/50) and 0%. The multivariate analysis showed that advanced patient age (P = 0.037), postprocedure thrombocytopenia (P = 0.008), postprocedure hydrothorax (P = 0.009), and the need for a secondary intervention (P = 0.004) predicted the 30-day morbidity, while renal insufficiency (P < 0.0001), preprocedure hemodynamic instability (P = 0.044), and preprocedure leukocytosis (P < 0.0001) were prognostic factors for the 30-day mortality. Conclusion: SAE was performed with high technical success and efficacy, but the outcomes showed nontrivial morbidity rates. Elderly patients with thrombocytopenia and hydrothorax after SAE, and patients who require secondary interventions, should be monitored for complications.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Diagnostic and interventional radiology (Ankara, Turkey)
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